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[Reprinted from ToRREYA, Vol. 15, No. 2, Feb., I915.] 


Qrigg^s Botanical Survey of the " Sugrar Grove Reg:ion," Ohio * 

This paper is a good description of an area which is seldom 
mentioned in phytogeographical Hterature, though of exceptional 
interest and located in one of our most thickly settled states. 
An ii-page introduction treats of the geology, topography, soils 
and climate, and there are 37 pages on the vegetation ("ecology"), 
6 on economic aspects, and 36 on the flora. The illustrations are 
excellent half-tones of scenery, vegetation, or single species of 
plants, most of them apparently never published before; but they 
are not dated, so that the reader can only guess at what season 
they were taken from the appearance of the foliage or flowers. 

The area has no very definite boundaries, but is located in 
Fairfield and Hocking counties, a little southeast of the center of 
Ohio, in the unglaciated Carboniferous plateau region that ex- 
tends from Pennsylvania to Alabama. (Some of the illustrations 
could be matched pretty closely in the coal region of Alabama.) 
The topography is very broken, though hardly mountainous. 
(Many readers will doubtless be surprised, as the reviewer was, to 
learn that there is such rugged topography in Ohio, for much of 
the surface of that state is very flat.) The soils are mostly derived 
from sandstone, and therefore deficient in basic materials. The 
nature of the soil and topography has retarded agricultural 
development, and thus allowed this area to remain one of the 
best "botanizing grounds" in the state. 

The average growing season is 155 days, the average annual 

snowfall 25 inches, and the rainfall (from 35 to 40 inches a year) 

is pretty evenly distributed through the seasons, but with a slight 

p , excess in the summer months. In this last particular this locality 

^ resembles many other places with somewhat sandy soils,! and 

^-""^ differs from most places in the Ohio valley. 

* A botanical survey of the Sugar Grove region. By Robert F. Griggs. Ohio 
^ Biol. Surv. Bull. 3, or Ohio State Univ. Bull. vol. XVIII (18), no. 25. or Contr. 
^^ Bot. Lab. O. S. U. no. 84. 98 pp.. frontispiece, 29 numbered text-figures, and 
full-page map. "April" 1914 [or rather August, according to a letter from the 
author]. (The pages are numbered from about 247 to 340. but an examination 
of Bulletins i and 2 of the same series leaves one in some doubt as to the title of the 
volume to which the pagination belongs.) 

t See Geol. Surv. Ala. Monog. 8: 24 (footnote). 1913- 


The descriptions of vegetation cannot be adequately sum- 
marized in a brief review, but must be seen to be appreciated. 
For each of the habitats, about fifteen in number, the environ- 
mental factors are described in a general way, and the commoner 
plants listed (usually about one third of the vascular species and 
sometimes a few mosses and lichens), usually in approximate 
order of abundance or conspi^^usness, but often disconnectedly, 
and with a somewhat arbitrary distinction between dominant 
and secondary species. At the beginning of most of the habitat 
lists the names of one or two species regarded as dominant are 
printed in small capitals ; the rest being in italics. (The method of 
treatment is not very well explained in the paper itself, but some 
of the facts given in this paragraph have been obtained subse- 
quently by correspondence with the author.) 

Some valuable original suggestions are made about the critical 
environmental factors for certain species, but some of these do 
not seem to hold throughout the ranges of the species. For 
example, on pages 270 and 283 it is stated that Betula lenta 
requires a constant supply of water near the surface. But in 
Massachusetts, New York and Michigan it grows in ordinary 
"mesophytic" upland woods, and at its southern limits in the 
mountains of Georgia and Alabama it is chiefly confined to ex- 
posed clifTs at high elevations (often with Kalmia latijolia). On 
page 283 Kalmia latijolia is said to be " preeminently a sun-loving 
plant"; but it grows in dense shade always in Florida, often in 
North Carolina, and sometimes in Massachusetts. (For both of 
these species protection from fire is probably a more important 
factor than soil moisture or insolation.) 

Very interesting is the suggestion on pages 283-286 and 290-292 
that evergreen herbs are confined to places where they are not 
crowded by other plants or liable to be smothered by falling 
leaves. It has seemed to the reviewer, however, that such herbs 
are especially characteristic of soils poor in potassium and pretty 
well protected from fire* (this is especially manifest in the case of 
epiphytes, all of which seem to be evergreenf) ; but at the same 

* See Bull. Torrey Club 38: 517. 1911;41:214-217. 1914. 
t See Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 17: 38. 1906. 


time the volume of annual leaf-fall is likely to be least in the 
poorest soils, ceteris paribus * so that the dead-leaf hypothesis is 
not disproved. (And epiphytes are naturally just as exempt from 
smothering by leaves as they are from fire and overfeeding.) 

The flora is pretty rich: 972 species of vascular plants being 
listed. This includes quite a number which have not been seen 
there by botanists now living, but the mosses and lichens men- 
tioned in the ecological part are not enumerated in the taxonomic 
part. Most of the species in the catalogue are not referred to any 
habitat, which seems an unfortunate omission in a work which is 
so largely ecological. On the other hand, a few of the vascular 
plants mentioned in the descriptions of vegetation (just how 
many it is difficult to determine without an index) are not men- 
tioned in the catalogue; but such omissions may be wholly the 
fault of the printers. 

Nearly all the species in the catalogues are given "common" 
names, fictitious ones being used where no bona-fide ones have 
been discovered. Most but not quite all of the specific names 
are decapitalized. Over 15 per cent, of the technical names, and 
a few other words, are misspelled, many of them more than once 
or with more than one letter wrong. 

From the summary at the end of the catalogue it appears that 
22.7 per cent, of the angiosperms are monocotyledons: a figure 
agreeing pretty well with those for other unglaciated parts of the 
Paleozoic region of eastern North America. f 

One of the objects of a review is to point out the good and bad 
features for the benefit of those who may undertake similar work 
afterwards (and there ought to be many more papers of this sort 
for other parts of the world). Among the good features of the 
work under consideration are the satisfactory descriptions of 
physical features, especially climate, the excellent illustrations, 
the careful classification of habitats, the amount of space devoted 
to environmental factors, the arrangement of species in order of 
abundance in the habitat lists, and the accurate identifications of 
species (a matter with which the Ohio botanists seem to be more 

* See Bull. Torrey Club 40: 399. 1913. 
t See Torreya 5: 207-210. 1905. 


particular than some others are). Most of the shortcomings are 
not pecuHar to this paper by any means, but are merely manifes- 
tations of widespread modern tendencies, due largely to excessive 
specialization in education and a growing indifference to matters 
not directly in one's line; and for some of them the author can 
hardly be held responsible at all. Others are points which will 
probably be given more attention in the future than they have 
in the past. The principal ones are: 

Using too many different serial numbers on cover or title-page, one of them Roman 

(a sort of notation which has outlived its usefulness). 
Dating the publication falsely, and thus working an injustice to any one who may 

have published something similar between the alleged date and the real date. 
Omitting dates from illustrations (where they are just as useful as on herbarium 

labels, etc.). 
Carelessness in spelling and proof-reading. 
Using the terms "region" and "ecology" too loosely. 
Too few comparisons with other parts of the world and citations of previous 

Insufficient explanation of the methods of treatment. 
Too little correlation of vegetation with soil. 
Lack of quantitative figures for vegetation. 
Assuming that species treated as native in floras of the northeastern United States 

must be indigenous in every part thereof, even where the habitat indicates 

Too great discrepancy between ecological and taxonomic parts, in number of 

species included. 
Using fictitious common names, which appear to serve no useful purpose, and take 

up space which might be better occupied with information about habitats or 

other significant facts. 
Decapitalizing specific names, and thus obliterating certain interesting etymo- 
logical distinctions without benefiting the reader appreciably. 

Roland M. Harper 



Volume I 
Bulletins I to IV 

1913 - 1915 

Published by 



Table of Contents 

Volume I 


Outline of Biological Survey Plan 3 

The Syrphidae of Ohio— C. L. Metcalf .- 7 

Catalog of Ohio Vascular Plants— J. H. Schaffner..._ 125 

A Botanical Survey of the Sugar Grove Region— R. F. Griggs 248 
The Euglenoidina of Ohio— L. B. Walton 343 


Volume XVII Number 31 





June, 1913 


Entered as second-class matter November 17, 1905, at the postottict ai 
Columbus, Ohio, under Act of Congress, Jtily 16, tSq^ 


Herbert Osborn, Director 


operating institutions. 

E/S. Fullmer, 
Chas. Brookover, 
M. E, Stickney, 
W. N. Speckman, 
L. B. Walton, - 
Mi'is M. Getman, 
Bruce Fink, 
F. O. Grover, 
E. L. Rice, 
,H. M., Benedict, 
W. E. Sullivan, 
C. G. Shatzer, 

Board consisting of Representatives from co- 

Baldwin Universit5% 
Buchtel College, 
Denisou University, 
German Wallace College, 
Kenj'on College, 
Lake Erie College, 
Miami University, 
Oberlin College, 
Ohio Wesle5'an University, 
University of Cincinnati, 
Western Reserve, 
Wittenberg College, 

Berea, O. 

Akron, O. 

Granville, O. 

Berea, O. 

Gambier, O. 

Painesville, O. 

Oxford, O. 

Oberlin, O. 

Delaware, O. 

Cincinnati, O. 

Cleveland, O, 

Springfield, O. 


The Bulletins of the Ohio Biological Survey will be issued as work 
on any special subject is completed, and will form volumes of about 500 
pages each. 

They will be sent to co-operating institutions and indi\dduals, 
libraries and colleges in Ohio and to such surveys, societies and other 
organizations as may offer suitable exchange material. 

Additional copies of each bulletin and of completed volumes will 
be sold at siich price as may cover cost of publication. Special rates on 
quantities to schools for classes. 

Subscription for entire volumes, $2.00 
Price of this number, - - - - .50 

All orders should be accompanied by remittance which should be 
made payable to O/i/o Biological Survey ^vA sent to the Director. 

Correspondence concerning the Survey^ applications for exchanges 
and purchase of copies of Bulletins should be addressed to the Director — 
Professor Herbert Osborn, Columbus, Ohio. 

Volume 1 Bulletin 1 

Ohio Biological Survey 




C. L. Metcalf 

Published b\- 


In this initial bulletin of the Biological Survey of Ohio, it may be 
desirable to state in brief the plan of organization and purposes of the 
Survey, both for the sake of the record as to its inauguration and as an 
indication of the problems which it will attempt to solve, and the services 
it is designed to render to the state. 

The Survey is inaugurated as the result of a plan of co-operation 
between a number of the different Colleges of the State; its origin being 
in the Ohio Academy of Science. As a result of various discussions as 
to the ways and means to provide for such a Survey, a committee, a year 
ago, was appointed from members of the Ohio Academy of Sciences, and 
this committee presented the following provisional plan, which was .sub- 
mitted to the institutions forming the Ohio College Association. 


The following preliminary outline for a Biological Survey is based 
upon suggested co-operation between the various educational and other 
institutions in the state interested in .securing definite knowledge concern 
ing the fauna and flora of Ohio. 

The object of the Survey will be to secure accurate and detailed 
information as to the occurrence, distribution, and ecology of the animals, 
and plants in Ohio for the benefit of the people in general and parlicularly 
for those engaged in .school instruction, and to collect, identify, and dis- 
tribute material that may be of .service in educational work. 

The co-operation eitlier financial or .scientific support, or 
both, from institutions, organizations, or individuals, interested in the pur- 
pose of the survey. 

The central office and general management will be arranged in connec- 
tion with the State University and under the official control of its trustees. 
The co-operative board is ])lanned to consist of a representative from each 
institution and organization agreeing to the plan of co-o]ieration and 
contributing a membership fee of $25, such representative to be appomted 
by the executive officer in the institution or organization. The functions 
of the co-operative board will be to outline the policy of the Survey, 
recommend the distribution of the work by localities and among 
specialists, to nominate the director, and determine on such other 
recommendations as may seem to them desirable for the success of the 


The Director of the Survey shall be appointed by the board of trustees 
after nomination by the co-operative board, and his duties shall be to 
have general executive management of the Survey, the details of co-opera- 
tion with individuals, the direction of special assistants, and the arrange- 
ment of papers for the board of publication. He shall also act as 
Secretary of the co-operative board, and approve all bills paid from the 
Survey fund. 

The publications shall consist of a series of bulletins, each to be issued 
as promptly as possible after the completion of any piece of work. 

A series of memoirs or monographs to include the more extended 
results of special investigations will be undertaken if the material together 
with the support necessary for such publication becomes available. 

The contributions from the co-operating institutions and from indi- 
viduals and any specific appropriations from the state shall constitute a 
fund for biological survey purposes, to be drawn upon by order of the 

From duplicate material secured in progress of the work, special 
collections may be arranged and forwarded to such schools as may wish 
them under regulations to be determined by the co-operative board. 
Meetings of the co-operative board shall be on the call of the Director. 
There shall be at least one meeting each year, ordinarily in connection 
with the meeting of the Ohio Acadeni}^ of Science, for the purpose of 
hearing reports and outlining the work of the ensuing year. 

Committee: L. B. Walton, Gambler O. 
E. V,. Rice, Delaware, O. 
February i, 191 2. Frank Carnev, Granville, O. 

In response to this outline definite acceptances were obtained from 
the following institutions: 

Miami Universit3^ Western Reserve University 

German Wallace College Oberlin Universit}- 

Ohio Wesleyan Universit}- Kenyon College 

Wittenberg College Baldwin University 

Buchtel College Denison Universit}' 

Lake Erie College 

Favorable responses were received also from Ohio University, Otter- 
bein, and Heidelberg University, and later acceptance from the Univer- 
sity of Cincinnati. 

A request presented from the Committee in accordance with these 
provisions to the Trustees of the Ohio State University was granted and 
the plan approved at the meeting of the Board, June 191 2. vSubsequently 
by nomination from the different representatives of the co-operative 
institutions. Prof. Herbert Osborn was elected as director and later at a 
meeting the representatives of the various institutions, Nov. 30, it was 
agreed that the then representatives .should be known as the Administra- 


tive Board of the Biological Survey and the provisional plan definiteh' 
adopted as permanent. 

The General Assembh' at its 1913 session appropriated for the 
Universit}^ Budget of 1914 the sum of $2,500.00 for Biological Survey 
purposes and this support will make possible the undertaking of some of 
the more urgent problems demanding early attention. 

In addition to the plans indicated in the provisional outline it may 
be proper to say that the scope of the Survey is expected to be similar to 
that of various states which have such Surveys in progress. In its plan, 
however, it differs somewhat from any of those in that it involves a 
method of co-operation among the educational institutions of the state. 

Work of .similar character carried on in Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, 
Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut and other states 
will be considered in maturing the plans of the Survey. It is expected, 
however, that many of the details will be developed as time goes on in 
reference to particular problems that may present themselves in Ohio or 
in such manner as to correlate the work with other .state organizations. 

It is evident that one of the first .subjects for attention, concerns 
collection of data from different sections of the state .so as to determine 
what existing species of plants and animals occur in the state, or in other 
words to secure a state census of the different species of plants and 

Such study is especially desirable for the purposes of accurate instruc- 
tion in the various schools; to form the basis of ecologic and fannistic 
studies and furnish information for those who are interested in knowing 
the details of our state fauna and flora. 

From the plan of its organization it is evident that the Survey 
attempted will serve primarily the educational institutions, and for these 
it is pro})Osed to publi.sli as promptly as po.ssible, catalogs and keys of 
the various groups of plants and animals, as well as to prepare helps for 
their indentification. These will be made as far as possible, 
sufficiently non-technical to be used by students in the lower grades of 
school work as well as the colleges. Furthermore, it is planned to prepare 
from duplicate material collected in the survey, representative collections 
which may be sold or loaned to schools throughout the state, as the means 
of arranging and assisting in the study of the state Biology. 

Another feature which will require attention is the ecologic study of 
different localities of the state, especially to determine the association of 
various Biological factors that depend upon topographic and phy.sical 
conditionsor .some special environment. This will include primarily the 


stu(l\- of representative districts, such as swampy areas, hilly country, 
and river vallej's, and ultimately such study should cover practically every 
county of the state. 

It will be seen that such studies as these must in time form a very 
important basis in the determination of the greatest utility for the 
particular sections which are studied and consequently give a foundation 
for important economic application. It will be the purpose of the Survey 
to co-operate with other state organizations such as the state experiment 
station in the determination of factors which will be of service in the agricul- 
tural development of the state and the utilization of forest areas; of the fish 
commission in the studies which will determine with the greatest accuracy 
the content and food supply for fish culture for the aquatic areas of the 
state, and with the State Board of Health for the determination of the 
distribution, occurrence and the importance of such species as may have 
relation to disease in water contamination or as carriers of diseases 
affecting man or domestic animals. 

The survey is especially fortunate in having the co-operation of a num- 
ber of men who are eminent in particular fields of Biological study and 
who, from their connection with the different educational institutions of the 
state, are in a position to render a most important service in this con- 

Some idea of the value of this service may be realized from the 

statement that the survey has the promise of assistance from such men 
as Mr. Charles Dury of Cincinnati, Dr. Sterki of New Philadelphia, Pro- 
fessors Williams and Fink of Miami University, Walton of Kenyon, Jones, 
Grover and Nichols of Oberlin, Stickne}^ and Coghill of Denison, Brook- 
over of Buchtel, Sullivan of Western Reserve, Fuller of Baldwin Uni- 
versity, Schaffner, Hine and Griggs of the Ohio vState University and 

The bulletins which it is planned to issue to present the results of 
the investigations, will be published at irregular intervals as such inves- 
tigations are completed, and will be distributed to the co-operating insti- 
tutions and to other organizations with which they may be exchanged and 
will be put on sale at such price as may cover the cost of publication. 

Announcement of such issues, will be made from time to lime. 
Organizations desiring to secure these publications for exchange are 
invited to correspond with reference to such exchanges, stating the 
character of publications which may be offered in return. Or a regular 
subscription for entire Nolumes may be placed as announced on cover. 


A Biologic, Economic, and Systematic Study of the 

Family in the State 


Clell Lee Metcalf, M. A. 

Extracted from a Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Arts, Philosophy and Science of the Ohio 
State University as the Thesis Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts, Commencement, June. 1912. 



Introduction lo 

Pali 1 

General Discussion of the Family. 

Historical Account. Systematic Position. Phylogeny. Geographical Dis- 
tribution. Geological Distribution 12 

General Characters. 

I. The Egg — Description. Characters Available for Classification. Date 

of Oviposition. Duration in Egg Stage. Where and How Deposited 16 

II. The Larva — General Description and External Anatomy of Several 
Kinds of Larvae. Characters Available for Classification. Date of Appear- 
ance. Duration in Larval Stage. Haunts or Habitats. Food. Charac- 
teristic Methods of Feeding. Methods of Defence. Protective Coloration. . 17 

III. The Pupa — Description. Pupal Respiration. Characters Available for 
Clas.sification. Date of Pupation. Duration in the Pupal stage. Place of 
Pupation. Defensive Structures. Pupa within the Puparium. Emergence 

of Adult 2S 

IV. The Adult — Characters of the Family. Mouth-parts. Secondary Sex- 
ual Characters. Characters Available for Classification. Date of Appear- 
ance. Haunts or Habitats, Habits, Food, etc. Methods of Natural Pro- 
tection, Miinicr}-, etc 31 

An Evolutionary Table of Larval Habits 38 

Biological and Ecological Relations and Economic Importance of the Larvae. 42 

Ecological Relations and Economic Importance of the Adults 48 

Enemies 50 

Practical Measures , 51 

Part II 

Key to known Larvae (and Pupae) of Syrphidae 52 

Synopses of Life History Studies 53 

I. Paragus bicolor. II. Paragus tibialis. III. Syrphus americanus; III. B. 

Syrphus sp. IV. Syrphus torvus. V. vSyrphus xanthostonms. VI. Didea 

fasciata. VII. Allograpta obliqua. VIII. Sphaerophoria cylindrica. IX. 

The-Cock's-Comb-Gall Syrphus-fly (undetermined). X. Eristalis aeneus. . . 
Review of the Literature on the Biology and Metamorphoses of Syrphidae, 

arranged generically 62 

Part III 

Key to the Genera of vSyrphidae 74 

List of Ohio Species with keys to the Species of the various Genera which have 

been, or are likely to be, collected in the State 79 

Brief Bibliography 99 


The Syrphidae deserve to take high rank among the families of 
insects because of their varied interest to the student of nature. It is one 
of the largest and most beautiful of the families of Diptera and, so far as 
adults are concerned, one of the best known S3'stematically. The larvae 
present some very peculiar forms and a remarkable diversity of habits. 
The famil}' po.ssesses some excellent examples of mimicr}-; perhaps no other 
family of insects so much resembles another order as the S^'rphidae do 
Hymenoptera. And, finally, the economic importance of its species, both 
in the larval and adult stages, is, at the same time, ver^' great and ver}' 
little appreciated. 

The economic status of the famih^ as a whole is decidedly beneficial 
because of the aphidophagous habit of many of the larvae. There are no 
well known pests; although one, whose larva feeds on the pollen and cells 
of corn, has at times excited some alarm in certain localities; and the 
larvae of certain species in Europe are known to destroy the bulbs of 
such plants as Narcissus, Amaryllis and onion. None of the species has 
ever .seriously or extensively intruded on the public welfare and 
quently they are not well known to people generally. Their services 
while exceedingly valuable have not been of such a conspicuous nature 
as to change this condition. 

Although it has been well known for many years that the Syrphidae 
are very beneficial because of the ravages of their larvae on plant lice, 
it appears that our knowledge of their immature stages is deplorablj- 
meagre. A small number of species has been more or less brieflj^ 
described in one or more of their immature stages. Usually these are 
isolated descriptions of single species, which entomologists have happened 
u]ion wliile pursuing other lines of investigation. The various writers 
have, of course, had no common basis of description, and most, if not all 
of the descriptions are entirel}^ inadequate for specific separation. In 
only one case did I find a figure of the larval mouth-parts; and I have 
been able to find no detailed description of the posterior respiratory 
apparatus in any paper. Again no one seems to have noticed the 
remarkably constant occurrence of a definite number (12) of spines or 
bristles (differentiated from any other vestiture which may be present) 
in transverse rows across the body of the larva. 



Everj^one recognizes that it is always desirable and often exceedingly 
important to be able to identify an insect in its immature stages; especial! v 
as a larva. This phase of Entomolog\- has been too much neglected. It 
is true that none of the immature stages presents such a variety of char- 
acters as does the imago, and distinctive description is consequent! v much 
more difficult. Yet I believe it will be found possible, at least among the 
Syrphidae, to describe the larvae and pupae in such a way that they can 
be definite!}' recognized. 

It was with two points in mind, therefore, that the life-history .studies 
which were the basis of this paper, were carried on from 1909 to 191 1. 
An attempt was made (i) to determine definitely what species are 
aphidophagous in Ohio, of how much importance they are, and something 
of their life-hi.stories and biological relations; and (2) to make possible 
the specific identification of immature stages. Natural!}- the subject has 
by no means been exhausted. Such results as were achieved have been 
reported from time to time in a series of articles in T/ie Ohio Naturalist:^ 
In these articles nine species are carefully described in their immature 
stages; eight of them, so far as I am aware, for the first time. Brief 
synopses of these articles together with notes on one or two other 
species will be found on the following pages. A goodly number of Oliio 
species witli the aphidophagous habit must still rrmain to be described. 


I am liapp}' to acknowledge here, briefly but none the less sincerely, 
ni}- obligations to those who helped me in various ways in this work. 
First of all to the Professors of Entomology at the Ohio State University: 
Professor Herbert Osborn whose inspiring encouragement has been most 
helpful; Professor James S. Hine who has collected and studied the Syr- 
phidae very carefully and who most generously supplied me with every- 
thing he had in the way of specimens and literature as well as with help- 
ful advice and criticism. The list of species in Part III is ba.sed largely 
on specimens collected and originally identified by him and now embraced 
in the University collection of Diptera. 

To my brother, Professor Z. P. Metcalf of Raleigh, N. C, I 
am indebted for many helpful suggestions, for certain materials for study, 
and for a critical reading of the manuscript. Professor W. M. Wheeler of 
Harvard University supplied me with larvae and ]iupye of the genus 

*The. {)iiio yniarnHM. Vol. XI, Nu 7, pp ;;:i7-;i41, 2pl. .M:i.v. J'.Hl. 
Vol. XII, No. 1, pp. 397-104, !pl. Nov. 1911. 
VoLXTI, No.5, pp. 477-JSS, Ipl. liUJ. 
Vol. XII, No 8, pp.r.:«-54l, )pl..liiiio, I'.iii;. 
Vil.X'II.No. .">. p]) ,S!-0:j.,iiTli.l'.il:j. 


Microdon. Certain of my fellow students have directed me to materials 
for stud}- and my wife has helped me in innumerable ways. 

Of the literature on this family, the works of Dr. vS. W. Williston 
have been most useful. His excellent Synopsis of North A7?ierican 
Syrphidae is indispensable. I have made constant use of it. In Part 
III, the kej'S to species under each genus are adapted for the most part 
from this work; being restricted, however, to cover only those species 
which have been, or seem likely to be, taken in the State. The key to 
genera is taken almost verbatim from the same author's Manual of North 
American Diptcra. 

J. M. Aldrich, Catalogue of North American Diptera, lists in some 
sixt}' pages most of the important papers on this famil}^ which appeared 
previous to January i, 1904. The student isreferred to it for synonymy; 
and descriptions wdiich do not appear in Williston's Synopsis will for 
the most part be cited there. 

The work of Verrall on British Flies is very useful and I am indebted 
to it for man}' of the notes on metamorphoses and larval habits given in 
Part II. Other papers to which the Ohio student will most likely wish 
to refer are listed in a brief bibliograph}-. 

Part I. 

The first of the genera of Syrphidae to be established was Rhingia, 
described by Scopoli from Europe in 1763. The following year Geoffroy 
de.scribed a si)ecies of Volucella from Paris. Eleven years later (1775) 
Fabricius founded the genus Syrphiis and nineteen years after this the 
genus Ccria. Nothing more of importance was done until 1803 when 
Meigen described half a score of genera from Europe. 

From 1804 to 1825, Latreille, Fabricius, Meigen, Fallen, Weidemann 
and St. Fargeau and Serville added several dozen genera; and the 
latter year Latreille described the first genus (Sphccoviyia) from North 
America. From 1834 to 1S75, Macquart, Loew, Rondani and Schiner 
from Europe, Walker from Brazil, and Philippi from South America 
were the principal students of the family. From 1876 to 1881, Osten 
Sacken added half a dozen North American genera, while since 1882 
Williston from North America and Bigot have described a number of 
new genera and many species. 

Our knowledge of the family in North America is due very largely 
to the efforts of Meigen, Wiedemann, Saj', Macquart, Schiner, Loew, 
Osten Sacken, Bigot, Williston, W. A. Snow, W. D. Hunter, R. C. Os- 
burn, C. H. T. Townsend, C. W. Johnson and D. W. Coquillett. 


In Ohio, so far as I can determine, Professor James S. Hine has been 
the principal worker. An early state list of 25 species was published by 
him in the Proceedings of the Ohio Academy of Science, Vol. II, pp. 48- 
54, 1899. A. later list of 92 species was read by him before the Ohio 
Academy of Science in 1902. Mr. Chas. Dury of Cincinnati has a State 
collection of 75 or 80 species among which are a few not listed from any 
other part of the State. 

The Syrphidae is one of the four families belonging to the Cyclor- 
rhapha which have no frontal suture (Fig. A ): the other three are 
the Pipuncnlidae, the P/atypezidae, and the Phoridae. 

The Cyclorrhapa is that group Fronta^Lwule 

of Diptera in which the adults / proji'tal Su^uVR 

emerge from the puparium — 
which is a pupa-case made by the 
induration of the last, unmoulted, 
larval skin — by pushing off in 
front a circular disc-like opercu- 
lum. In the contrasting group, 
the Orihorrhapha , the adult es- 
capes from the pupa-case thru 
a T-shaped antero-dorsal orifice 
made by two splits, one length- 
wise, the other transversel}'. 

Fig. A. Head of a fly 

In the great majority of the Cyclorrhapha the operculum is forced off 
by expan.sion of a bladder-like body, tho: ptilinuni , which is protruded 
thru a suture above the antennae of the nymph, known as the frontal 
suture. In the four families mentioned above the frontal suture is absent; 
there is no ptilinum; and the operculum is pushed off, along a line of 
weakness, by expansion of the face below the antennae. This is proba- 
bly responsible for the great amount of structural variation to be found 
in the face of the adult Syrphidae which is often of much use in classifi- 

The four families mentioned above are usually placed at the beginning 
of the Cyclorrhapha, and in some respects they are intermediate between 
this group, as a whole, and the Orthorrhapha. 

Verrall locates the Syrphidae between the Pipuncnlidae on the one 
hand (with which, according to (lirschner, they arc connected tliru 


the g&n&ra. Nephrocenis and Barr/ia) and the Conopidae on the other. The 
relation to the latter tamily is indicated in the porrect and elongate 
antennae of the genera from Milcsia on, and especially of Ccria in which 
the antennae end in a terminal style. 


In this paper the arrangement is that given in Aldr.ich's Catalogue 

of North American Dipt era. 

Williston is probably correct in stating that the characters of the 
immature stages should not be expected to furnish basis for a classifica- 
tion to supersede that founded on the more diverse and complex charac- 
ters of the adults. Nevertheless it seems to me that a careful study of 
larval structures and habits in many genera .should throw light on funda- 
mental relationships, and might change the classification to some extent 
or, at the least, tend to confirm the position of some of the more doubtful 
genera. Especially does this .seem promising in a group like the Syr- 
phidae where there is such a dearth of good sub-family characters. 
For example, according to Williston, the genera Paragus and Pipiza 
are placed in the tribe Chilosini. These two genera are, in part at least, 
aphidophagous as larvae and are structurally like aphidophagous larvae. 
The other genera of this tribe, viz., Chrysogaster, C/ii/osia, Chalcomyia, 
and Myiolepta live as larvae in decaying matter or on plant tissue, and 
some of them at least {Chalcomyia) are rat-tailed. Now this would seem 
to indicate that the former genera naturally belong with the 5;';^///;// where 
the larvae are predominantly aphidophagous. 

It seems to me almost certain that a complete study of larval char- 
acteristics and habits, together with what is known about the imagoes, 
will make possible a satisfactory division of this large family into sub- 
families, which is conceded to be impossible from a consideration of the 
imagoes alone. 

As will be shown below the family characteristics are simple and 
very definite. The species are also for the most part reasonably 
distinct. But the presence of many vexing, intermediate forms makes it 
almost impossil)le to break the family up into satisfactory sub-families or 
in some cases to group the species into genera. 

Three large sub-families are rather definitely noted: (i) The .Sj7-- 
phiiiac or group with the anterior of the wing before 
the middle of the di.scal cell, the femora rareh' thickened; slender, 
thinl\- ])ilose, more delicatespecies. (2) The Eristali/iac with the anterior 
cross-vein near or beyond the middle of the discal cell, femora frequentl^^ 


thickened; larger, pilose species. (3) The Cerinae, a small group, differ- 
ing from all the others in having a terminal style rather than a dorsal arista 
on the antennae. 

Williston further divides these sub-families into fourteen tribes 
which, while they doubtless show many true relationships, are by no 
means alwa3'S satisfactory. 

Verrall in his work on British Flies makes seven sub-families; u.sing 
besides the ones mentioned above, Volucdlinae, Milesinae, Chryso'toxhiae 
and Microdontinae. 


In general both genera and species in this family are widely distrib- 
uted. There are about 2^000 described species from all parts of the world. 
Of these over 300, belonging to about 60 genera, occur in America north 
of Mexico. Only about 5 or 6 genera are restricted to America; 42 are com- 
mon to Europe and North America, and nearly 40 species are known to 
be common to these two continents. It is my behefthat this latter number 
will be augmented considerably when examples from the two continents 
are more carefully studied. At any rate I can see no essential differences 
between the descriptions by \^errall of certain species from Great Britain, 
and the descriptions of others under dift'erent names from North America. 

As is shown by so many other biological groups, the distribution of 
the species in this family indicates greater resemblance between the 
Pacific and European faunas than between the Atlantic and European. 

Forty-one genera and about 113 species are listed in the present paper 
as actually collected in the State. Many of these species are widespread, 
not only in the State but over large parts of the country. A number are 
found on other continents as Paragus tibialis, P. bicolor, Platychirzis pclta- 
his, Melanostoma mclliiiiim, Syrphus torviis, S. rihesii, S. grossulariae, 
Eristnlis aetteus d.nd Syriita; pipieiis 2ind a few (notably Eristalis tenax) 
are cosmopolitan. Others are much restricted in the State; for example 
the species of Microdon have been taken in the State only near Cincinnati. 


A number of fossil insects of this family have been worked out by 
Dr. S. H. Scudder from American Tertiary beds. These belong prepon- 
derantly to the vSyrphinae, or the group with the basal The 
following genera are definitely recognized: Syrp/iics (abundant). C/ii- 
losia^ Clnysogastei\ Rhiugia, Sphegina and probably /'//-/.r^?. In addition 
a fo.ssil Microdo)! was four.d at Aix, and the following genera have been 


fouud in amber: Voliccella, Crior/mia, Eristalis, Helophiliis, Merodon, 
and Mile si a. 


The eggs of this family that I have seen (mostly of aphidophagous 
species) are all chalk-white in color, and hence conspicuous on the darker 
surface of the leaf or twig on which they are usually deposited. They 
are elongated-oval in outline, subcylindrical, truncated at the micropjdar 
end, rounded at the opposite end; flattened slightly to the surface on 
which they are deposited, slightly humped above. The length is fre- 
quently a little less than one millimeter. 

The entire exposed surface of the shell, except a small region around 
the dark micropyle, shows a delicate and very beautiful sculpturing, con- 
sisting, in aphidophagous species, of numerous microscopic elevations of 
the surface, arranged in lines obliquely around the egg. Each of these 
elevations has a main body, longer than wide, and radiating from this a 
greater or lesser number of delicate, arm-like projections extending into 
the spaces between adjoining bodies. The arms may branch slightly and 
may end freely, or meet similar processes from the same or other bodies; 
often making a rather complex network of slender white arms between 
the larger elevations. (Figs. 17, 43, 63, 143.) 


I know of no naked-eye characters that are specific. However with 
further study we may be able to distinguish the eggs of many species 
microscopically. There is a considerable variation in size of the eggs, 
especially between the different genera. In addition to this the charac- 
ters which are likely to prove useful are to some extent the shape of the 
egg; the .size, shape, and number of the elevated, sculptured bodies on the 
shell; the number of arms radiating from them; the relative width of sepa- 
ration of the bodies; etc. These characters are difficult to see clearly, 
requiring high magnification and very favorable illumination. 

The time of oviposition for the aphidophagous species may be said 
to be considerably correlated with that of the appearance of aphid 
colonies. The others are subject to the usual .seasonal conditions. No 
definite dates can be given which are generally true except to say that 
ovipo-sition for the first spring generation commonly takes place very soon 
after what we recognise as the Spring awakening of our fauna and flora. 

The duration in the egg-stage was determined for two species (see 
under Syrplius amerieanus p. 55 and Allograpta obliqua p, 58 ) in which 
it ranged from 55 hours to 3.5 days (indoors.) The egg-stage of 
Mcsogramma poliia is said by Ashmead to be three or four days. 


Aphidophagous species deposit their eggs on various parts of plants 
which are, or will generally be, infested with plant-lice. Eristahs tcnax 
was found depositing eggs on or near the surface of very foul water. 
The former species deposit their eggs singly, gluing them flat to the 
surface especially by the posterior end; those of Eristalis sp. were found 
in masses, the eggs ranked side by side and nearly perpendicular. (Fig. 
142.) Wheeler believes that adults of Microdon frequently oviposit in the 
same nest in which they mature, VerhoefT observed adults apparently 
trying to oviposit among the ants on the outside of the nests. 

I have noted no methods of natural protection except the sheltered 
position in which they are sometimes placed; nor have I found any egg 


The larvae of Syrphidac which I have had an opportunity to exam- 
ine represent four distinct larval habits, and, structurally^ are of at least 
three quite different kinds. 

These all agree in belonging to the eruciform type of larva. They 
are slug-like, legless, with the segmentation not well marked and the 
head not differentiated. They are of medium size, commonly about one 
centimeter long, sometimes considerably larger. They have no eyes and the 
antennae are very rudimentary. The mouth and anus are terminal or 
slightly ventrad at the two extremities. The esophagus has a more or 
less complex frame- work of chitinized parts extended to, or modified into, 

Typically the larvae bear anterior and posterior spiracles. I have 
not been able to locate anterior spiracles on the specimens of Microdon 
which I have examined. However, the anterior spiracles are often incon- 
spicous in the other forms and, while they may be wanting here I sus- 
pect they may yet be found upon examination of more and better mater- 
ial. Buckton states that he was never able to trace a tracheal connection 
to the opening of the anterior respirator)^ cornua in the larvae ol Eristalis. 
I am convinced that these spiracles are functional. Comparatively large 
tracheae run to them and are open to the tip; if a larva is submerged and 
compressed bubbles of gas may be seen to form in connection with the 
teeth-like lobes. There is no doubt that the similar structures in aphi- 
dophagous larvae are also functional. 

In one type of larva which is exemplified esi^ecially by the aphi- 
dophagous species we have the tough- skinned, terrestrial larva with well- 
developed, beak-like, chitinous jaws and mouth-hooklets adapted for 
catching and eating their prey. In this type the anterior spiracles are 


on a level with the bod}' surface or very slightly elevated; the posterior 
ones situated at the apex of two short, rigid, firmly-chitinized, cylindrical 
breathing tubes which are always closely apposed (except in very 3'oung 
larvae), never bifurcated except very slightly at the extreme tip; this 
is one of the most characteristic things of this type of larva. The body 
is flattened ventrally, making a sort of creeping-sole, elongate-ovate in out- 
line, tapering toward the anterior end. Pro-legs are wanting or very 
imperfectly developed as ventral folds of the body wall. 

The indications of segmentation externally are groups of irregular, 
transverse wrinkles on which are situated, in each segment, typically 
twelve spines, hairs or bristles in a transverse row: three pairs dorsal, 
one pair lateral, and two pairs ventro-lateral. These I believe have never 
before been described. For convenience of reference (and to distinguish 
them from the minute, bristly hairs which sometimes cover the integu- 
ment generall}' on the dorsal 

side which we may designate Yen'lroAoferal CormCL 
integtanental bristles) I have ', lQor30-\aWa\ Carmo. 
pleased to call the former tJic \ \ 
segmental spines; and to name 
them, in order, beginning with 
the pair nearest the mid-dorsal 
line, and proceeding laterally: 
(a) median, (b) dorsal, (c) 
dorso-lateral, (d) lateral, and 
two pairs of ventro-laterals, a 
posterior ventro-lateral , (e) and an 
anterior ventro-lateral , {{) as one 
is in front of the other. ( Fig. B. ) 

On the basis of the segmental spines nine segments can be clearly 
made out posterior to the one bearing the anterior spiracles. These 
spiracles may be considered prothoracic; hence we have ten segments 
exclusive of the head. The head segments are retractile, somewhat 
indefinite, with some appearance ofl:>eing two in number. For convenience 
of reference, therefore, the total number has been considered as twelve, 
making the prothoracic segment number three. 

The mouth-parts in this type consist of two V-shaped, jaw-like 
pieces working verticallj^; and several pairs (commonly three or four) of 
mouth-hooklets situated at the side of the jaws and adapted to work 
transversely. J. B. Smith ( in discussing the larva of Syrphus torvus) refers 
to the larger of these mouth-hooklets as the mandibles, but I doubt very 

l)i:igi-auimatiecross-seetioii of an ai)hidopliagous 


much if there is an}' homology with adult mandibles. All these parts are 
black, firmly chitinized, and are continued internally into a broad, chitin- 
ous, esophageal framework, the whole operated by a complex system of 

The antennae are very short, consisting of a single, fleshy joint with 
two, minute, rounded segments, side by side, at its apex. The pair of 
sessile, prothoracic spiracles each have typically a crescentric opening 
which may be guarded by rounded, tooth-like lobes. 

The posterior respiratory organ, in this type, consists of two, short, 
cylindrical tubes united along the median line, very slightly divergent at 
the tip, situated on the dorsum of the last segment which is much depressed. 
They are firmly chitinized especially at the tip where each tube bears three 
slit-like spiracles raised on radiating carinae. Dorsally near the middle 
line, each is marked by a smooth, circular plate. Median to this plate is 
usually a spur or spine-like projection of the surface, the dorsal spiracular 
spine, and there are frequently elevations of the surface or other orna- 
ments between the spiracles, referred to as interspiracular hairs, spines or 

The colors of these larvae are commonly some shade of brown, pink 
or greenish marked with black or white. The integument though 
tough is thin and transparent and the dorsal blood-vessel almost always 
visible along the median line. 

Of Mesogramma polita, which in the lar\-al stage feeds on the cells 
and pollen of corn, I have not secured the larvae, but a careful study of 
puparia found at the Experiment Station Farm, West Raleigh, N. C, 
has revealed enough about the larval organization to show that the larvae 
of this habit are superficially quite similar to the aphidophagous ones; 
the general shape, size, and appearance being the same. Some of the 
detailed external anatomy, however, shows important differences from 
the aphidophagous larvae. 

The mouth-parts could be only imperfectly made out but showed the 
presence of the beak-like arrangement of upper and lower V-shaped jaws 
(Fig. 191). The posterior respiratory appendage is essentially like that 
in aphidophagous species but peculiar in having the most dorsal of the 
spiracular slits with its elevation small and rounded, instead of trans- 
versely oval like the other two. I could find no trace of the circular 
plaieso common in the aphidophagous form. There is little ornamentation 
of the appendage, only a short, inconspicuous, dorsal spiracular spine. 
The two tubes are somewhat divergent at the tip. A brief discnption 
of the stages of J/, polila will be found on pp. 66, 67. 


In the type of larva adapted for aquatic or semiaquatic conditions, 
and represented by Eristalis, and others, the body is subcylindrical in 
shape, the integument very thin and pliable with a number of transverse 
folds falling into groups of about five each, between which the integu- 
ment is smooth. Near the middle of each group is a transverse row of 
double, flexible hairs which are probably homologous with the single, 
usually rigid, segmental hairs or spines of the aphidophagous forms. 

I take it therefore that these groups of folds or wrinkles indicate 
body segments. There are about seven such groups clearly indicated, 
and immediately in front of them open the anterior respiratory cornua of 
the larva. If we consider, as in the case of the aphidophagous larvae, 
that these anterior spiracles are borne on the prothoracic .segments, and 
assume as in that case, two segments for the head, then this segment 
becomes number 3 and the last one of the seven would be number 
10. To homologize the number of the segments with that which we 
attributed to the aphidophagous larvae (namely twelve) we may suppose 
that two segments instead of one have become modified at the posterior end 
into the long respiratory appendage and the part of the body which 
bears it and on which the alimentary canal opens. 

These larvae have about six or seven pairs of well-developed prolegs 
which are ventral projections of the body .surface over which the integ- 
umental vestiture has become .specialized into heavy, rigid, curved and hairs of varying sizes. 

There is absence in this type of larva, of hard external mouth-parts, 
the mouth opening being a soft, fleshy buccal cavitj^ 

The body wall around the mouth is thrown out into several, rather 
specialized, soft retractile flaps or lips which have a habit of alternately 
opening out and introverting in such a way as to create a current of 
water toward the movith. 

Within these flaps is found a hood-like, .striated, chitinous termination 
of the esophageal frame-work, which reaches the surface or can be seen 
without dissection. (Figs. 138, b; 139) Internal to this are located 
certain hard, black, chitinized .structures which it seems to me may be 
homologous on the whole with certain of the external mouth-parts of the 
aphidophagous larvae (Figs. 140, 141), migrated in position and some- 
what degenerate. 

The antennae of this type are similar to those of the aphidophagous 
larvae, but the two .small .segments at the tip are rather elongate, cylind- 
rical, rather than spherical, and slightly different from each other. 

The .striking modification of this type of larva, however, is in 
the elevation of the spiracles above the general body surface. The 


anterior ones are moderately elevated, borne on a pair of horn-like prom- 
inences which are capable of considerable extension but are usually 
rather closely retracted. The posterior respiratory appendage is a most 
remarkable and highly specialized organ which enables the larva to feed 
at various depths beneath the water without coming to the surface for its 
aerial respiration. The spiracles are situated distally on an elongated, 
tube-like appendage which is extensile and retractile in a telescopic man- 
ner. It is composed of three segments of different calibre, each double 
in nature, enclosing two trachea, but fused mesad and always parellel, 
never forked. These sections disappear one within the other when the 
appendage shortens. 

The tip of the tube bears the spiracles and is ornamented with 
structures which serve to keep it from being submerged, and are probably 
homologous with the inter-spiracular ornamentation of the aphidophagous 

A peculiarity of the larva of Eristalis spp. , which may or may not 
be true of all "rat-tailed larvae" is the presence about the anal opening of 
a group of soft, retractile, radiating flabellae or long flexible finger-like 
])rocesses, (Fig. 137). They may be entirely retracted and are at intervals 
rapidly unfolded. Buckton suggests that they may have a renal function. 
The larvae of Microdon are perhaps the most peculiar of all Syrph- 
idae although they seem less aberrant from the aphidophagous form 
than do the "rat-tailed" larvae. They are elliptical in outline, convex 
above, flattened ventrally to make a flexible creeping-.sole. The integu- 
ment is very tough dorsally, and this part of the body is often ornament- 
ed with a reticulate pattern of papillae or setae. The margin of the 
body around the creeping-sole is ornamented with a fringe-like arrange- 
ment of spiny, hair-like processes. (Can these be migrated homologues 
of the segmental spines?) According to Wheeler— "usually no traces 
of segmentation are to be observed, but in some adult larvae of M. tristis 
just before pupation, and after their upper surfaces had been dried by 
exposure to the air, I have been able to discern in certain lights a dis- 
tinct division of the body into seven or eight sub-equal .segments." 
This is about the number of segments which is usually clearly visible in 
both the "rat-tailed" and aphidophagous forms. 

The mouth parts in the larvae examined ma>- be understood by ref- 
erence to PI. IX, Fig. 181. It will be seen that they are not directly 
comparable to those of aphidophagous larvae. The structure at d. 
is probably equivalent to the lower jaw of aphidophagous ones. It has ni 
addition a flap-like piece at each side which gives the jaw a triple ap- 


pearance. It is possible also that the structures (c), are comparable to the 
upper jaw, or they ma.v be equivalent to lateral booklets ("mandibles" of 
J. B. Smith ) . In front of the mouth- parts on the ventral side of the body 
is a pair of structures which I believe are antennae. They would com- 
pare with the antennae in the other forms with the two apical segments 
much elongated and tapering at the tip, the basal part not prominent. 
I have not been able to find anterior spiracles in the larvae I have exam- 
ined. There are no signs of pro-legs. 

The posterior respiratory appendage resembles in superficial appear- 
ance that of aphidophagous species, consisting of two, fused, short, rigid 
tubes. The essential structure however is quite different. In place of 
three pairs of slit-like spiracles we have an arborescent pattern such as is 
figured in PI. IX, Fig. 1S4. The colors of these larvae are usually a 
dirty white or drab tinged with yellow or brown. 


Though distinct as a family, the larvae of Syrphidae do not present 
easy specific characters. It is often much easier to recognize the species 
by a tout-enscmbh\ than to define the characteristics. In the aphidopha- 
gous forms the color and vestiture are helpful. The mouth-parts and an- 
terior spiracles doubtless present constant differences, but these are small. 
On this account and because of the habit of the larvae of retracting their 
head segments, parts are exceedingly hard to see clearly. Hence 
thev are almost worthless for the ready distinction of species. The 
number of mouth-hooklets seems to vary somewhat, and their size, shape, 
and location, as also the length and shape of the jaws, is constant for the 
species, but varies somew^hat among the different genera and species. Of 
these characters probably the only one easily enough made out to be of 
service is the presence or absence of a pair of large booklets, remote from 
the side of the jaws, which I have called the outer pair of iiioiith-hooks. 
These for example are wanting in Dideafasciata, and present in the three 
species of Svrphiis and the two of Paragus which I have examined (Figs. 
3; II, c; 23, a; 47; 67, c; 81, d; and 91, a;). The ornamentation of the 
anterior spiracles (Figs. 12, 48, 83, 92,) seems to differ. However, after 
spending considerable time, with strong illumination and high micro- 
scopic powers, in determining the actual nature of this character in a 
single specimen, I concluded that it would be of little use for the 
practical separation of the species. 

We have come to the conclusion that the best available, and perhaps 
the only absolutely dependable, basis of separation for aphidophagous 


species is in the character of the posterior stigmata or respiratory organs. 
These are of a fair size; are alwa3-s exposed in larval as well as pupal 
stages; present a really surprising variety of characteristics; and, being 
well chitinized, the characters are tolerably constant within specific 
limits. In these stigmata one may note the approximate length of the 
whole projection; its exact width and depth; the extent of elevation of the 
slit-like spiracles; their exact length and width; their arrangement with 
respect to each other; the amount of divergence of the two approximate, 
cylindrical tubes at the extreme tip; the character of spinous and other 
ornamentation, etc., etc. The nature of the ornamentation between the 
spiracles varies from .sharp, leaf-like, erect, irregular ridges, to sharp or 
blunt spines, to hairs or bri.stles, and is of the greatest value. 

It is much to be regretted that in the few cases where immature 
stages of Syrphidae have been described, these characters have not 
been noticed or were not considered of sufficient value to be recorded. 
It is desirable that these few .species be again gone over in this light so 
that there may be an accurate basis for distinguishing our species. 

The "rat-tailed" larvae doubtless will be found to present sufficient 
characteristics for specific .separation. Something may be made of the 
.size, general shape, color and appearance. In this case, anterior spiracles 
or respiratory cornua are of such a size that careful examination will 
usually show clearly their microscopic structure, and this may be used. 
(Figs. 112, ii3of Plate VI, Fig. 132 of Plate VII). The po.sterior respira- 
tory appendage also will be found to vary in structure and appearance and 
the pro-legs may vary in number. Another point of which much may be 
made, I feel sure, is the vestiture of the various parts of the body; the 
hooks on the pro-legs, on the .several segments of the "tail" and 
the character of the ornamentation at the tip of the latter. (Note Figs. 
^38, c; 133, 135 of Plate VII) . It is almost certain that the larvae oiMicrodon 
can be .separated by the characteristics of the reticulate ornamentation of 
the dorsum, the fringe-like border of the body, the stigmatic pattern on 
the posterior respirator}' appendage, etc. General size, shape and propor- 
tions ought to be of considerable use in larvae of this kind where the 
bod}' is rather rigid and .seemingly must hold to almost a constant position. 

There is such great diversity of structure among the larvae with 
different habits that until more of them are studied it will be impo-ssible 
to construct a phylogenetic table. For reasons which are stated in the 
discussion of larval habits (pp. 38-40), I believe the phytophagous larvae 
to be most primitive in ha])it and they may be considered the most 
generalized of the group structurally. It must be remembered of 

Syrp. 3 


that any Syrphidous larva is a very specialized creature and the larvae of 
the various habits undoubtedly derived their structure from an ancestral 
form much more generalized than the phytophagous larva of Mesogranima 

poll t a . 

The larvae of the aphidophagous habit are structurally but compar- 
atively little removed from the phytophagous ones although there are 
important differences in the minute anatom}' of the two. 

The larvae of Microdon while extremely specialized are in a general 
way nearer to the phytophagous and aphidophagous forms than are the 
rat-tailed larvae. The body of Microdon is broader than that of 
Mesogranima and the aphidophagous species, lacks the segmental spines 
and possesses a very highl}^ developed marginal fringe. The respiratory 
appendage is very similar in general appearance, but the stigmatic 
arrangement is quite different. 

The rat-tailed larvae are extremely specialized in adaptation to 
aerial respiration while living in an aqueous medium. There apparently 
can be little doubt that the posterior respiratory appendage in all 
forms of larvae had a common origin. The primordial representative of 
this structure was probably the simple termination of the two tracheal 
trunks. These probably became separately elevated above the surface, 
making two posterior tubes; then shifted in position until they became 
apposed, then united ba.sally and now in the entire family they are united 
mesad thruout their full length. This structure, at first of moderate 
length, soft and easily modifiable, has now been modified into the short, 
strongly chitinized structure of all the terrestrial forms, and on the other 
hand into the long, flexible and telescopic organ of the aquatic larvae. 
Each structural group has developed its own arrangement of special 

The chitinized structures internal to the buccal cavitj' in Eri stalls 
aeneus (PI. VII, Figs. 140- 141), if they represent mouth-parts at all, are 
quite degenerate. And finally in the rat-tailed species we have ventrally 
projecting folds of the body wall, such as those in Syrphus anicrlcauus, 
specialized into very efficient pro-legs. 

Microdon and Erlstalls differ from the phytophagous and aphi- 
dophagous species in having an anterior pair of pupal respirator}- cornua 

Moulting of the larvae is incon.spicuous, probabl}' consisting of a 
somewhat continuous process of shedding flake-like pieces. The con- 
spicuous change from young larvae to older in S. americaniis is evidence 
that a moulting does occur. Owing to the fact that in some species several 


generations occur in a year and become to some extent confused, the date 
of the appearance of young can not be stated in a general way for all spe- 
cies. Some of the aphidophagous species, whose stages have been worked 
out, were studied only^ in the autumn generation. The larvae of this 
generation occur quite generally in the latitude of Ohio from the middle 
of September to the middle of November, or even later, depending on 
the season. Some species were found, as larvae, as early as the first of 
May, and others very commonly during June. Larvae of certain species 
seem most abundant during June, July and August. 

Duration in the larval stage in those species for which I have records 
varies from one to three weeks and seems to be determined in part b\- the 
amount of food at hand. 

Wheeler states that young larvae of Microdon tristis may be found in 
the nest during July; that these mature by autumn and after passing the 
winter in the ant nest, pupate in April or May. There is, in his opinion, 
only one annual brood in temperate regions, the adults emerging in June. 
The larva of Mesogramma polita is said by Ashmead to mature in from 
eight to ten da3's. 

Those species which as larvae are predaceous, are to be looked for 
wherever small soft-bodied Homoptera, especially Aphididac, occur in col- 
onies. They are to be found alike on trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, 
weeds, field-crops and garden-crops. The phytophagous species have been 
found on corn, working either between the base of the leaf and the stem 
or on the tassels. The larvae of Microdon live in the nests of ants, 
wasps, or termites, either in the soil, under stones, in decaying logs or 
in cavities in or under the bark of trees. In the United States the most 
frequent hosts are probabl}' species of Formica. 

Species of Eristalis were found abundantlj'in evaporating vats at the 
Columbus sewage-disposal plant where sewage in an advanced state of 
decay is left exposed for some time. They are to be found in all sorts 
of foul or stagnant pools, in organic debris, excrement, ooze about drains, 
in watering troughs, etc. Other "rat-tailed" species, e. g. Mallota sp., are 
said to live in decaying wood or trees. 

The habitat of others may be noted from the outline of larval habits 
given below, p. ^yi, and ranges from various positions on or within living 
plants, including bulbs, cacti, and fungi, thru decaying wood or exuding 
sap, decaying vegetable matter, manure, and soft mud impregnated with 
decaying organic material, to a strictly aquatic condition in stagnant or 
foul water. Another line of specialization from the same original habitat 
has taken up the predaceous habit; certain specializations from this have 


led to a close, obligate predatism on aphids in galls, and there has been 
reported a case of internal parasitism. Still others live in nests of certain 

The kind of food varies as much as the habitat, from living 
plant tissues or sap thru decaxing wood, to all kinds of deca3dng organic 
matter or excrement; and, on the other hand, to living soft-bodied insects. 
So far as I know none of the aquatic larvae have been observed to feed 
on minute animals or plants, except possibly on algae (see pp. 46,70). 

Some of the aphidophagous species seem to be rather omnivorous. 
The larvae of Syrplms ainericanics a.n6. Allograpta obliqiia, which have been 
rather more carefully studied in this respect than the others, were each 
found preying on three to six different species of Homoptera. Didca 
Jasciata on the other hand was found, in the larval stage, preying only 
on one species {Longistigma caryae) of Aphididae, and the gall infesting 
species seem to be essentially restricted to one species of prey. 

These aphidophagous larvae, although frequently found entirely sur- 
rounded by an abundance of prey, are very often obliged to search about 
for food. Their characteristic, looping movements are very familiar to 
man}' people. When used for progression alone, these movements maybe 
very rapid. Their progress is very similar to that of a "measuring- 
worm" though the body is not so long. When the larva is searching for 
food, the anterior half or two-thirds of the body is raised in the air, very 
much extended, and lashed from side to side. It is then attached and 
the posterior parts pulled up, when the movement is repeated. Thigmot- 
ropism, and not chemotropism, seems to be involved in locating food. 
Hungry larvae frequently pass b}^ aphids so closely as almost to touch 
them, and go on in .search of others. When a suitable aphid is found 
the larva frequently grasps it first by the leg or antenna and clings to this 
appendage until the thorax or abdomen can be reached. The mouth- 
parts are firmly attached to the body, the body-wall is punctured, and the 
aphid usually lifted high in the air. Then begins a process of slowly pick- 
ing and sucking out all the body contents, which may continue from a few 
minutes to more than an hour (in the case of ver}' 3^oung larvae). The 
action of the mouth-parts is very characteristic and very well adapted to 
the needs of the case. Many different muscles, which have their origin 
on the body- wall in the region of the head, are inserted upon the eso- 
phageal frame-work, the jaws, and the mouth-hooklets. Some of them 
operate, the framework in and out like a battering ram. Others at the 
same time open and close the jaws. The anterior two or three segments 
are inserted completely within the body wall of the aphid. The jaws are 


directed into ever}^ corner of the body and even into the bases of the 
appendages as they pick and suck out the soft contents. The skins, abso- 
lutely empty, are then discarded by retraction of the segments, the 
hairs or spines on those outside ser\'ing readily to dislodge the skin. 
These dead skins usually drop down or blow away but may sometimes 
be seen in numbers on the host-plant. 

As described above, the larvae of Eristalis spp. have rather special- 
ized, soft flaps around the mouth which have a habit of opening out and 
folding in, so as to create a current of water toward the mouth. Parti- 
cles suitable as food are doubtless selected from the current by the action 
of the "lips." 

As described by Ashmead the larvae of Mesogranniia poUta elongate 
the anterior segments, protrude and puncture the saccharine cells of the 
corn and suck up the exuding juice. 

The mouth of the larva of Microdon is located in the midventral 
line near the anterior end of the body. There is little more than a longi- 
tudinal slit, within which the mouth parts are located. A very slight 
fold in front of this, however, bears the structures which I believe may 
represent antennae. Wheeler states that in life the anterior end of the 
body is occasionally raised for a few moments and one may see the small 
pointed "head" of the larva moving about uneasily under the fringed 
border as if in search of food. The mouth-parts consist of chitinized 
structures which are evidentl}^ suitable for prehension and mastication of 
food particles. 

The stout, formidable-looking spines of some larvae, as in Dideafas- 
cita and Paragiis bicolor, iwax be protective. Some larvae take up pro- 
tected positions on the under side of the leaves and twigs of the host-plants 
or, in the case of cabbage, they are sometimes found among the inner 
leaves, or at the axils of the outer leaves. It seems certain that the tough 
skin and spine-like ornamentation of the larvae of Microdot are pro- 
tective. Wheeler relates that in an artificial formicary the ants "killed a 
young larva that had failed to get hold of a surface with its vulnerable 
creeping sole. They turned the helpless creature over on its back and 
for two days kept licking and biting it till it was reduced to a mere granule." 

The larvae of certain aphidophagous species present what seem to me 
to be good cases of protective coloration. In a general way it may be said 
that these larvae are never conspicuous. ( reneralh^ they are more or less 
completely surrounded, or covered, with the aphids on which the\- are 
preying, and therefore easy to overlook. P.ut in some cases there is added 
to this a very close similarity in coloration between the larvae and the 


parts of the host-plants on which they are resting, or occasionally a color 
pattern which blends remarkably well with that of the aphid-infested leaf , 
stem or twig. I^arv^ae of AUograpta obliqiia and Sphaerophoria cylindrica, 
for example, are concolorous with the cabbage leaf and cabbage aphids; 
and the former nearly so with the persimmon leaf. A better case, how- 
ever, which has come to my notice, is that of the larv^ae {Syrphus sp.) 
described in Part II, pp. 55-56. These larvae were often found curled about 
among the flowers on the spike. Their colors of deep green and pinkish, 
assisted by their irregular shape, harmonize almost perfectly with the 
similar colors of the flowers at this time. Although the larvae were 
nearly an inch long, they were so inconspicuous that the first time I col- 
lected them I examined some of the spikes several times before locating 
certain larvae; and the next day I was surprised to see still others crawl- 
ing about in the jar that I had not found previously. 

The pupa is aerial or subterranean. This stage is passed within a 
puparium made by induration of the larval skin; and generally retains 
many of the characteristics of the larval stage. This .skin, I believe, 
always becomes more or less inflated dorsally and anteriorly and shortened 
along the ventral line. 

The larv^al respiratory structures do not seem to function in this 
stage, at least not near its completion. The tracheae from both the 
anterior and posterior pair become constricted off and flattened against 
the inside of the puparium, outside of the delicate nymphal membrane. 
In the case of Eristalis and Microdon a special pair of prothoracic 
cornua are developed for pupal respiration; and judging from the pub- 
lished notes, this is probably true of \''olucella, Hc/ophilics, Mallota and 
Xylota as well. As pupation approaches in Eristalis, they appear first 
as round dark areas of the body- wall, later pushing out to a length of 
several millimeters. They are located on the fourth body-segment or 
the body-segment just posterior to the one bearing the anterior larval 
respiratory cornua. The latter also elongate but always remain shorter 
than the pupal cornua. The pupal structures connect internally with 
trachea which clearly lead to the dorsal part of the prothorax of the 
developing adult, ( vSee Fig. 146a, Plate VII j. Wheeler states in discussing 
M. tristis, "When the time for pupation arrives .... a pair of short 
tubercles or protuberances make their appearance near the anterior end 
in addition to the single respirator}' tubercle at the posterior end." It 
will be recalled that anterior larval spiracles have not been demonstrated 
for Microdon. 


The aphidophagous species also dispense with the larval structures, 
both the anterior and posterior tracheal connections apparently becoming 
constricted off. But in this type there is no evidence whatever of the de- 
velopment of special spiracles for the pupal stage. 

In the aphidophagous species the puparium becomes more or less 
barrel-shaped or roughly conical, bulbous in front and tapering behind to 
the posterior respiratory organ which remains as in the larva or may 
protrude farther. 

The rat-tailed puparia are generally more elongate and less inflated 
dorsally than the aphidophagous ones, somewhat cylindrical in shape. 
The "rat-tail" is usually fixed in a curved position over the back, while 
in front are the two pairs of short respiratory cornua, the more anterior 
pair being the shorter. 

In Microdoii there is apparently less change from larv-a to puparium 
than in the other forms. A slight amount of dorsal inflation, a general 
hardening of the integument, and the appearence of a pair of respiratory 
cornua at the anterior end constitute the external change from larval to 
pupal stage. 

The appearance of puparia in this family is thus rather characteristic. 
The "barrel-shape" of many of them; the hard, somewhat vitreous 
surface of the pupal envelope; the short apposed tubes, or the long rat- 
tailed structures, of the posterior respiratory organs, as well as the anterior 
respiratory cornua of certain forms, are di.stinctive characters. 


As a basis for specific separation we have practically all of the 
characteristics of the posterior respiratory appendage of the lar\-a remain- 
ing the same. This structure may also assume new characteristics w^orthy 
of note, such as greater prominence, color of certain parts, etc. Since 
the puparium is a rigid structure, its shape and dimensions may be of con- 
siderable value; as, for example, the proportion of height to width or 
length, or the curve of the inflation anteriorly and posteriorly as seen 
from the side. The mouth-parts, and in the aphidophagous species, the 
anterior spiracles are usually unavailable. In the case of the rat-tailed 
species, however, the anterior larval and pupal respiratory cornua both 
present characteristics of great value. Their shape and .size as well as 
the microscopic ornamentation of them can doubtless always be used to 
separate the species. In the case of Microdon spp. we have the anterior 
pupal respiratory cornua wnthout a doubt varying in size, shape, and 
microscopic ornamentation. Most of the chaiacteristics of the larval stage 
can also be used. 


It is a very general thing among the aphidophagous species for pupa 
to be formed early in the summer and again in autumn. But definite 
statements can be made only for particular species. vSome of the species, 
perhaps many of them, have at least two generations a year. The pupae 
of J/, polita were found in Florida in late May, in New Jersey in early 
September and at Raleigh, N. C, in late vSeptember. Microdon tristis 
pupates in April or May according to Wheeler. Eristalis spp. pupated 
in large numbers at Columbus in early autumn. 

The duration in the pupal stage varied in the aphidophagous 
species I studied from 48 hours to 20 da3's. A much more frequent 
length of this stage was from four to ten days. The pupal stage of 
Mesogramma polita lasted eight to ten daj's (Ashmead). 

The puparium is usually fastened by an adhesive secretion from the 
anal glands of the larva to some exposed object: a part of the host-plant 
in the aphidophagous t3'pe, a stone or other object well above the water in 
Eristalis. In the case of Syrpluis americanus pupae kept indoors were found 
buried under a half-inch or more of soil. This subterranean habit has 
also been noted in the pupae of Eristalis and Helophihis spp. The larvae 
of Microdon, "when they reach maturity and are ready to pupate emigrate 

to the surface remain stationar}", attached to the walls of the 

galleries b}^ their creeping soles, and are then found near or at the 
entrances" of the nests. The pupae of Mesogramma polita were found in 
Florida and Missouri attached to the upper surface of a corn leaf near 
its base and between the base of the leaf and the stem. At Raleigh, 
N. C, puparia were found fastened on the tassels of corn; in size, shape 
and coloration they strikingly resembled the flowers themselves. 

The hard, more or less impervious pupal envelope with the long and 
formidable-looking spines which are sometimes present, must be an 
excellent protection for the developing nymph during this stage. Usually, 
also, a more or less protected position is chosen by the larva in which to 
accomplish pupation: either a sheltered nook among the leaves, flowers 
or bark, or in some cases in the ground. 

Within the puparium, the coarctate pupa (Plate IV, Fig. 54 ) iscovered 
with a delicate transparent membrane (Fig. 54 «) with pockets encasing 
the developing legs, wings, etc. The changes visible externally are grad- 
ually produced and give little indication of the radical internal histol5^sis 
and histogenesis. 

The appendages, such as legs, mouth-parts, and wing-pads differen- 
tiate very early, while the whole abdomen and the dorsal part of the body 
is still a mass of fatt>' granules, with the position of the dorsal blood-vessel 


indicated as in the larva, and the head and eyes are simply irregular, angu- 
lar masses. The antennae and eyes are next differentiated. The'trach- 
eation and venation of the wing- pads then becomes evident; and finally the 
segmentation of abdomen, the vestiture, and last of all the adult coloration 
appear. The thorax is one of the last parts of the body to assume the 
adult shape and appearance. During this stage the hind leg presents a 
peculiarity in that the tibia is bent just beyond the middle at an angle of 
about 1 50 degrees. This shortens the extent of this leg posteriorly"^ 

The pupae of Eristalis spp. differ from the aphidophagous ones in 
bearing on the prothorax dorso-laterally, the tracheae which lead to the 
pupal respiratory cornua, (Plate VII, Fig. 146). This is doubtless also 
the case in the genus Microdon and others. 

The emergence of the adult often takes a considerable time. The 
newly emerged imago has its wings much crumpled and folded, in area 
not more than one-fourth as great as when fully expanded. There is a 
prominent U-shaped loop in the costal margin near the middle. The body 
is usually much hardened by the time the fly is completely free from the 
puparium; yet perfect induration, expansion of wings, and coloration are 
sometimes not acquired (indoors at least) for an hour or more. 

The different species \'ar>- very much in form and appearance. They 
are medium to large-sized flies, only a few species being small. The head 
is alwa>s large, as broad or broader than the thorax; the face excavated 
under the antennae and projecting below or with a distinct convex tuber- 
cle near the middle; front never excavated, often swollen. Antennae 
three-jointed, the third joint variable; usually compressed and with a 
dorsal bristle, bare or plumose, but sometimes instead of bearing a dorsal 
arista, the third joint tapers off into a terminal style. Eyes bare or pilose, 
usually contiguous in the male between antennae and ocelli; ocelli always 
present, three in number. Thorax moderately large, barrel shaped, with 
a large scutellum. Tegulae of moderate si/.e. Abdomen varies from 
slender and linear to clubbed, or short, broadly oval, and flattened; of 
five or six, rarely four visible segments. Legs usually weak, sometimes 
strong; the hind femora, especially, often moderately or much thickened. 
Bristles ( macrochaetae) almost always wanting, the bod\- either bare, 
thinl>- pilose, or clothed with thick pile. Wings comparatively large; 
third longitudinal vein (cubitus) never forked; fourth longitudinal vein 
terminates in the third; three ]>osterior cells; anal cells close before the 
border of the wing; basal cells large; behveen the third aud fourth lonoi- 
tudi)ial vents and iicctrly fyantllcl r,'//// Ihcui there is a false or spurious vein, 


nearly always present and characteristic of the family. The post-alar 
membrane, or squamae, with peculiarh^- formed, forked, and fan-like cilia- 
tion; and the plumula (an elongated, fringed, filament-like projection 
from the upper margin of the pteropleurae beneath the squamae ) are 
peculiar to the Syrphidae. 

The mouth-parts of the adults (vSee Plate VIII, Figs. 153-7) ^^ ^^ot 
seem particularly well adapted either for lapping up nectar or for the 
prehension or ingestion of pollen grains. The labrum-hypopharynx is 
somewhat lancet-like as though it might serve for piercing plant or an- 
imal tissues (See Fig. 156). But such a habit is known at the most for 
onl}^ a single species (See p. 35); while an examination of stomach con- 
tents has indicated hone}' and pollen-grains in abundance. The oral 
opening is large, the proboscis usually short and, when at rest concealed 
within the mouth. The maxillae (Plate VIII, Fig. 154) show a blade- 
like maxillary lobe and bear a somewhat flexuous, one-jointed palpus. 
The labium is short, cylindrical, unfolding in a hinge-like manner, ex- 
panded at the tip into a bilobed labellum or lapping tongue provided with 
tracheae (Plate VIII, Fig. 153). The whole acts like a sponge, the nectar 
rising by capillar}^ attraction. The antennae of the adults bear remark- 
ably complex and S57mmetrical olfactory pits indicating that this sense is 
well developed. These pits (See Plate VIII, Fig. 160, 161) are open and 
their walls are lined by a large number of olfactory pegs or perceptory 
end organs which send nerve fibres in to the central ganglia. 

While the colors are various, the species of this family are charac- 
teristically marked with j^ellow, in spots, bands, or stripes, on head or 
thorax, but particularly on the abdomen. Many of them resemble 
Hyme7ioptera and are to be found about flowers, hovering in the air like 
hummingbirds, or crawling about over the blossoms in search of nectar 
and pollen. 

The one character by which anyone can distinguish Syrphidae from 
all other flies is the so-called "false or spurious vein" which is a thread- 
like thickening of the wing- membrane, between the third and fourth 
longitudinal veins and running thru the anterior cross-vein, (Plate VIII, 
Fig. 151 j. It has the general apperance of a vein but is not so clear- 
cut nor so deep in color and its outer end, at least, is free. It is present 
in all but a very few Syrphidae and not found in the members of any 
other family. 

Secondary .sexual characters occur on head, legs and abdomen, and 
are absent from the thorax and wing. None of them seem to be charac- 
teristic of this family. Many are of as generic characters. 


Most of the males are holoptic. In a few genera {Microdon, Chal- 
comyia, Triodonta, Mallota, Helophihis) the males are dichoptic; but 
even then the front is different, always narrower and forming some an- 
gularity with the eyes, in the male, broader and with the margins straight 
in the female. 

In the legs are found the most important secondary sexual charac- 
ters; it is the male legs which are modified. Some of these specializations 
are probably of value as seizing or clasping organs during copulation, 
and hence, unlike most of the others, present some evident utility. The 
front pair are modified in a few cases (notabaly Platychirus) ; the middle 
ones rarely; the hind ones most extensively. 

In coloration and vestiture there are very frequent secondary sexual 
differences. In general, where there is any difference, the male is more 
strongly or brightly colored, though the females are by no means somber 
in this family. The male is also frequently more strongly or thickly 


In adult Syrphidac one finds a great variety of characters peculiar to 
genera and species and hence available for the purpose of bringing related 
forms together. Apparently the most fundamental are those of the wing. 
The various features of the head are of constant service. The legs 
present a number of excellent characters. The abdomen (shape and 
especially color pattern ) has constantly to be drawn upon for specific 
characters. While in not a few cases the thoracic features are of value. 

The characters of the neuration of the wing are especiall>- constant 
and reliable and have been extensively used. The position of the cross- 
veins, and the shape, curvature and termination of the second, third and 
sixth longitudinal veins, are of fundamental value; while the size and 
shape of certain cells can often be used to advantage in the separation of 
closel}' allied forms. 

Probably more characters are derived from the head than from all 
other parts of the body. Characters of the anteimae, of the front and 
face, and of the eyes are all much used. 

The antennae as a whole may be elongate or short: the third seg- 
ment varies much in size and shape, ma>- bear a st>le or an arista, and 
the arista varies in position and in vestiture. from bare to pubescent, 
pilose, or plumose. Williston notes that species with elongate antennae 
are not very active in habits. On the front and face are to be noted 
length, breadth, projections, wrinkles and grooves. The size and shape 


of the eyes, their pilosity and the size of the facets are somewhat 
unstable, but often useful characters. 

From the thorax we occasionall}^ get characters in the shape or 
ornamentation of the scutellum. In the legs, length, thickness of special 
parts, vestiture, peculiar spines, etc., are of value, though often confined 
to males only. In the abdomen, shape, flattening, length, width and 
de])ression, and occasionally peculiarities of certain segments and of the 
hypopygium, are to be considered. Williston makes the interesting 
observation that the species with slender abdomen are quickest on the 
wing, the short, thick-set ones never soaring but commonl}- resting on 
flowers and leaves. 

Color-markings are very extensively used in this family- both as 
specific and as generic characters. In some genera they are very reli- 
able, in others practically worthless. In general it is best not to rely 
upon them unless coupled with definite structural characters. 

Macrochaetae are conspicuously rare in this family, and hence the 
vestiture is of decidedh' secondar}- importance. A few genera have 
bristles; elsewhere the only characters are relative density- or .scarcity of 
pile or pube.scence; or the pollenosit}' of special parts. 

The adult insects of many .species have .several periods of common 
occurrence each .sea.son. Little can be said in a general way about 
dates. We have been much surprised to find how early in vSpring, adult 
Syrphids maybe taken. In 1910 and 191 1 a number of species were 
taken the last few days in March and the first of April about blo.ssoming 
Willow {Salix sp). Some species are probably active as soon as the first 
flowers bloom in .spring, and .some are to be found all summer long, and 
as late as November in autumn. 

I am not aware that there are any accurate observations as to the 
length of life of the adults. I found the Syrphidac did not thrive in cap- 
tivity, and though they could be kept alive for a short time on sweetened 
water, the}- were very readily killed b}' adverse conditions. Buckton, 
however, relates an instance in which a decapitated Eristalis tcnax lived 
for three days and nights on a microscope-.stage. Certain observations 
lead me to believe that the adults do not ordinarily the winter. 

In consideration of the very remarkable divergence of larval habits it 
is suprising to find that the adults almost all have the same, or very similar, 
habits of life. Larvae which are predaceous, phytophagous, aquatic, or 
live in the foulest of excrement, all transform to adults which are char- 
acteristically attracted by two things, viz., flowers and sunshine. Not 
many kinds of images will be taken away from flowers and not man}- are 



active on dull days. But, given a warm bright day and fragrant mellifer- 
ous flowers, and many species, especially of Syrphiiiac and /'j-/stalinaen\2iy 
often be taken in a short time. In fact the great majority of species, so 
far as we know, are dependent on honey and pollen for food. Some, how- 
ever, as the Chilosini, Xy/ota, Chrysogaster, Neoascia, do not so much ap- 
pear in the open about flowers, but are to be looked for among the foli- 
age of low bushes, in damp ])laces, or in low meadowy woods. Species 
of Mesogramina can sometimes be taken in large numbers by beatino- 
grasses in woody meadows. 

It frequently happens that immense numbers of adults of one or sev- 
eral species emerge at about the same time; and this is doubtless responsi- 
ble for the records of "swarming" of species of Syrphidae. During the 
first Spring days one finds them about flowers in very great numl)ers, 
but the}- are said to swarm in the sunshine irrespective of feeding as an 

W. D. Hunter, Canad. Ento. XXVIII, 99, reports observing a male 
of Eristalis JJavipes sucking the substance of a small grasshopper, Chlocal- 
tiis curtipcnnis which was held in its grasp after the manner of many of 
the Asilidac. If this really indicates the predaceous habit, it is, so far as 
I can determine, an isolated example of divergence from the feeding habit 
mentioned above. 

If there are in nature such things as terrifying coloration and mimi- 
cry, we have among Syrphidae some excellent examples. Perhaps seven- 
ty-five per cent of these species, and a much greater percent of the individ- 
uals commonly seen, more or less closely resemble the popular idea of a 
wasp or bee; that is, they are brightly banded, transversely, with black 
and yellow on the abdomen, or are thickly pilose with the same colors. 
Resemblances in shape, also, are in a good many species very striking, 
and important in increasing the effect of similarity. I have been inter- 
ested in noticing how many people, when shown a collection of Syrphidae 
or a live specimen, at once pronounce them "bees" or express the belief 
that they can sting. Also in a class of elementary students in Iuitomolog_\- 
the percentage who at first place their Syrphid specimens among the 
Hymcnoptcra is very great. It is often rather difficult for one to tell 
whether a specimen flying about flowers is a Syrphid or a Hymenopteron. 
Now it is supposed that enemies of insects learn b}' experience to 
avoid those forms which are provided with stings or are in other ways 
distasteful or unpleasant to them. The more striking the recognition 
mark of such forms, the fewer the number of individuals that will be sacri- 


ficed in the acquiring of this experience. If any badge comes to stand gen- 
erally for an unpleasant experience, the species possessing it will be left 
unmolested, and so, to some extent, will be other forms though lacking 
in the unpleasant or distasteful quality, if they possess the same sort of 
markings. This will be true only so long as the distasteful form exceeds 
in individuals met with, the harmless form; and the greater the 
preponderance of mimicked individuals the better the protection of the 

Now it seems to us that the one badge, which, to the human eye at 
least, suggests the unpleasantness of a sting, is the black and yellow ab- 
dominal markings mentioned above. Is this not also true of the preda- 
ceous enemies of >S)v^///V/^(?' ;** If so, we have perhaps an explanation, or 
rather a utilitarian justification, for the existence of these resemblances. 

It should be stated that this resemblance in color, pattern, and form 
is given significance by the similarity in habit of many of the two groups. 
Both are to be found buzzing or hovering about flowers, especially in the 
sunlight, or crawling in and out of the blossoms. The casual observer 
never distinguishes many of the Syrphidae from the numerous and varied 
Hymenoptera always to be found about melliferous blossoms. 

Of course the most striking structural difference between these two 
groups is the presence of four wings in the bees, and only two in the flies. 
The structure of the mouth-parts is also very different. But these are by 
no means the most ready ways of distinguishing the two in the field. 
The Syjphidac have a distinctive manner of flying which has given them 
the name of "Hover-flies." They constantly poise or hover in the warm 
sunlight like a hummingbird. They remain suspended in the same 
position for a longer time than a bee, apparently without moving their 
body at.fill, and with wings beating so rapidly as to be practically invisible. 
Or the}^ dart away suddenly, seeming to keep the body always in a tense 
horizontal position. In the case of a bee there is habitually more or less 
weaving back and forth of the body and bobbing up and down. 

This is one of the ready means of distinguishing these insects in the 
field. Again the long, elbowed antennae of a bee are comparatively 
conspicuous when it is in flight; while, of course, the short ones of the 
great majority of the Syrphidae are not visible at a little distance. 
Another thing worth noticing is that when at rest on flower or leaf, 
the Syrpln'd W\\\ frequently keep its wings half spread, read>- for flight; 
while those of the bee are closelj' folded or crossed over at the tips. 

A few of the best cases of protective mimicry might be mentioned. 
That of the drone-fly, or chrysanthemum fly, Eristalis teriax, is known 


to everyone. This species in general color and size, in proportion of 

head to thorax to abdomen, in vestiture, in size and proportion of the 

wings, and distinctness of the veins, in manner of buzzing about flowers; 

in fact, in almost every respect except the length of the antennae, is a 

striking mimic of the honey bee (Apis meUifcra), especially of the drone. 

A few other of the more striking resemblances may be named: 

Temnostoma alternans to J^espa diabolica, the yellow jacket; Spiloniyia 

fusca to W'spa maculata, the bald-faced hornet; Volucella evecta and Eris- 

talis flavipes\.o Bombus spp. bumblebees; and Ceria abbreviata to Odyneriis 

philadelphiae . The list might be extended to considerable length b)^ 

a comparison of numerous specimens from the two groups. 

Some of the species of the Genus Vohicella resemble, in the adult 
stage, certain bees and wasps; and the larvae of several species are known 
to live in the nests of the large Aculeate Hynienoptera, especially in Europe. 
It has long been supposed that the larvae lived on the immature bees in 
the nest and that the resemblance was of great significance in enabling the 
parent flies to enter the nests of the bees for the purpose of oviposition 
without being detected and antagonized. Folsom and others refer to 
this as an instance of Aggressive Mimicry which has resulted from the 
action of natural selection. This seems however not to be founded on 
observed facts. The larvae live in the bees' nests, and the adults, which 
resemble the bees, enter the nests to la}- their eggs. In doing this they 
met with no resistance in the cases observed. Erne who watched the 
Volj(ccl/a larvae in the nests, thought they acted as scavengers, eating the 
waste and excrement of the larvae. Sharp, who kept some of the larvae 
under observation, found that they .starved without eating the honey, or 
the larvae and pupae of Bombus, which were provided for them; that 
they did not attack the pupae of wasps in the comb; but that when a pupa 
of the wasps was broken in two, they attacked it eagerly. 

We must therefore believe that larvae live on either excrementi- 
tious matter or on pupae which have recently died, thus preventing the 
contamination of the; and hence that, however the resemblance of the 
adults to the bees is to be explained, it is not now aggressive mimicry. Is 
the theory not barely tenable, however, that the habits represented by 
Volucella and Microdon (though not now predaceous) have been deri\-ed 
from a true predatism by a s])ecialization in which they began to eat the 
injured, or dead, or more or less putrified bodies of larvae and pujiae, and 
excrementitious matter in the nest, rather than the living young? If we 
could hold to this view we would have an explanation of the excellent 


cases of niimicr}' by W^/iiccIla s]ip. of the host bees in whose nests their 
larvae hve. The resemblance thus established by natural selection would 
continue, bitt with the change of larval habit might come to stand as a 
badge of friendship for the bees. Natural selection might operate to 
perfect a resemblance so established, in the manner accredited to ordi- 
nary protective mimicry. (See also pp. 40, 47.) 


The metamorphoses of the Syrphidac are still very imperfectly known. 
This important field has merely been touched upon by isolated workers 
in Europe and in North America. What little has been done is sufficient 
to prove that (unlike the adults) an exceedingly interesting and remark- 
able diversity of habit exists, in the larval stage, among the different 
genera and species. 

Williston (1886; gave eight distinct classes of larval habits and cited 
a few genera as known to him to each class. What follows is an attempt 
to list, in tabular and evolutionary form, our present knowledge of larval 
habits; it is based on Williston's classification and for many of the 
additional notes I am indebted to Verrall. 

From a consideration of the various larval habits in this famil}^ and 
what we know of the habits of man}', much more primitive, less special- 
ized larvae in other groups, it seems likely to me that all the habits here 
represented have been derived from an ancestral condition in which larvae 
with mandibulate mouth-parts lived externally on the surface of vegeta- 
tion of one kind or another, eating parts of the leaves or other plant tissue. 
(See Fig. C. p. 41 ). This habit may have been largely given up either 
before or after the group differentiated into what we would recognize as 

At the present time the habit is represented, so far as has been 
described, only by Mcsogramma polita which feeds externally on the 
succulent cells of corn {Zea niavs) especially in the region of the leaf- 
sheathes or on the pollen. (See p. 46.) 

I. Larvae living externally on plants and feeding either on the ordinary surface 
cells or on the specialized pollen grains; Mesogramuia polita. 

This I believe to be the most primitive larval habit so far discovered. Verrall 
apparently considers this habit a specialized one, derived from the aphidophagons 
habit, to which the larvae are supposed to have been driven by the exhaustion of the 
supply af aphids. To me, this does not seem likely but rather, conversely, that the 
aphidophagons habit has been derived from the more primitive, phytophagous one, 
which is still followed by many of our most primitive larvae in other groups. From 
feeding externally on plant tissue it is a perfectly natural step to what I would make 
the second group. 


II. Larvae living within, and dciivino their food from— 

(A) "The stems of plants such as Sonchns, Scrophularia, 
Rlatricaria; genus Chilosia;'' 

(B) /;/ r(?r//.- genus I'olncella; 

(C) /// bulbs, as of Narcissus and Amaryllus: genus Merodon; or of onion: 

genus Eumerus; 

(D) In fungi {as Boletus edulis):^Qn^ra Chilosia, Platychirus. 

Species which could feed successfully in this manner, especially those in fungi 
lead very naturally to the third group. This group cannot be strictly separated froui 
the succeeding one and the two might be combined. But the two lists of genera 
exemplifying these habits, as divided, are very distinct; and further this third group 
makes a very perfect and illuminating step in this line of evolution of larval habits. 

III. Larvae living — 

(A) In decaying wood or trees, some of them ^'rat-taitedr' genera, Malloia 

Sptlomyia, Xylota, Brachypalpus, Pocota, Myiolepta, Chrysotoxum; or 

(B) In sap flowing from injured or diseased trees: genersi, Brachyopa, Cht'vso- 

chlamys, Xylota, Ceria, Chrysotoxum, Myiolepta.^ 

(C) Bred from larvae found under bark of oak: genus Crioprora (by Osten 

Sacken); o/ cotton-tree: genus Xanthogramma (in Riley's collection). 
This habit is almost continuous with the fourth. 

IV. Larvae living in decaying vegetable ur animal matter; in heaps of turf in 

soft mud containing vegetable matter; in manure or foul excrement- even 
reported to have been passed from the human alimentary canal; in putrid 
stagnant ivater; or even in zvaternig troughs, luells, etc., ivherethe ivater is 
not conspicuously contaminated: genera, Platychirus, Eristalis, Helophilus 
Crwrhtna, Syritta, Orthoneura, Chrysogaster, Xanthogramma, Sericomyia 
RJnngta. ' 

It is possible that this group might be considered as derived from its aquatic mem- 
bers, thru a stage in which they lived within the stems of aquatic plants- but the line 
of evolution suggested above is the more probable since it leads gradually to the 
aquatic forms which are most specialized structurally. 

The question arises whether this group is a unit, structurally. Some of the mem- 
bers are certainly "rat-tailed." But, according to Williston, Platychi rushes this habit 
and the larvae of Platychirus spp. are structurally of the same form as the aphido- 
phagous species. 

Groups II to IV clearly represent one, more or less continous line of evolution 
from the primitive phytophagous habit. Another line of specialization from the 
same original habitat is shown by those members of the group which have taken up 
the predaceous habit. 

V. (A) Larvae predaceous on soft-bodied insects living in colonies, especially 
plant-lice (Aphididae); but also feeding on nymphs of/assidae, Aleyrodi- 
dae and Membracidae; on adults of Musca domestica and Chortophila 
pusilla; and even on larvae of other species of Syrphidae: genera, 
Baccha, Sphaerophoria, Pipiza, Paragus, Didea, Allograpta, Melano- 
stoma, Syrphus and Catabomba . Paragus and .lllograpta are, I believe, 
added to this list for the first time, by the present studies. (See Part 
II.PP-53. 54, S-'^O 
Syr p. 4 


It seems liekly that the usual and preferable food of these species is Aphids, and 
that these other cases are largely exceptional and due to the absence of their accus- 
tomed food. 

An interesting specialization of this habit, which so far as I know, has not been 
previously reported, in which the aphidophagous larvae live, not on the exposed sur- 
face of the host-plant but enclosed in galls, makes a sub-division of this group. 

V. (B) Larvae predaceous on the gall-inaking ap/iids, Pe>nphigiis ami Colopha 
a>id living cvithin their galls; Syrphus xanthostovius and another 
species, at the time of this writing undetermined. 

When I had studied these larvae for a little time and noted their sluggishness I 
was struck with the probability that they were on the road to degeneration and possibly 
to true parasitism. In view of this conviction it was with much satisfaction that I 
noted the report of larval habits which I embrace in the third sub-division of this 

V. (C) Larvae said to have been bred fi out pupae of species of Plusia (Ento. 

Month. Mag. XXXIV, 244.): Lasiophthicus (Scaeva, Catabomba) 

If this report be authentic the larval habits of Syrphidae will take on additional 
interest as presenting a most instructive and perfect series, leading from free-living, 
phytophagous forms thru facultative and obligate predatism on individuals (or 
parasitism on the colony) to a condition of true internal parasitism on the individual. 
Aldrich (Catalog N. A. Diptera, p. 363) considers this an error and states that he has 
reared the species from larvae feeding on the grain aphis, Siphonophora avenae. 
The original article by E. N. Bloomfield is as follows "Last Autumn I received from a 
friend, a cripple specimen of Cataboinba pyrastri, L. which he had bred from a pupa 
of Plusia iota; and this summer he sent me from Southwold, several larvae (most 
probably Plusia gamma), asking if I could tell him what they were. Two or three 
at once spun up, and became pupae, and to my surprise in about a fortnight two 
specimens of C. pyrastri were disclosed; the empty pupae cases giving indubitable 
proofs that they had proceeded from them." 

I have a puparium of this species from California from which it can be seen that 
the larva is essentially similar to aphidophagous larvae. 

VI. Larvae living in the nest of colonial insects, chiefly Hyinenoptera: 

(A) Of the large Aculeate Hyinenoptera (Bombus, I'espa): genus Volucella. 
These larvae were formerly reported as parasitic on the immature Hymenoptera 

but it now seems certain that their relation is rather that of scavengers. (See pp. 37- 
38) (Verrall makes a second division here of those larvae living in the nests of small- 
er Aculeate Hymenoptera. He states that he has no evidence to support this group 
but strongly suspects Eumerus and Paragus. As the present studies have shown that 
this suspicion is unfounded so far as /^aro^//^ is concerned the group may be omitted, 
pending definite evidence.) 

(B) Of ants (Formica, etc.) primarily, but also of termites and zvasps; genus 
Microdon . 

Adlerz believed that the larvae of M. mutabilis feed on the moist pine 
wood thru which the galleries run. Wheeler, however, found that the young larvae 
shrivel and die when removed from the ants; which may indicate that their food 
supply is inseparably connected with the ants. Wheeler, indeed, believed "that it is 
the minute pellets of food, which after their moisture has been extracted, are ejected 
from the hypopharyngeal pockets of the worker ants. These pellets are scattered 

, Y-C.L,Qnrae said to 
liue parositicaliu wlttim 
pupde oj Plusitt SPP. 


■nests o!^ \jets and w(J6^s 

«arv<xe acyjia^ic or sewv 
awmol or vege^atle. nvo.^'Cev 

llI'Laruae l\\nn£ m decajjmo vuood. 
or \n sa^ ^roxtv^rees or uuderbix.rK- 

, Y^B-Lccruafc apHiitpKaQous 
'. m apV\A gaWft. "^ 

Y"Ti. Larvae aoKvcUpVixqous 
ovv ex^oaei ^\aw^ sur^cxces. 

In a<^uLa^\t 

11-La.Tuae \\uwfl vj\^\t\ nWuVi 
the \.\ss\Le3 o\ vuVwcK \,Ve.u <ievo\ 

\.Ve.\^ AevouT 

1. Larvoe Uving exWnolVij 
^eftA\na on ^o\\eno.«v.i 1S.«,6ues o^ corn . 


/'' Hwo11\e^ca\ , exfertuiiUiij-lwnj , 

Vv^. ('. Talilc ol' larval haliils 


about the nest, especially about tlie superficial galleries and though hard and dry, must 
contain considerable initriinent. They are probably eaten not only by the Microdou 
larvae but also by many other Synoeketes." 

It seems possible that this habit might have been derived in several ways. (See 
Fig. C.) On page 37 the idea is suggested that it might have arisen from a former habit 
of preying on the immature of the nests, and, if so, would be related to the aphidoph- 
agous group. The question arises whether there might be any significance in the fact 
that the ants are so constantly associated with aphids and so, incidentally, with the 
aphidophagous vSyrphid larvae. This might have afforded the original opportunity 
for the entrance of Syrphid larvae to the ant-nest. 

On the other hand it seems probable that this group may have been derived from 
the non-rat-tailed portion of Group IV. That is, from living on decaying vegetable 
and animal matter, the larvae may have changed to eating waste materials in the nests of 
Hymenoptera. There would be an especially natural step from Group III in the case of 
3IicrodoH, if these larvae are found to live on the wood in any case. And it will be 
remembered that Adlerz from observations in Sweden concluded whether rightly or not 
that the larvae live on the moist and tender wood forming the walls of the ant galler- 
ies in pine stumps, although they were also found in burrows in the dry bark. 



According to the above outline of larval habits the following are the 
principal biologic, ecologic and economic relations which would arise: 
( i) To the insects (chiefly aphids) on which certain species prey. 

(2) To the plants on which their prey is feeding, and on which they are conse- 

quently found. 

(3) To the other insects which are concerned in such associations as aphid colo- 

nies and aphid galls. 

(4) To their own (Hymenopterous) parasites. 

(5) To plants on which certain larvae feed. 

(6) To plants within the tissues of which certain larvae live. 

(7) As scavengers. 

(8) To such colonial insects as ants and bumblebees in the nests of which cer- 

tain species live. 

(9) To the predaceous enemies of both the terrestrial and aquatic forms. 

(10) If the report be true, to those insects on which the larvae live as internal 
( I ) This first relation is in the nature of a predatism on small 
insects, chiefly colonial Homoptcra such as Aphididac and to some extent 
/assidae, Aleyrodidac and Mcmbracidae. It may also in some cases be 
considered obligate parasitism on the colonies. These forms are depend- 
ent on one or another kind of small, soft-bodied insect for their food. 

My own studies have determined eight species of Syrphidae with the 
aphidophagous habit in the State. The larger number of are verj' 
common. Some as Didea fasciata and Syrphiis xanthostornus, are appar- 



ently very closely restricted to one species of prey. Others, notably 
Syrphus ainericamis, Sphaeropnoria cylindrica and Allograpta obliqiia are 
found on a variety of plants preying upon at least several species of apliids 
or other insects, even attacking larvae of other species of Syrphidac. 
By the species which I have studied, perhaps the greatest benefit is being 
wrought by the destruction of vast numbers of cabbage aphis (Aphis 
brassicae), although that arising from the destruction of such insects as 
the European Grain Aphis, (Siphocoryne avcnae) Longistigma, Pemphigus, 
Colopha, etc., is not b}" any means to be despised. 

They kill the individual at once; but the colony may exist for a con- 
siderable time, replacing those lost or even increasing its number by 
reproduction. Sometimes the colony is entirely exterminated by the rav- 
ages of the Syrphidae. There seems to be a sufficient margin between the 
amount of food which the larva must have to successful!}^ accomplish 
pupation, and the larger amount which may be taken and stored as surplus 
fat, to make the extermination of the host-colony possible in some cases, 
without the loss of the Syrphidae. Theoretically under these conditions 
the complete extermination of aphids might result. 

Several larvae of one species and frequently two or three species are 
often to be found in a single aphid colony. Hardly one colony in five 
will be examined which does not have in its midst one or more larvae. 

"In order to determine something of the capacity of these insects for 
devouring plant lice and hence their degree of economic importance, I tried 
feeding the larvae of Svrphus aniericanus on cabbage aphids (Aphis 
brassicae Linn, j) The aphids were touched to the mouth of a larva which 
had not been kept from food. A four-day-old larva devoured the first 
aphid in 4.5 minutes, a second, third, fourth, and fifth, smaller than the 
first, in 2, 1, i, and 0.5 minutes respectively. The .sixth, a larger one, 
was retained for 3 . 25 minutes. These were very thoroughly eaten, all the 
viscera and body fluids being picked and sucked out. After this the lice 
tendered were not eaten so closely, but killed, a seventh in 2 minutes, an 
eight in i . 75 minutes, and a ninth in 1.5 minutes. On another occasion 
the same test was made with an older larva which devoured a dozen or 
two before my patience became exhausted. The tests were sufficient to 
establish the voraciousness of the appetites of larvae. 

"It is, of course, not probable that any larva would ever normally 
devour aphids so rapidly. Yet when plenty are at hand the number eaten 
by a larva during its life of eight days to two weeks or more be 
very considerable. It should be kept in mind also that it is not the ac- 
tual individuals eaten, alone, that determines the amount of benefit from 


these insects; but the fact that in this way the production of enormous 
numbers ofaphids is prevented. If, as Reaumour has calculated, and others 
have substantiated, one aphid may be the progenitor of over 5,000,000,000 
individuals during her existence of a month or six weeks, we can see 
at once the important benefit that must arise from the destruction of one 
or two of these aphids early in the establishment of the colony. It is a 
fact that the eggs of Syrphidae are often deposited on the host-plant very 
early or even in anticipation of the arrival of the aphids."* 

Assuming an equally voracious appetite, or anything like it, for the 
hundreds of larvae of this and other species with the same habit to be 
found on any ordinary farm, it is easy to see that here we have a very 
important check for the enormous rate of reproduction among plant-lice. 

(2) The aphidophagous larvae of Syrphidae doubtless often save the 
life of the plants on which their prey lives. Aphids with their enormous 
rate of reproduction can easily cause the death of their host-plants, espe- 
cially if infection is begun early. The vSyrphids, if the}' do not extermi- 
nate the aphid colon\-, often check them sufficiently to allow the host- 
plant to continue growth to maturity. 

A nice balance must exist here between these three organisms. If the 
Syrphids are to mature, a sufficient number of aphids must be produced. 
But if too many aphids are produced, the host-plant may be killed, the 
aphids, and in turn the Syrphids, exterminated or forced to migrate to 
another plant. It seems possible that the habit of the adults of aphidoph- 
agous species of scattering their eggs, ma}^ be of importance here, in that too 
many Syrphids are kept from preying on a single aphid colon}^, in which 
case the available food would be exhausted before an}- of them reached 

In many cases there must be a nice adaption of the life-cycle of 
the Syrphid to the length of the life of the aphid colony. Many aphids 
spend only a certain part of the year on one host-plant and then mi- 
grate by certain individuals to other plants. Migration of the larvae 
to any distance is out of the question, and apparently in some cases 
natural selection has worked out the proper length of life of the larval 
stage to meet requirements. 

The life-cycle must be begun at the proper time on the right hosts as 
well. Eggs for the first spring generation of Syrphus amcricaniis are 
deposited, among other places, on leaves and twigs of apple at blo.s.som- 
ing time; where are already developing colonies of the European Grain 
Aphis. The adults are attracted about the trees, on the blos.soms of which 

•The Author, Ohiu yaliintlisl, Volume XII, Number 5, pp. 481, 4S2, March 1912. 


the}^ feed, and oviposition takes place at the same time. Not so easy 
of explanation, however, is the deposition of eggs on s^xamore trees, by 
Didea fasciata , early in autumn in anticipation of infestation by Longis- 
tigma caryac; or of the eggs of Syrp/ins americanus early in mid-summer 
on Phragmitcs which becomes very badly infested with aphids; or of the 
several species on cabbage before aphids are present. In these cases there 
are no blossoms for the attraction of the adults and the explanation must 
fall to some tropism not connected with the feeding habits. 

It should not be overlooked that in certain cases these larv^ae destroy 
aphids on injurious or noxious weeds (docks, thistles etc) . This, although 
apparently a detriment, may very well be considered a safeguard against 
too great increase of au)^ species of Aphididae. In some cases these are 
plant-lice which also attack garden and field-crops. In others where this 
is not known to be true, a change of food-plant for the aphid, with 
increase in numbers, is entireh^ possible. Aphids in general are such 
injurious insects that any of their enemies ma}- pretty safely be welcomed 
as friends of the agriculturist. Hymenopterous parasites destroy vast 
numbers, but it is the author's belief that Syrphid larvae are a more 
important enemy of these pests than are the Hymenopterous parasites. 

^3) The complex ecological relations which must exist in any colony 
of aphids, and especially' in the aphid-galls such as those of Ponphigus, 
are worthy of careful study. 

First, there are in such colonies, the plant- lice which artj phytopha- 
gous. Second, the ever present ants which derive sustenance from the 
secretions or excretions of the aphids. So constant is their association with 
the aphids that they were often of value in leading me to discover some 
of the more obscure colonies of the latter. Their relations with the ajihids 
is of a friendly nature, that to the host-plant, neutral. Third, the larvae 
of Syrphidae are almost always present, preying on the aphids, killing 
large numbers of them, and sometimes exterminating the colony. These 
are benefactors of the host-plant. They are indirectly inimical to the ants; 
yet I have never observed the slightest antagonism of ants toward them. 
Fourth, Hymenopterous parasites of the aphids (especially Chalcididae) 
are rarely absent from any colon}' of the aphids. These are, of course, ene- 
mies of the aphids and so, indirectly, of both the ants Q.r\d Syrphidae, and 
friendly to the host-plant. Probably the larvae of the Syrphidae devowr 
some of the aphids which are already parasitized by the Chalcididae, espe- 
cialh- those containing only eggs or young larvae of the parasite. If this 
does happen it makes the Syrphidae b\- so much disadvantageous to man. 
The aphid would, of course, be killed as effectually as it could be by the 


Hvmoioptcrou; but with it would also be destroyed the parasitic Hy?ne7i- 
optcron, thus checking by so much the perpetuation of these valuable 
insects. If this happens it would also make the Syrphidac decidedly inim- 
ical to these Chalcididae and so, paradoxically, beneficial to the aphids 
and ants. Fifth, lady-bird beetles ( CoccincUidac) are usually present in 
the aphid colonies, preying on the aphids. These would have practically 
the same relation as the larvae of Syrphidae; that is, hostile to the aphids 
and indirectly so to the ants, the Syrphidac, -zxidi the "p^iXdisiiic Hymmoptera , 
friendly to the host-plant. Sixth, "Aphis-lions" the larvae of "lace- 
w' inged or golden-eyed flies' ' {Hemerobiidac) are very frequent visitors to 
such aphid colonies, and they, too, prey on the aphids. Their relations 
would be the same as for the CoccincUidac, and in addition they could be 
considered hostile to the interests of those species. Seventh, spiders are 
frequently present, especially in the aphid-galls. Their exact relations 
were not studied but they doubtless prey on some of the insects, and they 
often nest in the empt}^ pupa cases of the ►S)';7!>/^/«'<a;^. Eighth, L,epidopter- 
ous larvae and a number of other creatures of undetermined species and 
uncertain relations were also taken in the Pemphigus galls. 

(4) Hymenopterous parasites of the larvae of Syrphidac themselves 
are present. These are fully discussed under the heading of "Enemies' ' pp. 
50. 51- 

(5) Not many larvae are known to feed externally on plant-tissues. 
Mcsogranima polita is the one conspicuous case and this species, while 
wide spread, has excited alarm by the feeding habits of its larvae in only 
a few cases and a few localities. Either they do not often attack corn in 
large numbers (their larvae probably having other food-plants) or else 
their attacks pass unnoticed. When the larvae are abundant, the injury 
is said to be very serious. They feed on the saccharine cells at the base 
of the leaf-sheaths, causing a wilting and browning of the leaf said to 
resemble the injury resulting from the attacks of chinch bugs. The lar- 
vae also eat the pollen grains in the "tassel." While pollen production in 
most plants, and in corn, is a lavish one and much of it could be lost with- 
out detriment, yet with great increase in numbers of the larvae it is easy 
to see how they might become a serious pest of this important crop, b}' 
interfering with the formation of the grain, to which fertilization is essen- 
tial. Furthermore this injury might be serious and not noticed until they 
had done irreparable damage. 

The aquatic larv^ae oi Hclophi/iis A?///';(V/.s- were believed by Dr. Morrey 
to feed on Confervac or Algae. (See pp. 70, 71.) 


(6) The larvae which Hve in the tissues of many plants must seem- 
ingly interfere more or less with the normal functions of the plant-body. 
In some cases they clearly destroy the plant or advance decay, as in cacti. 
The economic status of the insect in such cases will depend entirely on that 
of the plants attacked; if it be an obnoxious weed it would result benefi- 
cally; if in bulbs such as A^arn'ss7{s, Aiiiajyllis and onion, which are exten- 
sively destroyed in Europe at times, the larvae may become very serious 
pests. Injury to many other plants may for all practical purposes be con- 
sidered of no economic importance. 

(7) In this relation the larvae must be accorded whatever degree of 
importance ordinarily attaches to that scattered group of animals which, 
by feeding upon decaying organic matter, reduce it to a condition in which 
it can be more readily assimilated by plants; and at the same time often 
help to remove materials which may be a menace to health. 

Perhaps this is a suitable place to mention a report, which has so 
often been given on authority which ought not to be questioned, that it 
must seemingly be given credence. It is to the effect that the larvae of 
En'sfalis spp. have been passed alive from the human alimentary canal. 
"Professor Riley mentioned the sending of E. dimidiatiis in the larval 
state by Dr. Compton, of Indiana, who stated that they were passed from 
the bowels of a young woman ; also the recent sending of larvae of JL 
tenax by Dr. J. A. Lintner to whom they had been sent as having been 
obtained under similar circumstances." — Lis. Lift\ II, 161, 162. 

These larvae are very tenacious of life. Buckton relates that larvae 
accidently introduced thru the water of some pulp in a paper-mill, sur- 
vived the pressure of beaters or rollers u.sed in the manufacture of paper. 
Gradual immunity to the digestive secretions might be acquired by lixing 
in human excrement, where they are commonly found, and so, when 
accidentally swallowed in drinking water, the larvae would be able to with- 
stand passage thru the stomach and intestines. Is it not possible that, 
gradually, larvae so introduced might take U]) the parasitic habit in man ? 

Osten Sacken has published an exhaustive study dealing with the 
ancient superstitions about the spontaneous production and artificial 
breeding of bees, from the carcasses of oxen. He believes that the oxen- 
born bees, Biii>onia of the Ancients, were the flies, En'staiis tc)ia.\\ and 
that the superstitions because of the occasional breeding of these 
flies in decaying and their re.semblance to bees. 

(8) The relation of the larvae of VoluccUa and Microdon to the 
Hymenoptera in whose nests they liv'e, has l)cen rather fully di.scu.ssed 


above (See pp. 37-40). I would simply add here the following note 
from Wheeler, Psyche, July, 191 1: 

"The occurrence of such bulky and defenseless Dipteron larvae in the 
nests of large-eyed active ants like the Pseudomyrmas, which are, more- 
over, provided with powerful stings, is nearly as surprising as their occur- 
rence in the nests of I'espa.'' 

(9) I have no data to give on this relation. It seems however, 
scarcely possible that such succulent creatures as the larvae of Syrphidae 
would not be picked up by birds for food. The aquatic larvae might be 
attacked by predaceous animals but many of the media in which they thrive 
are of such an offensive nature as to repel many animals. 

( 10 ) The report on which this division is founded is cited on page 40. 



Relations to Plants. Adult Syrphidae, so far as we know, are 
almost all dependent upon the products, nectar and pollen, of the flowers 
of Spcrmatophyta for their food. In their visits to flowers for the purpose 
of feeding they inevitably carry about with them some of the pollen- 
grains to be shaken, brushed or scraped off in other flowers. In this way 
it is believed that various species of Syrphidae enter into an important 
relationship to many kinds of entomophilus plants. The importance of 
this relation will vary with the kinds of plants visited, the adaptation of 
the body of the fly which can carry pollen, the feeding habits of the fl}', 
and so forth. 

All of these points are deserving of much careful study but accurate 
data seem largely to be wanting. To the ordinary observer it would seem 
that Syrphidae visit all sorts of melliferous flowers indiscriminately; and 
this is no doubt true of many of them, perhaps all. If there are any 
cases of particular or specific interdependence of certain plants and certain 
Syrphidae, I am not aware of it. Adults of Mesogramma polita feed on 
pollen of corn (Ashmead). Mesogramma polita, Eristalis vineioruni and 
Baeeha fuscipciuiis were observed by Ashmead feeding on the pollen of cot- 
ton blossoms. A number of fruit trees, while in blossom, are regularly 
visited by these flies in goodly numbers. I would also call attention to two 
articles on"Insect Pollination at Cedar Point, "-'^ in which a dozen species 
of Syrphidae are recorded as visiting certain flowers. According to Dr. 
J. B. Smithf Erista/is fe)iax\s said to be entirely responsible for the pollen- 
izing of chrysanthemums in green-houses. 

♦The Ohio NaturnUM, Vol. XI, No. 8, Vol. XII, No. G. 
+Econ. Ent. 2nd. Ed. p. 348. 


On the bodies of these flies the vestiture is, I believe, responsible, 
almost exclusivel}', for the carrying of pollen. In this respect the species 
vary widely from almost bare to very densely' pilose, and, as pointed out 
by Dr. Smith (I. c), this vestiture is often composed of spurred and 
branched hairs (Plate VIII, Fig. 159). In general the more thickly 
pilose species carry more pollen. Many of such specimens in collections 
have the body thickly dusted with pollen grains. 

By the feeding habit of the fly I mean, whether it ordinarily visits 
flower after flower on the same plant, or flies more or less directly from 
one flower to another of the same kind on another plant. I have often 
noted individuals hovering about the same plant and feeding on flower 
after flower. If the other habit is followed in any case cross-fertilization 
would be much more apt to be secured. 

Relations to other Insects. The adults enter into no particularly close 
relations with other insects that I know of except with those Hymenop- 
tera which certain of them mimic. If the theory of protective mimicry 
has any real significance it must result in endangering by so much the 
mimicked form. That is, wdiile one predaceous enemy is learning from 
his attack on the fortified bee to avoid prey of that appearance, another 
may be experiencing a successful and pleasant attack on the defenseless 
fly of similar appearance. Thus the value of the warning mark to both 
bee and fly is lessened in direct proportion to the number of defenseless 
individuals bearing it. (See also pp. 35-37.) 

It is interesting to note the attitude of those Hymcnoptcra, in whose 
nests the larvae of Microdon and ]"oliicella live, tow^ard the adults of these 
flies. Volucclla, according to reports, meets with no resistance or antago- 
nism. The adults of Microdon, however, are treated with great animosity 
by the ants among which they spent their immature stages. The ants 
seize the teneral adults and lick them until the formic acid secreted b\- the 
ants kills the flies. Wheeler believes that the habit of the larvae of pupat- 
ing in the superficial galleries of the, and of the adults of emerging 
at night, when ants are more or less torpid, are adaptations to making it 
as as possible for the adult flies to escape. 

Relation to other Animals. It seems probal)lc that the adults of 
many species of Syrp/u'dac are a considerable source of food for insectivo- 
rous animals of all kinds, especially birds and Ami)hibians. The king-bird, 
phoebe and flicker are known to feed on liristalis tcua.w but I am not 
able to give much detailed data on this point. 



(i) The common milkweed (Asclepias s'p.) is a rather formidable 
enemy of adult Syrphidac. When the latter visit these flowers for the 
nectar their legs are caught by the peculiar and well known pollinia of 
this plant. In collections one finds a good many specimens with these 
pollinia clinging to their legs. But large numbers of the w^eaker-bodied 
Sjrphidae become permanently entrapped by the flowers: thus not only 
invalidating the remarkable specialization on the part of the flower, but 
resulting, after long and fruitless struggle, in the death of the fly. 

vSo common is this entrapment that I found it well worth while, when 
collecting, to visit these flowers. I have found as high as twenty indi- 
viduals entrapped on a single head. 

(2) The parasitic insects of the super-family IclDicuuionidac consti- 
tute a very serious enemy of Syrphidac, at least of the aphidophagous 
species. I have reared the species, Bassus lactatorius Fabr. from larvae 
^w^-^w^-A&oi Syrphus americanus, Syrphus torvus, Paragus hicolor, Paras^us 
tibialis, .lUograpta ob/iqua, and Sphacrophoria cylindrica. 

It occurs most abundantly in the different hosts from midsummer to 
late autumn. At times fully seventy-five per cent of the individuals col- 
lected were destroyed by this parasite. I have not reared it from speci- 
mens taken previous to July. 

"This parasite oviposits thru the body wall of the larvae, the eggs hatch and the 
larvae develop without preventing the formation of a more or less complete puparium 
by the host. Within the puparium the development of the larval parasite goes on at 
the expense of the Syrphid. The latter is entirely devoured and the parasitic larva 
reaches in size nearly the capacity of the puparium. Pupation then takes place and 
the adult emerges by gnawing a small irregular hole in the anterior end of the dipter- 
ous puparium, usually several weeks after pupation of the host. Only one parasite 
develops in each individual. 

"The larvae when full grown measure about 4 mm. in length by 1.8 mm. in 
height, by 2 mm. in width. They are plump, whitish, eruciform, ovate in outline; 
median segments largest, humped dorsally and with the posterior end smaller than 
the anterior. As the orientation is the same as that of the pupariinn it will 
be seen that the full grown larva fits very nicely, in size and shape, the puparium 
of the host. There are 14 body-segments clearly shown; the only conspicuous 
appendage is the U-or V-shaped, chitinous piece in the region of the mouth. 
Sketches of a larva and a pupa are given as Figures 58, 59, of Plate IV. 

"The adult may be easily recognized V)y the following description from G. C. 
Davis' 'A Monograph of the Tribe Bassini' (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XXII, p. 19, Feb. 
'95,) who also states that it is one of the most common and wide spread species in 
America: 'Female — length 6 mm. Head, thorax, base and tip of abdomen, hind tarsi, 
base and lower middle of hind tibiae, black; four anterior legs, posterior coxae, 
femora, and often tips of tibiae, tip of abdoujinal segment i, whole of 2 and 3 
and more or less of 4, rufous; anterior orbits, mouth, tegulae, spot in front, line 


beneath, cuneiform spots on mesonotum, scutellum, post-scut ell 11 m, and band on 
posterior tibiae white. Male — Differs only in having the face, scape beneath and a 
stripe on pleura, yellowish white." — The Author, Ohio Nat. Vol. XH, No. 5, March, 

The first indication of the presence of the parasite is usually a failure 
of the pupal envelope to inflate completely, remaining rounded up 
donsalh' and often with the anterior segments but little retracted ventrally. 
Very soon the pupa becomes darker in color than normal. 

"The following are the average dimensions of 15 puparia of SyrpJins 
ante ricaii lis from which Bassus laetatorius had emerged: length 6 mm., 
height 2.25 mm., wddth 2.45 mm. Compared with the dimensions of an 
equal number of unparasitized individuals as given below, (p. 55) it will 
be seen that are .slightly smaller in all dimensions than the normal 
ones, with a little more difference in height than in length or width. 
The difference in shape is more conspicuous than these figures would indi- 
cate (See Plate IV, Fig. 56 ) , and together with the difference in color makes 
them rather easy to distinguish when once the characteristics are learned." 

(3) The very widespread misbelief that adult 5i77!)///V/<f7c' are stinging 
insects is rather inimical to them. As mentioned in another place (p. 35) 
the great majority of non-entomological people when shown Syrphidae 
express the belief that they are bees. Many of the smaller species fre- 
quently alight on the hands or face, and I have often seen them ruthlessly 
killed under the impression that the\' are "sweat bees." 

Ashmead bred from the larvae oi Mesogramma polita "two parasites, 
acynipid {Solenaspis hyalinus Ashm.) and a chalcidid {Eucvrtus nicsooyap- 
/^r^-Ashm.)"— Ins. Life, VII, p. 326. 

Other enemies concerning which I have made no particular observa- 
tions are as follows: 

Hubbard (1885) gives the following interesting note on Syrphus-fly 
enemies: "Minute Chalcid parasites prey upon the Syrphus larva, {Baccha 
babista) and issue from the puparium in numbers varying from six to 
eighteen, thru a number of small holes which they gnaw in its top and sides. 
They are from i mm., to 2 mm. in length, and have the dark bronze and 
metallic colors with h3'aline and iridescent wings so common in this 
f amil}- ( Chalcididae) . ' ' 

Something might be done toward fostering and increasing the num- 
bers of these vahtable insects, if people generally, and especiall}- those 
engaged in agricultural purstiits, could be brought to .see that S\'?p/iidae 
are not stinging insects; and that both as larvae and adults, they are 
among our most valuable animal friends. 


Again, parasitized puparia may be destroyed before the parasite has 
had a chance to emerge. The characteristics b}" which these infested 
puparia may be recognized (see above) are such that they should be 
clear to anyone with a little experience. 

Other methods of favoring these insects in general farm-practise as, 
for example, by av^oiding them in spraying for aphids, etc., will suggest 
themselves to ever}' agriculturist. 

Part II. 


1. Body terminating in a long, flexible, rat-tail-like appendage (often longer than the 

body), at the tip of which the posterior spiracles are located. (PI. VII, 

Figs. 131-133); larvae aquatic or semi-aquatic 2 

Posterior breathing appendage considerably shorter than one-fourth the length 
of the body, rigid, larvae terrestrial 4 

2. Anterior respiratory cornua of the larva has the spiracle guarded by 7-9 elon- 

gate teeth (PI. VI, Figs, iii, 112, 113). Pupal respiratory cornua 
about twice as long as broad, its tubercles with 3 or 4 nodules on their 

tips (PI. VI, Figs. 1 1 lb, 114, 115) Chalcomyia aerea 

Anterior respiratory cornua of the larva has the spiracle guarded by about 20 
blunt, rounded teeth (PI. VII, Figs. 131a, 132). Pupal respiratory cornua 
four or five times as long as broad, its tubercles with 7-9 nodules on their 
tips. (PI. VII, Figs. 145b, 147, 148) 3 

3. Mature larva about 20 mm. (four-fifths inch) long, excju.sive of the "rat- 

tail" Eristalis tenax 

Main body of mature larva 13-15 mm. (slightly over one-half inch) long. (PI. 
VII, Fig. 131 ) Eristalis aeneus 

4. Larvae short-oval or rounded in outline, the shape constant; convex above 

and with a very flat, creeping-sole ventrally, around which is a special- 
ized marginal fringe of spines; the dorsum often nicely reticulated. (PI. 

IX, Fig. 182) Microdon spp. 

Larvae elongate-oval when at rest, much attenuated toward the anterior end 
when active 5 

5. Larvae phytophagous; most dorsal of the three pairs of spiracles on posterior 

respiratory appendage rounded. (PI. IX, Figs. i93-i94)Mesogramina polita 

Larvae aphidophagous; most dorsal of the three pairs of spiracles on posterior 

respiratory appendage elongate, slit-like 6 

6. Length of posterior breathing tubes at least two or three times their combined 

width, see also Paragus tibialis. Larvae and pupae deep green in color 
with two prominent, white, longitudinal stripes on the dorsum; integu- 

mental spines wanting 7 

Posterior breathing tubes shorter, or but little longer, than their combined 
width, never twice as long; colors yellowish or reddish-brown 8 

7. Tip of posterior breathing appendage roughened, the spiracles well-elevated 

above the general surface and separated by spur-like elevations. The tubes 
very slightly divergent at the tip. (PI. V, Figs. 66-68) Allograpta obliqua 


Tip of posterior appendage nicely rounded off, smooth, the spiracles not eleva- 
ted, and not separated by perceptible spurs. Tubes not at all divergent. 
(PI. V, Figs. 72-73) Sphaerophoria cylindrica 

8. Larvae with the entire dorsal surface covered with short spines (scarcely visible 

without a hand-lens), black, or sometimes light in color and then not 

prominent 9 

Integument of the larvae bare except for the segmental spines 13 

9. Segmental spines conspicuous or raised on prominent, fleshy or spiny, conical 

projections easily seen b}* the naked eye 10 

Segmental spines not prominent and not raised on conspicuous conical project- 
ions; sometimes hard to distinguish from the integumental spines 12 

10. All of these conical projections and their spines, on the dorsal side of the body, 

of nearly equal size; the inter-spiracular spaces on the breathing tubes 

with lamellate upright plates. (PI. I, Fig. 5) Didea fasciata 

The dorsal spines (ones next the median pair) in the principal segments much 
reduced in size; the inter-spiracular spaces with short, spur-like proces- 
ses, the median dorsal one long and prominent 11 

11. Posterior respiratory appendage broader than long. (PI. Ill, F'ig. 25) 

Paragus bicolor 

Posterior respiratory appendage considerably longer than broad. (PI. Ill, 
Fig. 33 ) Paragus tibialis 

12. Integumental .spines black; inter-spiracular spaces with short, stout, black spurs. 

( PI. IV, Figs. 46-49) Syrphus americanus 

Intergumental spines light yellow; inter spiraculer spaces with long slender 
hairs. (PI. VI, Figs. 94-95) The Cock's-Comb-Gall Syrphus-FIy 

13. Posterior respiratory appendage longer than broad. (PI. VI, I'igs. 84-87) 

Syrphus xanthostomus 

Posterior respiratory appendage broader than long. (PI. II, Fig. 13) 
Syrphus torvus 

Paragus bicolor Fabricious 

(Plate III, P'igs. 21 to 30.) 

For a ftill account of the metamorphoses and life history of this 
species .see the O///^ A^a/7^ra/z.y/, Vol. XII, No. i, pp. 397-401, Plate i, 
Nov., 191 1, from which article the following sj-nopsis is written. 

Larva — Length about 8 mm. Color yellowish-brown, varied with black, brick-red 
and drab. Integumental vestiture wanting. In segments 6-1 1, inclusive, the promi- 
nences on which the dorsal spine.s are situated are only about one-sixth as large as 
those prominences which bear the median, dorso-lateral, and lateral segmental spines. 
In the fourth and fifth segments these are all of about equal size (See Fig. 21 ). The 
mouth-parts (Fig. 23) consist of the beak-like jaws and four pairs of booklets. 
Posterior respiratory appendage 0.25 to 0.4 mm. long, 0.25 to 0.3 mm. broad. Spira- 
cles well elevated, noticeably curved in their extent. Inter-spiracular .'opines incon- 
spicuous, dorsal spiracular one large, spoon-shaped, broad dorso-ventrally, narrower 
from side to side, concave laterad. Eggs, larva and pupae taken from curled dock, 


( Rumex crispns L-J broad leaf dock, (Riiiiie.v obtiisifolius L.j common burdock, 
( Arctium iiiiuiis Schk. ) and on thistle ( Canfiiiis sp. ). The larvae prey upon Aphis 
ruinicis and other apliids which commonly cluster on the flower spikes, tender stems, 
or on the under side of the large leaves of the above plants. 

Puparium — Approximate dimensions: length 5.3 mm., height 2.2 mm., width 2.4 
mm. The long, segmental spines, contrasted with the short dorsals or their apparent 
absence on the principal segments, and the short, posterior respiratory appendage 
with its prominent spoon-shaped spurs at the end, dorsallj', should serve easily to dis- 
tinguish the species in this stage. Duration in pupal stage from five to fifteen days, 
passed on the host-plant of the larva, among the flower spikes, on leaves, or in leaf 

Adult — Length 5.6 mm. A blackish species usually with much red on the abdo- 
men. The pile of the eyes mostly grouped in two vertical stripes, separated by a dis- 
tinct vertical glabrous stripe (Figs. 29-30). Face in the male wholly pure, light, 
sulphury yellow. Front of female narrowed above (Fig. 30). Thorax in front with 
two whitish, pollinose stripes. 

Paragus tibialis Fallen 
(Plate III, Figs. 31-38.) 

Seethe Ohio Naturalist, Vol. XII, No. r, pp. 401-404, Nov., 1911. 

Larva — Length about 7.5 mm. Color light yellowish-brown with some darker 
markings. Segmental prominences and spines smaller than in larva of P. bicolor, the 
dorsal ones in segments 6. 11 less reduced proportionately, being about one-third as 
large as the median and dorso-lateral ones. 

The most convenient means for separation of the two species in the 
larval stage is in the length of the posterior breathing appendage. This 
in P. tibialis ranges from about 0.4 to 0.65 or 0.7 mm. with an average 
of about 0.5 mm. as compared with P. bicolor where the length is near 
0.3 mm. The width at the tip is about 0.25 to 0.3 mm. as in P. bicolor. 
The appendage besides being di.stinctly longer is somewhat more bifurcate 
at the tip in P. tibialis and the general surface is slightly more depressed, 
between the spiracular elevations. The dorsal spiractilar spine is also 
noticeably longer. This will be made clearer by reference to Figs. 25, 
26, 33 and 34. 

L,arvae and pupae were taken from burdock (^Arctium viinus) preying 
on an unidentified aphid. 

Puparium — Approximate dimensions. Length 4.3 mm. width 1.8 mm. height 
1.75 mm. The puparium is strongly attenuated posteriorly to the respiratory append- 
age both by depression and compression. The characters of the posterior respiratory 
appendage and of the segmental spines remain essentially as in the larva. Duration 
in the pupal stage 5. 11 days. 

Adult — A small black species 3-5 mm. long, sometimes with reddish on the abdo- 
men. A median black band on the face of both male and female. The pile of eyes 
not massed in two vertical stripes. Front of female not much narrowed above, (Fig. 
38). No yellow on the scutellum. 


Syrphus americanus Weidemann 
(Plate IV, Figs. 41-57.) 
See the O/iio N'atiiral/st, Vol. XII, No. 5, pp. 477-488, March, 1912. 

Egg — L/englh about 0.9 mm., diameter about 0.3 mm., white. Taken on apple, 
Phragiiiifes, black willow and Riuiiex sp.. May, June and July, 35 to 45 eggs depos- 
ited by each female in captivity. Duration in egg stage, indoors, 55 to 60 hours. 

Larva — When first hatched, very hairy in appearance. When mature, about ii 
mm. long, slender, prominently wrinkled. General color yellowish or salmon-brown 
marked with black and white or yellowish-while. Inte^.'ument covered with short, 
close-set black spines, almost microscopic. Segmental bristles not conspicuous. Pos- 
terior breathing appendage short (0.2 to 0.25 mm. in length) and about twice as broad, 
emarginale for half its length; dorsal spiracular spines moderately long, sharply con- 
ical witha very small, lateral, sub-basal spur. The spiracles irregularly and consid- 
erably curved, about 0.25 mm. long, the median one 011 each side nearer to the ven- 
tral than to the dorsal one. Mouth parts with three pairs of booklets, the jaws rather 

Larvae were taken on cabbage and other Cniciferae, feeding on Aphis brassicae, 
in colonies of aphids on Phraginites, preying on the European Grain Aphid (Sip/io- 
coryne avenae) on apple, on Aphis niiiiieis on Riiiiiex spp., and among colonies of 
Melanoxanthiis salitti on black willow. 

Puparium — Length about 6.5 mm., height 2.5 mm., width 2.6 mm., not strongly 
elevated posteriorly. Integumental spines rather prominent, color brownish. Dur- 
ation in pupal stage (indoors) 48 hours to 8 days. 

Adult — Length 8-10 mm. Face with brown stripe in middle not reaching anten- 
nae. Cheeks blackish, separated from mouth by a narrow yellow border. The 
yellow a>)dominal bands separated from the margin by a narrow black interval. 

Syrphus sp. — The larvae described below were, when taken, supposed 
to be, without doubt, distinct from the others I had reared. But when the 
adults emerged they were found to come within the limits of Syrphus 
americanus Weidemanu as described by Osten vSacken. It has not been 
possible up to the present time to determine whether both kinds of larvae 
and ptipae can be secured experimentally from the same strain; nor have 
I been able to find a satisfactory basis for the specific separation of the 
adults although they appear on the whole somewhat distinct from the 
ones I have reared from Aphis brassicae, etc., as described under the pre- 
ceding species. The following descriptions and notes are therefore given 
on what may prove to be a distinct species, showing possible convergence 
of imaginal characters toward S. americanus; or else an interesting and 
rather striking larval variety of the former species. 

Larva— Length 1 1 to 20 mm., width 2.75 to 5 mm., height 2.5 to 3.5 mm. The larg- 
est and most beautiful of the Syrphidae that I have seen. The shape and appendages 
are suggestive of .V. americanus: a long, comparatively slender larva tapering nicely 
in front, with the entire dorsum beset with short microscopic hairs. These integu- 
mental hairs seem somewhat smaller than those in S. aineiicanus and also rather 

Syrp. 5 


lighter in color requiring considerable magnificalion to make them visible. The seg- 
mental bristles are short, somewhat dusky but not prominent, about equal in size. 

A comparison of the characteristics of the posterior brealhing appendages in the 
two kinds of larvae failed to reveal anything notably different. Perhaps the principal 
disagreement between the larvae, besides the discrepancy in size, is in color. 

While the larvae from cabbage, Phrao^iiiites etc. were all pale brown marked 
with white and black, these may be described as follows: a third of the width on each 
side the larva is colored a beautiful deep green. In the middle of each segment from 
6 to lo is a branched clump of thread-like, fatty material, colored a delicate pink, 
in front of which may be a whitish transverse bar. Between these pinkish masses 
stretch, on the median line, the six pulsating divisions of the dorsal blood vessel, black 
in color. These are limited laterally by broad longitudinal stripes of light brown or 
salmon-colored visceral matter, more or less interrupted by lateral pockets from the 
blood vessel, which are, however, not as conspicuous as those in the previous species. 
Three grown and two younger larvae were taken near Lakeville, 
Ohio, in Wayne County, June i6 and 17, and placed in confinemenc. 
They were abundant at Castalia, Ohio, June 29; and were also taken at 
vSandvisky, Ohio, a little later, and at Columbus. They were feeding 
among Aphis r/n/n'c/s on curled dock {Ruviex crispus) and on burdock 
{Ardiii))! )ui)iiis)\ on the former host-plant curled about the flower spike, 
on the latter chiefly on the under side of the broad outer leaves. In the 
case of Rumcx crispus the colors of the flower spike were remarkably 
well mimicked by those of the larva. (See Part I, pp. 27, 28.; 

Pupa— Dimensions, average of 6: Length 6.3 mm , width 3.1 mm., height 2.93 mm 
A comparatively short puparium, broad and high; the posterior elevation strong, 
not quite equal to the anterior. 

If the shape of the puparium has an}' specific significance (and .so far 
as I have observed it has been fairly constant within specific limits,) it 
wotild seem that this form ought to be separated from S. aDicricaiius. 
The pupa is much broader and higher. In S. aiiiericaiius for the 
puparia measured, the ratio of length to height is 2.6 : i; of length to 
width 2.5 : i; while in the present form it was as low as 2.15: i for 
length to height; and 2.03 : i for width to height. 

Three pupae formed from the specimens above, June 21, the adults 
emerging July i. Another pupated June 25, and the adult emerged July 
4. Other larvae taken from Burdock, {^Arctium tni)ius) August 10, 
pupated the following day and the adults emerged August 17. The 
duration in the pupal stage was thus found to vary from 6 to 10 days in 

Adult — The few variations from the more typical Syrphus a)jurica)ius 
do not seem to be of specific value. The following might be noted : I^arger 
specimens, length about 10 mm. Front of female with an inverted 
V-shaped black stripe, its sides longer, parallel above; the cheeks grayish. 


The yellow abdominal bauds ma}- be a little wider, the second one with 
angular projections in the middle, in front and behind. Hind femora in 
the female blackish brown on the proximal half. 

Syrphus torvus Osten Sacken 
(Plate II, Figs. 9-16.) 
See the Ohio Naturalist, Vol. XI, No. 7, pp. 341-344, May, 191 1; also 
N.J. Ag. Col. Ex. Sta. Bull. 72, pp. 11- 14, 1890, "Plant-lice and 
how to Deal with Them," J. B. Smith. 

Larva— Length 10-12 nmi., width 3-4 mm. Color brown-pink, mid-dorsal blood 
vessel rather prominent, no integumeiital vesliture except the light colored segmental 
spines. (From the figure given by Ur. Smith (/. c.) and his description, — larva"wiih 
a ver}- rough skin, beset with minu'.e bristly little hairs." I take it that heret'ers to a 
geneial covering of what I have called integumental spines, and n :>t to tlie twelve 
segmental bristles of each segment; and if so, my observations do not agree v\ith his.) 
Spiracular slits longer and narrower than in Didea fasciata. Inter-spiracular projec- 
tions not prominent. Lateral mouih-hooklels present. Abundant among .Ipliis 
brassicae on cabbage in Autumn Also found preying on Lo)ioislii^ijia caiyae. 

Puparium — Length 8 to 8.25 mm., width 3.5 to 4.3 mm., height 3.75 to 4 mm. 
Tes'.aceous — brown, smooth. 

Adult — Length 10 to [2.5 mm. Gray spot on the cheek. Eyes pubescent. First 
abdominal band interrupted, all attaining the lateral margin. 

Syrphus xanthostomus Williston 
(Plate \T, Figs. 81-87.) 

Seethe Ohio Naturalist Xo\. XIII, No. 5, pp. 81-83, March 1913. 

Larva — Length about 10 mm., width 3.75 to 4 mm. Fat, thick, grub-like, 
sluggi>h larvae, strongly arched, dorsally; wrinkling prominent. Color very pale 
pinkish-yellow, dorsal blood vessel not conspicuous. Skin bare except for the short, 
light colored, segmental bristles. Jaws unusually short. Posterior repsiratory 
appendage a fourth longer than broad, inter-spiracular spine short, blunt, spur-like, 
rather prominent. Dorsal spiracular spine short, compressed, its breadth about equal 
to diameter of approximate circular plate. 

Larvae were found full grown at Cedar Point, Jul>' 7, 191 1. They 
were taken on poplar or American aspen (Populus tieniuloidcs Mx.) in 
the well known galls of Pemphigus vagabundus Walsh, on which they 
were feeding. Probabh' each larva is dependent for its food suppl>- on 
the aphids within the single gall which it inhabits. 

Puparium — Length 7.2 mm., height 3.5 mm., width 3.8mm., exce])tionly inflated 
dorsally, posterior inflation equal to that anteriorly. Duration in jnipal stage, seven 
to eight days. 

Adult — Length 11 to 12 mm. Lateral margins of thorax distinctly yellowish 
poUinose, scutellum wholly yellow. The three principal bands of the abdomen 
broader than the black interval, attaining the lateral margins in nearly tlieir fuU 


Didea fasciata Loew 

(Plate I, Figs. i-8 and Plate VI, Fig. 17.) 

See the Ohio Naturalist Vol. XI, No. 7, pp. 337-341, May 191 1, and 

Vol. XIII, No. 5, p. 90, March 1913. 

Egg — Length 1.3 to 1.7 mm., diameter 0.4 to 0.6 mm. Sculpturing of the cho- 
rion very characteristic — the principal bodies of it have a secondary reticulate ornamen- 
tation of their own (Plate VI, Fig. 17). Found on sycamores, September 29 to Octo- 
ber 27, glued to the bark on the under side of horizontal limbs. 

Young larvae similar to mature ones. Mature larva — length 12 to 15 mm., width 
5 to 6 mm., testaceous brown. Segmental bristles crown the summits of prominent, 
conical elevations beset with the short radiating black bristles which cover the integu- 
ment generally. Inter-spiracular ornamentation consists of a small number of 
upri>;ht, irregular, lamellae-like ridges. Dorsal blood vessel not prominent. 

Found pre5dng only upon Lotigistigma caryae on .sycamore and bass- 

Pupa — Length 9.5 to 10 mm., width 4.5 to 5 mm., height about 4.5 mm. Color 
Roman sepia. The shining brown color, vestiture as described for the larva, and the 
characteristics of the posterior respiratory appendage, should easily distinguish this 
species. Duration in pupal stage (indoors) 20 days. 

Adult — Length 1 1 to 15 mm. Third vein of wing deeply curved near the middle 
into the first posterior cell. First yellow abdominal cross-band interrupted, reaching 
the margin. Second and third bands not reaching the margin. 

Allograpta obliqua (Say) 

(Plate V, Fig. 61-70.) 

Seethe Ohio Naturalist Yo\. XII, No. 8, pp. 533-537, Jtiue 1912. 

Egg — Elongate oviod. Length about 0.8 mm., diameter 0.3 mm., (Figs. 61-62). 
Color chalk-white, with microscopic sculpturing. Oviposilion noted the middle of 
May and the middle of June on persimmon {Diospyros virginiana L.) and on curled 
dock {Rume.v crispus L.). Nearly 100 eggs deposited by a female. Duration in 
egg stage (indoors) 2.5 to 3.5 days. 

Mature larva — Length about 8 mm., width about 2 mm. Color leaf-green with 
two prominent, longtitudinal, white stripes dorsally. No body vestiture, except the 
segmental bristles. Outer pair of mouth-hooklets present. Posterior respiratory 
appendage prominent, 0.5 mm. long, 0.125 rnm. broad. Inter-spiracular spurs 
short, continued down the sides of the tube as more or less evident ridges. 

Predaceotis on a species of Aleyrodidae on persimmon in June; on 
Aphis brassicae September, October; on Aphis riimicis on Runiex crispus 
in June. 

Puparium — Length 5.25 mm., width 2.5 mm., height 2.3 mm. Posterior elevation 
very gradual. Color changes from that of the larva to that of the adult as the meta- 
morphosis goes on within. Duration in pupal stage (indoors) 3.5 to 5.5 daj'S in June, 
as long as 10 days in Autumn. Found on parts of the larval host-plant, June to 



Adult — Length 6 to 7 mm. This species may be recognized by the generic charac- 
ters — yellow thoracic stripes and abdominal cross-bands, and on the fourth and fifth 
segments, four longitudinal, oblique, yellow stripes or spots; together with the yellow 
face lacking a complete median stripe. 

Sphaerophoria cylindrica (Say) 

(Plate V, Figs. 71-78.) 

The Ohio A^aturalist, Vol. XII, No. 8, pp. 538-541, Jttne, 191 2. 

Egg — Length 0.9 mm., diameter 0.3 mm. Elongate oval. Females taken in May 
deposited several dozen, apparently infertile eggs. 

Larva — Length 9 to 10 mm., width 2.25 mm. Color pea-green with two, dorsa 
longitudinal, white stripes; heart-line only moderately conspicuous. No vestiture 
except segmental spines. Outer pair of mouth-hooklets present. Larvae of this 
species can be very certainly separated from those of Allograpta obliqua by differences 
in the posterior respiratory appendages. 

Ill Spliacrophoria the end of the posterior respiratory appendage is 
very nicely and evenly rounded off; the two tubes slightly emarginate but 
not at all divergent at the tip; and all trace of inter-spiracular spines or 
projections lacking. With the aid of a good hand-lens and Figures 66 
and 68 compared with 72 and 73, one should have no trouble in separating 
these two species in the larval stage. 

Taken among Aphis brassicae in June and September; on Riimex 
crispus in June; and on Carduus sp. (Among Aphis sp. ) in August. 

Puparium — Length 5.3 mm., height 2.05 mm., width 2.1 nmi. Le?s strongly 
elevated posteriorly then in Allograpta obliqua from which it can be separated on 
characters of the posterior respiratory appendage. Pupation observed on host-plants 
in late June, September and October. Duration of pupal stage (indoors) 5 to 7 days. 

Adult— Length 6 to 8 mm. Lateral stripe on thorax reaches only to the suture. 
vSpots on pleurae as shown in Fig. 71 Plate V. Abdomen slender with yellow cross- 
bands. Legs including coxae, yellow. 

The cock's-comb-gall syrphus-fly 

(Species undetermined) 

(Plate VI, Figs. 91-95.) 

Although I was unable to get these larvae to pupate, their habits are 

.so interesting that the following description is given, though the species 

is as 3'et unknown to me. 

Larva— Length 8 to 10 mm., width 2.5 to 3 mm., height r.5 to 2 mm., distinclly 
fliltened ventrally, moderately convex above, elongate ovoid in outline. The dorso- 
lateral carinae are rather prominent as are also the transverse folds of the inttgn- 
ment. The posterior respiratory appendages are prominent, 0.6 mm. long, 0.4 mm. 
wide. The color of the larva is pink vinaceous, deep-flesh, or purplish, darker beneath. 


The dorsum is covered with comparatively large, though almost invisible spines 
of the same color as the integument. The segmental bristles in this case are very 
inconspicuous, only about three times as long as the integumental spines. The color 
and vestiture are always very much obscured by a dusting of fine, white, powdery or 
cotlonv material which the larvae derive from the gall-making aphides among which 
they feed. This too, is partly responsible for the unusual opaqueness of the integu- 
ment or the fact that none of the viscera show clearly. A slight darkening of the 
posterior median line indicates the dorsal blood-vessel, but its outlines or pulsation 
cannot be discerned. 

The antennae are unusual in having the two smaller segments, wdiich lie side by 
side on a fleshy elevation and are usually rounded, considerably elongated in a vertical 
direction, contiguous medially. 

The mouth-parts are strong, the V of the jaws short, \dth a long slender med- 
ian, terminal projection; the spurs at the base of the lower jaw short. There are three 
pairs of mouth-hooklets; two pairs close beside the jaws, the dorsal ones short triangular, 
the ventral pair elongate; and a lateral or outer pair heavy, unequally bidentate, 
recurved. The anterior spiracles are m.oderately elevated on a sub-conical prominence 
and are guarded by six, unequal, tooth-like lobes. 

The posterior breathing appendages present the following characters: The spira- 
cles are straight, moderately long, rather prominently raised above the general surface. 
Dorsal spiracular spine median to the circular plate, wanting. Inter-spiracular 
projections four on a side, bristle-like (in this respect difTering from all the other 
larvae I have examined) the bristles one-half to one-third as long as the spiracles. 
Surface between the spiracular elevations free from warts or ridges, depressed between 
the outer ends of the spiracles. The sides of the tubes are finely and unevenly 
echiiiulate; a ring-like constriction about mid-length beyond which the diameter is 
slightly less to the tips, where the spiracles expand somewhat. 

These larvae were abundant, and apparently nearly full grown, on 
June 17, near Lakeville, in Wayne Co., Ohio, when the material was col- 
lected. They were found living in the galls on a .species of Elm (U//mis) 
which are familiarly known from their shape as "Cock'.s-Comb-Galls," 
preying upon the gall producing aphids, Colopha nlDn'cola which line the 
inner walls of the gall chambers. galls are formed on the upper surface of the leaves, opening 
beneath thru a sht-like aperature, several to many obliquely arranged at 
the sides of the mid-vein. They are commonly an inch in length by a 
fourth or more in width, incompletely divided into a series of about half 
a dozen chambers. The upper surface of the gall is dentate and gives to 
the gall its name. 

Sometimes two or three of the larvae will be found in one gall, a 
space four or five times the volume of their own bodies. These galls are 
rigid, the edges of the .slit closely apposed and offering considerable resis- 
tance to being opened. It therefore .seems very doubtful to me if a larva 
ordinarily ever leaves the particular gall in which it begins its growth. 


A few eggs were found on the under surface of the affected leaves. 
From such a position the larvae could easily crawl into the galls while 
still of small size as when just hatched. 

The full-grown larvae in confinement show a negative 

Enclo.sed closeh' in the gall they enjoy excellent protection and have 
for the most part an abundance of food at hand. I discovered no enemies. 

Seemingly they are paying the usual penalty for sedentary life They 
are very sluggish. After seeking some dark protected place in the jar 
which confined them they .scarcely move unless disturbed. These partic- 
ular larvae were removed from the locality where similar food was not 
available; and, although offered numerous other kinds of aphids, they re- 
fused to eat and all died before pupating. The result of their habit of life 
seems, therefore, to be a close restriction to one .species of prey; and proba- 
bly they are confined ordinarily to the aphids of a single gall. Their .slug- 
gishness would also suggest a possible further degeneration. (See pp. 39, 40. ) 

Eristalis aeneus (Fabricius) 
(Plate VII, Figs. 131-141.) 

See the Ohio iVafura//s/, Vol. XIII, No. 5, pp. 84-89, March, 1913 

Larv.'^ — Similarto, but smaller that the well-known, "rat-tailed" \a.r\-a. oi E.h'tiax 
13 to 15 mm. long, 3 to 4 mm. broad, 2 to 3 mm. high. Posterior respiratory appendage 
varying from 0.5 to 0.25 mm. in diameter, extensile, 3-segmented, its length seldom 
less than 5 mm., frequently 15 to 30 mm., occasionally as much as 100 mm. or about 4 
inches. Ornamented at the tip with four pairs of delicate, feather-like appendages, 
presumably homologous with the inter-spiracular ornaments of aphidophagous species. 
Color dirty, grayish-brown. Integument translucent, flexible, bearing integumeiital 
vestiture and double segmental hairs. There are seven pairs of pro-legs. 

Collected in the very putrid water}' material of the evaporating vats 
at the Columbus Sewage- Disposal Plant in September, undoubtedly feed- 
ing on the decaying, .sewage particles. 

Tuparium — Length 8 to 10 mm., height 3 to 4.5 mm., width 3.5 to 4.5 mm. vSluipe 
that of the larva, considerably shortened, and somewhat inflated dorsally. Pupal 
respiratory cornua located a short distance posterior to anterior respiratory cornua of 
the larva, on dorsal side of the body; about 2 mm. in length, 0.25 mm. in diameter. 
These cornua are provided on their distal three- fourths with several hundred short 
rounded tubercles each ornamented on the tip with 8 or 9 radial elevations. Intern- 
all v the cornua lead by tracheae to the prolhoracic segment of the developing nymph- 
Larval respiratory cornua rigid at a length of 0.75 mm. 

Pupae were found attached to an iron railing surmounting the walls 
of the .sewage vats in mid-September, emerging as adults 10 days later. 

Adult— Length 8 to 10.5 mm. Wholly dark, metallic-green shining. Kyes 
covered with sniall, round spots. Thorax of fcnuale with grayish wliite stripes. 



Microdon — Earvae and pupae of this genus have been described as 
two or three different species of Molluses as well as listed among the 
Coccidae. The}' have been discovered in the nests of a dozen species of 
ants and of I ^espa crabro in Europe as well as in the nests of termites in 
Madagascar and Brazil. In North America Microdon tristis seems to be 
the only species which has been reared from the larval stage. According 
to Wheeler, the species referred to as M. globosus by Packard and Eint- 
ner is M. tristis. This species has been taken in the U. S. with Formica 
schaiifussi , F. rufa obscuripes, F. difficilis var. consociaiis, and F. sanguinea 
aserva. Larvae of at least three other undetermined species have been 
described. (See W. M. Wheeler, "Ants," pp. 383-386; Psyche, July, 
1901; and Journal N. Y. Ent. Soc. Vol. 16, pp. 202-210, 1908. Also 
Sharp. Camb. Nat. Hist. Vol. VI, Part II, pp. 501-502.) 

Chrysotoxum — "The metamorphoses are believed to take place in 
rotten wood, or in the diseased sap of trees, btit very little is known about 
them." — A^errall, British Flies, p. 642. 

Chrysogaster — "The larvae of two European species have been bred 
from the mud of a ditch." — Verrall, p. 186. 

Pipiza — Riiey in his P'irst Mo. Rept. 121, fig. 66, and in Amer. Entom. 
I, 83, describes Pipiza femoraUs Eoew. , under the name of ' 'The Root-louse 
Syrphus Fl}- (Pipiza radicum n. sp.)," as an enemj' of the apple-root 
Plant-louse (Sc/iizoncura lajiigera) and in his 6th Mo. Rept. asanenemj' 
of the Grape Phylloxera {Phylloxoa vastatrix Planchon). I quote from 
these papers as follows: 

This "footless maggot" is about one-half an inch long, and of a dirty yellow 
color. It is generally found more or less covered with mud, and with the wooly 
matter secreted by the lice, and is not by any means easily discerned. It changes in 
the fall to the pupa state from which, in the following spring, there emerges the 
perfect fly. 

'■'■Larva — Dull pale flesh-color, tinged with yellow. Attenuated and somewhat 
depressed anteriorly, more blunt posteriorly, the anal segment being furnished with 
an elevated tube which is of a light polished brown at extremity. Wrinkled trans- 
versely, with a prominent fold at anterior and posterior edge of each segment. The 
larger segments well defined; the smaller ones less so. First segment thoroughly 
retractile and sufficientl}^ translucent when extended to show the dark triple-jointed 
mouth. A few soft, fleshy spines of the same color as the body especiallj- distinct 
on anal segments. Length when not extended 0.23 of an inch. From five speci- 

"Pupa — Dull dirty yellow. Gradually formed by the contraction of the larva, 
(luring which time the wrinkles are obliterated, at last becoming quite smooth. 
Length 0.18 inch." A puparium buried in moist sand twice crawled up the side of 
the bottle in which it was contained. 


"Pipiza iiioclesta, Loew, was reared from apple twigs infested by Schizoneura 
lanigera (Hausm)"— F. M. Webster, Canad. Eiito. XXX, p. 19. 

Paragus — Rondani about 1S48 published notes to the eflfect that the 
larvae feed on aphides which occur on or near the roots of Ccntaurca and 
on Scvichus. Verrall in his work on British Flies in several places states 
his impression that this is not authentic and makes a special division of 
larval habits for those "living in the nest of smaller Aculeate Hynie- 
noptera. " He says (p. 674) "I have no evidence to support this group, 
but I strongly suspect Eumcriis and Paragus,'" since "the species have a 
ver}^ suspicious habit of hanging about the burrows of the small HalidP' 
(p. 150). 

The present studies happily clear up this doubt and settle once for 
all that the larvae, at least of P. bicolorsind P. tibialis, are aphidophagous. 

Chilosia — "Not much is known about the metamorphoses of any 
species of this genus, but some larvae have been reared from fungi and 
others from stems and roots of plants, which seems to show that their 
habits are widely divergent from the genus Syrpluis.'" Verrall, British 
Flies, p. 207. 

Chalcomyia— In the collection of Prof. James S. Hine is one male 
specimen of C. acrea with puparium attached which bears the label "Pupa 
taken under bark, Columbus, Ohio, 4-1 1- 1902." To him I am indebted 
for the opportunity of here describing the puparium and for the following 
notes on it. 

Pupariinn described from one specimen: 

Length of body about 7 mm., posterior respiratory appendage, or "rat-tail" pro- 
jecting that mncli farther, fixed in a curve. Fonr-fifths of its length consists of the 
basal segment which has a diameter of about o 5 mm., at the base, but tapers some- 
what toward the end. The middle and distal segments are each extended only about 
0.75 mm., diameter 0.2 mm., or less; these are shining reddish-brown. The basal 
segment and the body generally are dull, dirty, grayish brown. The vestiture 
is obscured; but the middle segment of the respiratory tube shows transverse wrin- 
kling, in which respect it differs from the corresponding structure of Eristalis acnciis. 

Width of puparium 3.25 mm., height about the same. Shape ovate, the antero- 
dorsal part which separates as the operculum, flattened, bearing on its anterior part 
the larval respiratory cornua; while just back of the line where the operculum sepa- 
rates are located the pupal respiratory cornua. (See Plate VI, Figs. 111-115.) 

The anterior or larval respiratory cornua are fixed at a length of about 0.25 mm., 
their diameter being about 0.125 mm. The spiracles at the tip show seven to nine, 
somewhat elongate, teeth-like lobes as shown in Figs. 11 2-1 13 of Plate VI. 

The pupal respiratory cornua (Figs, tii b, 1 14) are short and thick, 0.75 mm. 
in length l)y about half as broad, clavale by the elevation of the numerous tubercles 
thru which 1 believe the spiracles open. These are about 100 in number in this 
species (Fig. 114). They show at their ti]) three or four nodules (Fig. 115), between 


which are depressions radiating from the center. Between the tubercles the surface 
of the cornua is finely papillose. The scars of seven pai-s of pro-legs and the position 
of the anus show on the ventral side ( Fig. 1 1 1 , <? and d) . 

This specimen was taken from tinder the bark of a fallen log along 
the Olentangy River. The log lay quite close to the edge of the water, 
and the larva may have been aquatic and migrated to the log for pupa- 
tion, or it may have lived in the log thru the larval stage. 

Myiolepta -"The metamorphoses have been recorded from decay- 
ing Poplar {Populus) and Maple {Acer) trees, in which case they prob- 
ably feed on the exuding sap and thereby tend to confirm their relation- 
ship to Xylotar Verrall, British Fhes, p. 573. 

Baccha— "The larvae feed on Aphides or Coccidae:' Verrall, British 

Flies, p. 456. 

Townsend, Jour. N. Y. Ento. Soc. V., 172 briefly describes the pupa 
of Baccha clavata as follows: "One male bred from pupa found in square 
of cotton at Carmen, May 24. The pupa was fastened by its anal end to 
the inside or the sqtiare. Length 5.67 mm. Pale greenish-yellow. 
Oval with a flat ventral surface, full and rounded on anterior end. A 
few short, hair-like filaments of integument on dorsal surface in five 
transverse rows, the first row being on anterior end above cephalic plate. 
The adult was found issued May 31." 

Perkins, "Leaf- Hoppers and their Natural Enemies," Hawaii 
(1906) p. 177-179, reports a species of Baccha feeding upon young leaf 
hoppers in Qtieensland. 

"Osten Sacken, 'Entomologische Notizen,' Stettin. Ent. Zeit. 
XXIII, 412 (1862), refers to earlier records of habits Baccha spp. 
especially Coccidivorous forms. 

H. G. Hubbard (1885) describes three species of Syrphidae feeding 

among aphids on the orange as follows: 

The Four Spotted Aphis Fly. {Baccha bahista Walker.) The larva has a cylin- 
drical body, greenish, with a longitudinal band of dull red on the back; the surface is 
covered with very short, stiff hairs, giving it a velvety appearance; each joint of the 
body is artnad with a. row of soft spines above and a pair of fleshy pro-legs below. 
Length, when at rest, 7.5 mm. The puparium, has the form of a cone, with one side 
flattened and fastened to the surface of the leaf; the large end broadly rounded; the 
color varies from dirty white to dull yellow, and there are more or less distinct cross- 
shaped markings upon the back; the spines of the larva shrink to minute prickles on 
the puparium. The eggs are elongate-oval, brilliant white, the surface marked with 
diamonds obliquely intersecting engraved lines. They are deposited by the parent fly 
singly upon the leaves among Plant-lice. 

The Dusky-Winged Aphis Fly. {Baccha litgens Loew.) Scarcely less common 
ih^n the preceding; the larva more leech-like, fla'tenedand dilated behind, but with 
the anterior joints lengthened into a very mobile and extensible neck. The surface of 


this larva is nearly siiiootli, without the spines or velvet hairs of the first species; in 
color dark, inclining to purple when not feeding, with cream colored blotches, tinged 
with pink. The length in repose is about 8 mm. The puparium is dull brown, 
gourd shajed; the anterior portion greatly inflated and behind suddenly flattened 
and contracted to form a sort of a handle. The egg is indistinguishable from that 
of Baaiia habisia. 

The Ruddy Aphis-fl}-. (Bacc/ia coguala Loew.) Larva found in company with 
the pi ecc ding species preying upon Aphis, sometimes upon Orange, but more fre- 
quently upon different kinds of Plant-lice found on herbaceous plants and weeds 
of the garden. The larva has the form and smooth surface of B. lugens, but is 
more transparent and lighter in color, yellowish-green and white predominating; 
more slender and smaller than either of the preceding species. 

Platychirus— "/*. sciitafus is said to have been bred from rotten 
fungi." Verrall, British Flies, p. 263. 

In the collection of Prof. James S. Hine are two male specimens of 
P. quadratiis with the puparia attached bearing the label "Columbus, 
Ohio, 4-3-1902." To him I am indebted for the following notes on 
them and the opportunity to give the following brief description. 

These specimens were taken from a cat-tail or related plant in a marshy location. 

^\\\\A.y puparia described from two specimens: Length 6. 5 to 7. 5 mm. Height 2 
to 2. 5nmi. Width slightly over 2 mm. Elongate-ovoid in outline as seen from above, 
bulbous in front, broadest and highest well in front of the middle. Circular in 
outline as seen from in front. From the side Fig loi, Plate VI, the ventral line is nearly 
straight, the dorsal one well elevated and rounded out in front, descending gradually 
to within about 1.5 mm. of the posterior respiratory appendage, thence more rapidly. 
The posterior respiratory appendage (Figs. 102, 103) is short, not at all prominent, a 
half broader than long; the black spots about the spiracles rather well elevated, the 
appendage roiindingly excavated between Ihem, its surface smooth not marked by 
very prominent spines or ridges. 

Color when empty very light ashy-brown. The segmenlal spines were invisible 
and so may be considered inconspicuous in this species. The antetior respiratory 
appendages had been pushed off with the operculum which was not preserved. 

Melanostoma — "The larvae weie naturally suppo.sed to be aphidoph- 
agous; Giard in 1896 reared a number of larvae of M. mcUinuin which 
attacked and killed numerous specimens of Musca domestica and Chorto- 
plii/a pnsilla on the umbels of the common carrot {Daiicuscarota); he adds 
however, that there were no aphids on these plants of Dauciis, so it is 
possible that in default of their usual food they may have seized the next 
best available." Verrall, British Flies, p. 303. 

Eupeodes— "It is very probable that De Gerts exhaustive descrip- 
tion of the metamorphoses of his Musca pyrastri referred to this species 
(^Eupeodes volucris); he found the larvae feeding on the aphides of pine 
trees, but in captivity they readily eat other aphides as might be expected 
from sucli a ubiquitious species." Verrall, British I'lies, p. 3S4. 


Didea — "Larvae probably aphidophagous, as Col. Yerbury found 
D. intermedia not uncommon on Furze ( Ulex') bushes which were infested 
with an Aphis. The ts^pe representative of D. fasciata was bred, but I do 
not know from what." Verrall, British Flies, p. 326. 

D. fasciata v2iX. fuscipcs is aphidophagous; see p. 58. 

Lasiophthicus — "Mr. G. C. Bignell has bred C. pyrastri from a 
hva which he found on a Rose-bush {Rosa)\ the larva was green with a 
purplish- white dorsal stripe, and the perfect insect emerged on June 17 
after having been in pupa three weeks. He also bred it from Aphis bras- 
sicae, A. pntni, and horn 2in Aphis on Knapweed {Centaiirea).'' Verrall, 
British Flies, p. 336. See p. 40 ante. 

Syrphus — Probably all aphidophagous. See pp. 54-57. 

Riley, Rept. Dept. Agr. 1889, 351, mentions the larva preying on 
Grain Aphis, Siphonophora avenae. 

Allograpta — A. obliqua is aphidophagous. See pp. 58, 50. 

Riley, Rept. Dept. Agr. 1889. 351, mentions the larvae feeding on 
Siphonophora avenae. 

Xanthogramma — A', eniargniata. Williston notes a specimen in 
Riley's collection labeled "found under bark of cotton tree, Fla., April 20, 

Verrall, British Flies p. 448 says "the larva has been reared from 
heaps of turf." 

Mesogramma — In Insect I^ife. I, pp. 5-8, Fig. i, and 2., p. 115, 
Riley and Howard report the occurrence of "The Corn-feeding Syrphus- 
Fly, ( Mesogramma polita Say)" in New Jersey (1885) and Florida (1886}. 
The larvae were sent in on corn with the report that they were not doing 
evident damage. An examination of the contents of the alimentary canal 
showed the presence of partly crushed pollen grains, and the larvae fed 
upon the pollen grains of fresh corn "tassels" offered them. In the field 
they clustered on the plants in the axils where the upper leaves joined the 
stalks, the latter half of August; remaining and increasing in size for two 
weeks after the corn was cut. Another patch blossoming early in Sep- 
tember became infested at that time. Adult insects emerged September 
7 to 15 from larvae taken Aug. 31 and pupating a few days later. In 
Florida larvae were found (May and June) feeding, not on the pollen 
grains, but on the leaves, the stalk, and soft discolored places in the stalk. 

The whole transformation from egg to fl}^ is completed in less than 
three weeks. The egg hatches in from three to four days; the larva 
matures in from eight to ten days and the fly appears in from eight to 
thirteen davs. 


In 1889 these larvae were reported seriouslj' damaging corn at Cadet, 

Missouri in August. Here they were feeding between the base of the 

leaf and the stem in large numbers causing a wilting and browning of all 

the lower leaves, an effect "Exactly the same as that produced by the 

Chinch bug." 

"j5Vo-— The egg, according to Mr. Ashmead, is pure white, elongate-oval, with 
longitudinal and intersecting cross-lines or grooves, not apparent to the naked eye. 
It measures nearly i mm. in length. 

'■'■Laiiia — Average length about 7 mm. Slender, subcylindrical, tapering anteri- 
orly, its posterior end slightly flattened. The whole body is divided by apparently 
36 annulae, and its surface is closely granulated. Mandibles black. The last 
segment bears the two short, stout, polished, dark yellow spiracular tubes, each with 
three spiracles at the tip. Color pale yellowish, or more or less of the color of the 
pollen, with 2 medio-dorsal, slender, somewhat wavy purple lines, which start con- 
jointly on the first segment, diverging but slightly posteriorly, and terminating on 
the anterior portion of the penultimate segment, which latter is marked in addition 
with somewhat reddish and squarish spots, arranged in transverse square. 

''Pupanum — I^ength 5 mm., to 7 mm. Clavate, subcylindrical, slightly curved, 
it? anterior end thickest and rounded. The posterior end has a median carina and 
rather sharp lateral edges and more or less flattened ventral side. The last segment 
bears the two spiracular tubes with black spiracles, the upper one of which is smallest 
and round, whilst the tvvo other large ones which are placed close above each other 
are transversel}' oval. Color greenish or brownish-j'ellow, marked often with a more 
or less distinct dusky median, an interrupted subdorsal, and a lateral line. The 
median line isgenerall}- present only along the posterior carina." 

Sphaerophoria — ^. cylindrica aphidophagous. See p. 59. 

"Some species are known to be aphidophagous and S. flavicauda is 
in some way associated with the ordinary garden Asparagus and may l)e 
found rather commonly upon the flowering plants." Verrall, British 
Flies p. 427. 

Riley, Dept. Agr. 1889, p. 351 reports the larvae of 5". cylindrica as 
feeding on Siphonophora avcnae. 

Sphegina and Neoascia — Metamorphoses apparently not known. 

Rhingia — "The metamorphoses are supposed to occur in cow-dung, 
and Schiner suggests that in flight and color the species mimic the red- 
dish species of Aphodius." Verrall, British Flies, p. 478. 

Brachyopa — -"Our one British species {bico/o)-) has been bred by 
Leon Dufour from the flowing, ulcerous sap of an elm, and as it has been 
captured in England where the sap was exuding from a tree-trunk, there 
can hardly be any doubt about its habits." Verrall, British Flies, ji. 475. 

Copestylum— Williston, F^nt. News, II, 162, notes the rearing of 
Copestylmn margijiatiDn from larvae feeding in the tissues of the common 


cactus of the plains, Opioitia niissouriivisis. (See also below under TW- 
Hcella fasciata . ) 

Vloucella — The larvae of this genus show two distinct and interest- 
ing habits. Some of them live in the nests of the large Aculeate Hym- 
enoptera, others in cacti. The larvae of W inanis have been taken in the 
nests of \'espa crabro (Sharp); V. bombylans from the nests oi Bombus 
lapidarius and \^espa germanica. Verrall p. 486. 

"These larvae are pallid, broad and fleshy, surrounded by numerous 
angular, somewhat spinose outgrowths of the body; and have behind a 
pair of compound stigmata in the neighborhood of which the outgrowths 
are somewhat larger." Sharp, Camb. Nat. Hist., Vol. VI, Part II, p. 
500. (For a further discussion of this interesting habit see pp. 37, 40.) 

Hubbard in Psyche, May, 1899, suppl. I, i, gives the following note 
on the occurrence of larvae of Vohnr/la avida in giant cactus, Ccreus 
giganteus, in Arizona. "A grizzled old trunk had been chopped by 
somebody's axe and had on one side a cavity about as large as my hat, 
partly filled with black rotten material. The rotting was constantly 
advanced by great numbers of huge dipterous maggots ( V. avida), etc." 

]\ fasciata: Larvae were found in the tissues of the common cactus 
of the plains, Opuntia missoiinensis in Colorado. "Puparia from the 
joints of O. missoiiriensis disclosed two allied Syrphids, Copestylum mar- 
ginatum, Vohicella fasciata. The puparia were lodged deeply in cavities 
within the stem, evidently the feeding place of the larva. The puparia 
of the two species are scarcely distinguishable, both having a short, con- 
joined stigmatic tube and two slender anterior projections." Ent. News, 

II, 162. 

Smith, Canad. Hnto. XXIII, 242 gives these notes on V. fasciata. 
A lot of prickly pear cactus was examined and Lepidopterous larvae 
removed from it. "A few days after a Dipterous pupa was noticed in the 
jar which had been left undisturbed and eventually some 8 or 10 Syrphid 
flies made their appearance. They could not have been parasites for all 
the Lepidopterous larvae were accounted for, and I can only suppose 
that either eggs or very small larvae were in the partly decaying flesh of 
the infested leaves and these were overlooked because not expected." 

Buckton, "Nat. Hist, of Eristalis tcna.v," p. 84 gives the following 
on V. pellucens: "The grubs are footless, but show small false feet with 
minute hooks. The long spiracles at the tail end are absent. The larvae 
are blind. The puparium is very like that of Eristalis and it develops 
outward cornua. The case is provided with a hinged operculum which 
remains attached after the fly has escaped." 



Sericomyia — The following notes on ^. borealis are taken from a 
quotation in Verrall, British Flies, p. 637. "The three 'long-tails' were 
in a shallow pool or puddle where peat fuel had been dug out 
the previous year; some of the sods being too fragile for wheeling 
awa}^ had been tossed back into the pit, but turned upside down. 
It was on this decomposing mass that I found the maggots sur- 
rounded with water; their color might be called a dull gray. One 
thing is certain, that they pass all their stages in the course of the _vear 
as there were no pools at the place previously to 1893. The situation 
is damp and the pits, though filled with stagnant water, never become 
putrid or offensive." W. Sim, May, 1894. 

Eristalis — These are the famous "rat-tailed" larvae which have been 
noted from very early times, and mention of which has been made in 
almost every text-book on Entomology. The present studies have dealt 
briefly with the life-stages of E. foiax and E. aeneus, the latter not pre- 
viously recorded so far as I am aware. See p. 61. G. B. Buckton has 
written an extensive ' 'Natural History of Eristalis tenax or the Drone fly. ' ' 
(Xondon, 1895) which, while it treats the subject in an exhaustive man- 
ner, is apt to be indefinite about the finer details. He discusses the genus 
and the species E. tenax and arbiistonon under the following headings: 
Classification, Life-History, Morphology, Physiology, Histology and 
Development, Distribution, and Myths, and gives a number of plates. 
He found the larvae abundant in ponds floating in knots of six to ten indi- 
viduals with their tails tied together and buoyed up by mucilaginous of ova of an undetermined gnat, and gives the following notes on 
them: The larva of E. toiax has eight pairs of pro-legs, of E. arbustonim 
seven pairs. The tail is also used in helping the larva to penetrate into 
soft mud. They were found to be sensitive to the light of a lamp even when 
all rays of direct heat were shaded off; to touch especially in the region of 
blunt tubercles on the head; and a large number of larvae i^E. arbusto- 
rum) were killed by a thunder storm. The puparia are buried but not 
deeply in mud, doubtless a protection against drought. 

"The common i6". /fw^r.v is essentially the 'Drain fly' of the whole 
world, as it has followed all over the world what civilization has consid- 
ered its improved sanitary arrangements of drainage and it has been very 
interesting to watch the lines of route and the length of time it has taken 
to arrive at new localities (p. 674). "In October 1S86 (Ent. Month. Mag. 
p. 97j Baron Osten-Sacken contended, and I think rightly, that this spe- 
cies spread thru Europe to all Asia and thence to Western North Amer- 
ica about 1870, after which it received a check in its distribution until the 


human cominunicatiou from the Western States became continuous with 
Eastern States, where it made its appearance about 1875, after which it 
spread with marvellous rapidity over the Eastern States and became an 
abundant species by 1884. Osten-Sacken further comments upon this 
species not crossing from Europe to Eastern America in four centuries of 
intercourse but spreading by land, and then says it will be interesting to 
watch if it will reach distant islands such as New Zealand. It appears to 
have reached New Zealand two years after that, and to have become com- 
mon there in one year." p. 508, Verrall, British Flies. 

"Eristalis temporalis (Jiirtus Ew.) Reared from maggots found in 
ooze about the mouth of a drain at Fort Collins. Flies emerged from 411 
to 5-3." Baker, Ent. News. VI, 174. 

Larvae probably of E. tenax are reported as infesting a well in South 
Carolina in Ins. Life, III, 22. Ordinary cleaning of the well does not 
get rid of them, but they quickly redevelop, so that one bucket of water 
will frequently contain three or four. 

Tropidia — "Metamorphoses not known." Verrall. 

Helophilus — "Meigen states that H. pendulus has been bred from 
putrid water." Verrall, Briti-sh Fhes, p. 524. 

Lintner, 7th N. Y. Report pp. 228 to 234 discusses the life-history 
of H. latiftons and from this the following notes are taken: The larvae 
of //. lali/rons were received in 1885 from Dr. Morrey who had taken 
them at Nassau, N. Y. They were numerous in a water tank, July 
fourth, but a week later only a half dozen could be found. A week later 
when they floated on the surface of the water they presented the follow- 
ing features: The body was sub-cylindrical, narrowing somewhat ante- 
riorly, one-half of an inch in length by one-eighth of an inch broad; 
beneath whitish, pale brown above, becoming darker towards the tail; the 
several segments showed six divisions (as wrinkles or folds) above, of 
which the front one is the broadest. On segments two to seven apparently 
(the posterior ones not being separable) are six pairs of tubercle-like 
feet," [Buckton states that there are seven pair of pseudopodia] "which 
when protruded show each a short black spine. The head bears anteri- 
orly two brown, slender, blunt projections, so short as to be barely visible 
without a magnifier. The first two joints of the dark brown tail are cor- 
rugated, and measure 0.7 inch in length, with the terminal, black-tipped, 
extensile joint projecting from them one-fourth of an inch. They were 
transferred to a box of dampened sawdust into which they buried them- 
selves for pupation the middle of July. The pupation is a brief one of 
about ten days." The larvae in an old molasses cask, with an inch of 


sediment and two feet of running water, were believed by Dr. Morrey to 
be feeding on decaying Confervae growing in the tank. Some of them 
left the tank to burrow in the soft wet soil and decaying portions of a wil- 
low log. They did not appear to burrow into the mud at the bottom of 
the tank. 

Mallota — Lintner, ist N. Y. Report, 211, records the taking of two 
larvae of M. posticata from a birch tree, 25 rods from the nearest water, 
about 30 feet from the ground where a limb had been broken off causing 
a decay in the heart wood. The larvae "were sordid white or flesh colored, 
with a body of an oval form, about three-eighths of an inch in length, by 
about one- fourth of an inch when at rest, and about twice as long and of a 
diminished diameter when in motion. The tail-like projection from the 
narrower end an inch in length; slightly tapering, transversely wrinkled 
two-thirds its length; the remainder being a black, cylindrical, bristle-like 
process susceptible of projection or contraction within the anterior portion. 
When the grubs were taken from the fine, black mould in which they were 
buried they extended their front segments like the pushing out of an 
introverted glove-finger, and progressed moderately by the aid of several 
pairs of low, flattened, ventral tubercles, bearing on their circumference 
a number of closely set radiating spinules. 

"The larvae did not pupate for about a month, presumably feeding 
upon the mould. Several times they" emerged from the mould and traveled 
restlessly about the jar, finall}" remaining upon the surface. On the 
i6th of February they had contracted materially in size and become 
very pointed behind. The front segments assumed a darker shade. The 
two respiratory horns on the dorsum over the .second pair of leg tubercles 
had become more prominent and were now about one-twentieth of an inch 
long. The tube containing the respiratory .setae was dark brown. An 
irregular-shaped packet of excremental matter was attached to the anal 
orifice. Pupation was brief — 12 days for a male and 14 for a female. Lat- 
erally on the puparium, seven .slightly projecting, black spiracles may 
be seen with a lens, one over each leg tubercle." (If these are reall}- 
respiratory .spiracles the condition is very anomalous from what is known 
of Syrphid larvae.) "Ventrally between the tubercles are transverse rows 
of bristles, and outside of the tubercles are longitudinal rows, evidently 
of service in locomotion. The puparium is flattened beneath and rounded 
above. The respirator)- tube is clearly seen to consist of three portions. " 

Merodon — Verrall reports the very interesting habit of the Euro- 
pean M. equestris of ])as.sing its larval stage in bulbs of Narcissi diWdi allied 
plants which they devour; apparently becoming serious pests, as will be 

Syrp. tl 


noted from these quotations from his "British FHes" pp. 556 and 559: 
"Serious damage was done in Cornwall on A^ara'ssics bulbs in October, 
1896, when one gardener alone had been compelled to destroy several 
thousand bulbs of A^irr/ss/ while man}^ other records have been given in 
recent years of similar damage done near London and in other districts 
where bulbs are extensively cultivated. 

"Mr. McLachlan gives the following interesting note on the breeding 
of this .species in England (Entom. Month. Mag. XXXI. p. 114): — 'The 
undoubted fact that Jl/erodon is becoming more common here than it was 
formerly, is, no doubt, mainh^ due to the large importations of bulbs of 
Narcissus from the South of Europe. A friend of mine, a noted horticul- 
turist, never observed any signs of the ravages of its larvae until after 
having purcha.sed, in an unlucky moment, a bag of imported bulbs; .since 
then it has occasioned great damage in his garden. It will feed on many 
kinds of bulbs. Recently it came under my notice as destroying 
of Eiirvdes, an Australian genus. Bulbs of Narcissus (and probably of 
other plantsj), that have been attacked by Aferodon, but not killed out- 
right, are found next season to have divided theni.selves into a varying 
number of healthy smaller bulbs, so that, to some extent, the attacks of 
the larvae form a means of propagation.' " 

Osten Sacken, Cat. 135, notes the occa.sional importation to North 
America of larvae in bulbs from Europe. 

Syritta — Howard, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci. II, 597. '\Syritta pipiens 
Linn. The larvae of insects of this genus live in horse-dung and cow- 
dung in Europe. This species has been reported by We.stwood as breed- 
ing in horse-dung and by Scholtz in cow-dung. The only specimen noted 
in the of this investigation was taken in a privy at Newport, 
Oregon, by Dr. Hopkins." 

Xylota — "The metamorphoses are sufficiently known to cause a 
belief that the larvae live in rotting wood." — Verrall, British Flies p. 597. 

Daecke, Ent. News, XIV, 275, found larvae of A'^. pigra under the 
bark of a pine tree. They emerged as adults from May 25 to June 15. 

John.son, Psyche, Vol. 13, pp. 2, 3, PI. I, Figs. 5 and 6 gives the 
following on A^i'/o/rt'/'/^'vv?: "While searching beneath the bark of pine 
logs, I found the larvae of this species in considerable numbers. It fre- 
quented the wet bark near the ground where there was more or less fer- 
mentation of the sappy portions of the wood and bast. The larva is about 
14 mm. in length, of a dirty yellow or brownish color with ten or eleven 
ill-defined rugosely wrinkled segments, covered with short hairs which are 
souiewhat longer on the sides. The first segment is armed on each side 


with a pair of black spines, the posterior one curved backwards; above 
the spines are small brown papillae; the posterior portion bears on each 
side three large, hairy, spine-like processes, and terminates wdth a promi- 
nent, shin}' brown respiratory tube, showing slight annulations on the 

"The larvae \vere collected near Auburndale, Mass., March 26, 1905. 
The}^ commenced pupating March 3 r , and continued to do so until April 3, 
the imagos appearing from April 12 to 15. The pupa is about 10 mm. in 
length; dark brown in color, the black spines and small papillae of the 
larva being still present with an additional pair of larger papillae above; 
the posterior portion also has a similar appearance to the larvae, retaining 
the lateral processes and respiratory tube. The imago emerges thru the 
upper portion of the first two .segments." 

Chrysochlamys — "The larvae live in the sap of ulcerated trees." — 
Verrall, Brit. Flies, p. 623. 

Brachypalpus — Reared from larva found between loose bark on 
stump of a tree.^E. L,. Keen, Canad. Ent. Vol. 16, p. 149, 1884. 

' ' Metamorphoses probabh' occur in rotting portions of living trees. " — 
\"errall, Brit, Flies, p. 593. 

Pocota — "It lives in rotten poplar {Popitlns) stems. Metamorphoses 
well known, it .seems to be more frequently bred than caught." — \''errall, 
Brit. Flies, p. 587. 

Criorhina — "The metamorphoses are but little known, but the species 
are associated with the sap of rotten wood, probably occur in the sap 
which flows from injured or ulcerated trees, or the debris of floods from 
whicli C. oxyaca)ithae \\3.?,hQQnhre<i.'' — Verrall, Brit. Flies, p. 576, 577. 

Sub-Family Milesinae (Verrall) — "What little is known about the shows that many species live in rotten wood or about the 
sap flowing from injured tree trunks." — Verrall, Brit. Flies, p. 561. 

Ceria — The following notes on the puparium of C. signifera are 
given by C. W. Johnson, Ent. News, W. 91. "This specimen (female) 
was given to me by Dr. Henry Skinner; with it was a card, to which was 
attached a leaf, and on this was a small pui) On the card was 
written: 'Found near Bala, Pa. Dead oak leaf on ground; hatched May 
13, 1889.' It is evidently the pupa of this fly. It is about 12 mm. in 
length ( the anterior part being broken in hatching) the ground color 
brownish-gray, roughly and irregularly netted with black. There is a 
dorsal, binate row of dark l)r()wn tubercles with single lateral rows alter- 
nating with those on the back; above and l)el()w the lateral row there is 


an obscure row of small tubercles, the posterior end has a long projection 
one fourth its total length, the greater part of which is a dark glossy 
brown. The ventral surface is flat and firmly attached to the leaf." 

Nathan Banks, Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash., V., 310, gives the following 
on Ceria iviUistonii Yi'aX'A: "From a puparium collected on oak bark at 
Falls Church, Va., about the middle of March, there issued March 27, a 
fly of this species. It is probably identical with C. signifera Loew from 
Mexico. The larva of Ceria is supposed to feed in the flowing sap of 
trees. Puparium; dull black above, whitish below, in front with two 
large white marks separated b}" a narrow black spot; anal tvibe shining 
black. Dorsum faintly mottled with pale, more prominent on the sides. 
Dorsum with a median row of double pointed tubercles, and a lateral row 
each side; those toward the tip are .smaller than the others. lyCngth 
18 mm." 

Eumerus —"The European E. strigatus has been bred from bulbs of 
the common onion {^Alliiivi cepa) of which the}' sometimes destroj'ed a 
whole crop. The larvae occurred in July and pupated in the bulbs or in 
the neighboring earth. Sometimes bred from soft and rotten bulbs." 
— Verrall. 

Part III. 


1. Antennae with a terminal style (Fig. 152. s.) .... 2 

Antennae with a dorsal (rarely subterminal) arista (Fig. 151 ) 4 

2. Antennae cylindrical, the first two joints elongated; first posterior cell with a 

stump of a vein Ceria (p. 98) 

First two joints of the antennae short 3 

3. Eyes bare; small species Pelecocera (p. 88) 

Eyes pilose; larger species Callicera (p. 80) 

4. Marginal cell of the wings closed and petiolate (Fig. 231 ) 48 

Marginal cell open ( Fig. 151) 5 

5. Anterior cross-vein of the wings distinctly before (basal to) the middle of the 

discal cell; almost always rectangular ( Fig. 151 ) 6 

Anterior cross- vein near or beyond the middle of the discal cell, usually oblique 
(Figs. 231, 246) 55 

6. Antennae elongate (Fig. 241; if arista plumose, see 56) 7 

Antennae short ( Fig. 240) 14 

7. Mesonotum with yellow lateral stripes; large species, the abdomen always with 

distinct yellow bands Chrysotoxum (p. 80) 

Mesonotum not with distinct yellow lateral stripes or margins 8 

8. Face rounded, not tuberculate, pilose; oral margin not projecting (Fig. 208).. . 9 
Face not evenly arched ; tuberculate or the oral margin projecting (Fig. 37, 209) 12 

•After S. W. Williston. 


9. Moderately large to large species; scutellum flattened, often with spines or 
tubercles on its border (Figs. 201, 202); a stump of a vein in the first posterior 

cell from the third longitudinal vein (Fig. 230) 10 

Small species; scutellum without spines; no slump of vein in first posterior 
cell Pipiza (p. 81) 

10. Abdomen much narrowed at the base 11 

Abdomen not or but little narrowed at base Microdon (p. 79) 

1 1 . Face swollen and prominent below Rhopalosyrphus 

Face not swollen and prominent below Mixogaster 

12. Body clothed with sparse tomentum;all the femora thickened and with spinous 

bristles below {Leprotiiyia) Lepidostola 

Body not clothed with flattened tomentum; the femora not thickened with spinous 
bristles below 13 

13. Face partly or wholly yellow, tuberculate below, the epistoma not projecting; 

face and front not wrinkled Paragus (p. 82) 

Front and face wholly black in ground color {Chrysogaster, Rhysops). ..... 19 

14. Face black in ground color 15 

Face more or less yellow or yellowish in ground color 26 

15. Abdomen only with four visible segments, very convex, the venter excavated; 

first two joints of the antennae very short, the third large, subquadrate, with 

a short subterminal arista Nausigaster 

Abdomen with more than four visible segments (Figs. 71, 151) 16 

16. Hind femora distinctly thickened (Fig. 212) 17 

Hind femora but little or not at all thickened 18 

17. Scutellum unusually large, nearly square (Fig. 203); males dichoptic 

Chalcomyia (p. 83) 

Scutellum not unusually large, considerably broader at its base; males holoptic 
and with a facial tubercle Myiolepta (p. 83) 

18. Face rounded, not tuberculate, the oral margin not projecting Pipiza (p. 81 ) 

Face tuberculate or the oral margin projecting 19 

19. Epistoma projecting (Fig. 209); small, black species 20 

Face tuberculate, the oral margin not projecting (Fig. 243) ." . 21 

20. Front in the female and usually the face in both sexes with transverse wrinkles, 

(F'ig. 210); spurious vein obsolete; antennae short or long. Chrysogaster (p. 80) 
Front and face not wrinkled; face pilose Psilota (p. 81 ) 

21. Metallic green, metallic green and black, or black species; facial orbits separated 

by a slender parallel groove (Fig. 220) Chilosia (p. 82) 

Black with more or less metallic green or blue, with yellow, yellowish or metallic 
cross-bands on the abdomen; face not with orbital grooves 22 

22. Face with transverse grooves in the middle; (antennae elongate) Rhysops 

Face not with transverse grooves or wrinkles 23 

23. Wings not longer than the abdomen; ocellar tubercle large; abdomen depressed, 

long elliptical, somewhat narrowed toward its base, the markings ferrii.yinous 

or yellowish orange Pyrophaena 

Wings longer than the abdomen with yellow or greenish-yellow, or shining 
metallic cross-bands; usually elongate species 24 


24. Front tibiae distally and the tarsi of the male dilated, those of the female slightly 

widt-ned (Figs. 214-216 and 244) Platychirus (p. 84) 

Front tibiae and tarsi slender in both sexes 25 

25. Rather large, blackish species, with a large flat, elliptical abdomen. Xanthandrus 

More elongate and slender species, abdomen not elliptical in outline 
Melanostoma (p. 85 ) 

26. Abdomen narrowed toward the base, distinctly club-shaped or spatulate in 

outline Fig. 217) , 27 

Abdomen oval or slender, not spatvdate or club-shaped in outline 30 

27. Third longitudinal vein bent deeply into the first posterior cell. . .Salpingogaster 
Third longitudinal vein straight or gently curved (Figs. 151, 250) 28 

28. Hind femora slender; front of male long, narrowed above; the cheeks very 

narrow below the eyes; abdomen often very slender Baccha (p. 83) 

Hind femora thickened; front not unusually long in female 29 

29. Epistoma produced anteriorly, the face in profile deeply concave from antennae 

to tip; third joint of antennae rounded Sphegina (p. 88) 

Epistoma produced more downward, in profile gently concave; third joint of 
antennae not rounded . . Neoascia (p. 89) 

30. Front long, much narrowed above in the female (Fig. 224); cheeks very narrow, 

the eyes approaching each other at the lower third of the head; wings usually 
with dark picture; abdomen more or less elongate (compare Bacc/ia v/hen in 

doubt as to shape of abdomen) Ocyptamus (p. 84) 

Flies not having the above assemblage of characters 31 

31. Mesonotum with distinct yellow lateral margins (Figs. 64, 71) 38 

Mesonolum not with yellow lateral margins. 32 

32. Abdomen with definite yellow cross-bands 33 

Abdomen not with definite yellow cross-bands d2 

33. Hind femora extraordinarily thickened (Fig. 234) Syritta (p. 94) 

Hind femora slender (Figs. 1,71) 34 

34. Sixth abdominal segment in the male as long as the two preceding together. 

c^-lindrical; fifth segment of the female one-half as long as the preceding 


Sixth abdominal segment of the male not peculiar; the fifth segment of the 
female one-third or one-fourth as long as the preceding 35 

35. Front very convex; eyes of male with an area of enlarged facets above 

( Lasiophthicus Cataboviba) Scaeva (p . 40) 

Front not remarkably convex 36 

36. Third longitudinal vein with distinct curvature into the first posterior cell (Fig. i) 

third joint of antennae elongate oval Didea (p. 85) 

Third longitudinal vein straight or gently curved (Fig. 151); epistoma not pro- 
duced (if produced snout-like, Rhingia, p. 89) 37 

37. Males holoptic (Fig. 9) Syrphus ( p. S5) 

Males broadly dichoptic; arista more or less thickened Chamaesyrphus 

38. Mesonotum with median cinereous line; ocelli usually remote from the vertex 39 
Mesonotum not with a median cinereous linear stripe 40 

39. Hind femora in the male thickened and arcuate, the tibiae dilated at the tip 

Toxomerus (p. 87 ) 

Hind fen;orasiinpleand straight; thetibiaenotdilated at tip. Mesogramma (p. 87) 


40. Eyes of male with an area of enlarged facets above; fourth segment of abdon;en 

with two median yellow stripes and oblique side spots (Fig. 64) Allograpta 

(P- 87) 

Eyes of male not with an area of enlarged facets above; fourth abdominal seg- 
ment not so marked 41 

41. Face projecting below; slender species, the hypopygium often large (Fig. 71 ) 

Sphaerophoria ( p. 88) 

Face receding; abdomen oval Xanthogramma (p. 87) 

42. Thickly pilose species; the abdomen black, the basal part light yellow. Leucozona 
Thinly pilose species; abdomen not so marked 43 

43. Hind femora thickened 44 

Hind femora slender 47 

44. Species wholly or chiefly reddish or lutescent 46 

Black species, sometimes with luteous spots on face, humeri and basal angles of 

abdomen 45 

45. Scutellum unusually large, nearly square in outline (Fig. 203); males dichoptic 

Chalcomyia (p. 83 ) 

Scutellum oval ; males holoptic Myiolepta ( p. 83 ) 

46. Face carinate; abdomen oval . Brachyopa (p. 89) 

Face tuberculate; abdomen more elongate Hammerschmidtia 

47. Epistoma produced into a long porrect snout (Fig. 227) Rhingia [p. 89) 

Epistoma not produced (compare Paragns sp. if small) facial orbits limited by a 

slender groove (Fig. 220) Chilosia (p 82) 

48. Third vein bent deeply into the first posterior cell (Fig. 231 ) 51 

Third vein not bent deeply into first posterior cell; third antennal joint elongate 
( Fig. 222 ) 49 

49. Arista very densely- plumose, appearing as a solid mass, the arista itself also thick- 

ened Copestylum 

Arista feathery plumose (Fig. 222) 50 

50. Hairs of arista retrorse; males dichoptic Megametapon 

Hairs of arista not retrorse; males holoptic Volucella (p. 89) 

51. Hind femora with a sharp tooth-like projection below near distal end (Fig. 237); 

sixth vein beyond anal cell strongly curved; large species Milesia (p. 97) 

Hind femora without such tooth . 52 

52. Frontal triangle of male strougl}- protuberant; rather large, dark colored species 

( Prioiiienis, Doliosyrphus) Eristalis (p. 90) 

Frontal triangle not protuberant J3 

53. Epistoma produced into a long porrect snout Licastrirhyncha 

Epistoma not produced 54 

54. Thorax wiih distinct yellow markings, hind femora thickened; hypopygium en- 

larged Meromacrus (p. 92) 

Thorax not with distinct yellow markings, sometimes wh it e-fasci ate; femora some 
times thickened; hypopygium not coni-picuously prominent. . . .Eristalis (p. 90) 

55. Arista plumose ( Fig. 222) 5^ 

Arista bare or pubescent ( Fig. 24 r , 22 1 ) 60 

56. Antennae elongate, the third joint more than twice as long as wide [Pha/acro- 

III via, aiaiirotriclia) (Fig. 222) Volucella (p. 89) 


Antennae short, the third joint not more than twice as long as wide; third vein 
nearly straight, or gently or considerably curved into first posterior cell. ... 57 

57. Thinly pilose; abdomen with yellow bands 58 

Thickly pilose; abdomen not with yellow bands 59 

58. Third vein straight or moderately curved (Fig. 238) Sericomyia (p. 90) 

Third vein considerably curved Condidea Coq 

59. Eyes pubescent Pyritis 

Eyes bare Arctophila 

60. Third longitudinal vein deeply curved into first posterior cell 61 

Third vein only gently curved 70 

61. Hind femora thickened 63 

Hind femora slender 62 

62. Abdomen elongate, narrowed at base, spatulatein outline Salpingogaster 

Abdomen oval, with yellow, interrupted bands; mesonotum with yellow margins; 

antennae elongate (Fig. 241 ) Chrysotoxum (p. 80) 

63. Face carinate or subcarinate; hind femora with an angular protuberance or spur 

below at outer end (Fig. 233): 

Face protuberant in profile (Fig. 229) Tropidia (p. 92) 

Face concave in profile, subcarinate; spur of femora bifid Senogaster 

Face tuberculate or arched, not keeled 64 

64. Abdomen much narrowed at base, club-shaped Ceriogaster 

Abdomen not at all pedunculate or basally narrowed 65 

65. Antennae elongate; eyes pubescent; wings colored anteriorly 

' 'Platynochaetus" niger. female. 

Antennae not elongate 66 

66. Third joint of antennae broad; mesonotum not vittate 68 

Third joint of antennae oval. 

Males holoptic; femora with protuberance below Merodon 

Males dichoptic; femora not with protuberance 67 

67. Ocelli remote from each other; mesonotum not vittate Asemosyrphus 

Ocelli not remote from each other (Figs. 218, 219); mesonotum vittate Helophilus 

(P- 92) 

68. Thickly pilose species Mallota (p. 93) 

Thinly pilose 69 

69. Hind tibiae of male with an internal spur (compare Mallota sp.) 


Hind tibiae of male not with such spur ( Triodonta, Polydonta) 

Pterallastes (p. 94) 

70. Thorax with distinct yellow markings other then on the humeri; wasp-like flies 


Thorax not with distinct yellow markings of the ground-color other then rarely 
on the humeri 71 

71. Hind femora swollen and with a protuberance or spur below distally; face 

carinate or subcarinate 72 

Hind femora not with such protuberance or spur 73 

72. Face concave in profile; femoral spur bifid Senogaster 

Face protuberant in profile; femoral protuberance not spur-like (Fig. 233) 

Tropidia (p. 92) 


73. Abdomen narrowed basally; slender species (see 27). 

Abdomen in no wise club-shaped 74 

74. Face transversely arched, not produced, not tuberculate, abdomen more or less 

elongate and nearly bare 75 

More or less thickly pilose species; often large 76 

75. Hind femora extraordinarily thickened (Fig. 234); anterior cross-vein rectangu- 

lar, and before the middle of discal cell Syritta (p. 94) 

Hind femora distinctly thickened, but the cross-vein distinctly oblique, and 
near or beyond middle of discal cell > Xylota (p. 94 ) 

76. Scutellem, margin of thorax and pleurae with distinct bristles, femora slender 

(Chrysochlamys) Ferdinandea 

No bristles anywhere on body . . , 77 

77. Face short, not produced, concave from antennae to oral margin, not tuberculate; 

hind femora thickened 78 

Face produced, long 79 

78. Abdomen elongate Brachypalpus (p. 95) 

Abdomen very broad; thorax densely pilose; middle femora of male sometimes 

{Hadroinyia) with a stout, basal, inferior spur Pocota 

79. Face produced forward, pointed, concave from antennae to tip, not tuberculate; 

hind femora thickened Crioprora ( p. 96) 

Face not evenly concave in profile, but tuberculate or convex 80 

80. Third joint of antennae produced above into an anteriorly directed, conical 

process, terminatingin the thickened arista (Figs. 225, 226)Merapioidus (p. 96) 

Third joint of antennae obliquely oval; hind femora rarely thickened 

Criorhina (p. 96 ) 

81. Hind femora with conical, tooth-like protuberance below near distal end; 

antennae more or less elongated; sixth vein directed obliquely outward beyond 

anal cell Spilomyia (p. 97) 

Hind femora without much protuberance; sixth vein beyond anal cell not 
unusual 82 

82. Antennae inserted low down, near middle of head in profile, the face not longer 

than front (Fig. 235) Temnostoma (p. 98) 

Antennae inserted on a conical process; front short, the face nnicli produced 
downward (Fig. 236) ; antennae long or short Sphecomyia (p. 98) 

In the following discussion of genera, species known to occur in the State are 
consecutively numbered and their names printed in bold face type. In addition 
certain species, whose known distribution indicates probable occurrence, are included 
wnth the hope of adding to the usefulness of the paper. Names of such species are 
unnumbered, printed in italics and marked with a star (*). Their recorded distribu- 
tion is indicated following the name. 

Microdon Meigeii 

1 Hind metatarsi not, or but slightly thickened; third segment of antennae about 
as long as the first, blackish species, abdomen without orange yellow, tristis 
Hind metatarsi strongly thickened in the male, brownish species 2 

2 Third joint of antennae longer than the first fuscipennis 

Third joint of antennae not longer than the first 

*globosus'Pa.h. (Mich., Col., Va., N. J., Fla., Carolina, Tex.) 


1 M. fuscipennis Macquart. Six specimens taken at Cincinnati 
(Dur}') (Fig. 20I, 204, 206, 230 j. 

2 M. tristis Loew. Eight specimens taken at Cincinnati (Dury) 
(Figs. 202, 205, 207). 

M. ^aurifex Wied. (Philadelphia), '^-a2ir2dentus Fab. (Pa., Car.) 
^^-j?tegalogaster Snow , (Pa., Va., N J., Col.) and *;7(/7/r.i- Macq. (Pa., La.,) 
also seem likely to be taken in Ohio. Description of megalogaster by 
Snow in Kans. Univ. Quart. I. 34; the others are described by Williston, 
Synopsis, pp. 9-12. 

Callicera Panzer 

*C. johnsoni Flunter (Pa., N. C), 

Chrysotoxum Meigeu 

1 Lateral margin of third abdominal segment yellow; second and third abdom- 

inal arcnate yellow bands only interrupted by a line laterale 

Lateral margin of third segment not all yellow; second and third arcuate 
bands distinctly interrupted 2 

2 Black spot of the fifth abdominal segment inverted Y — shaped 

^ventricosum Loew (Can., D. C, Ariz., N. J. ) 

Black spot of the fifth abdominal segment inveited V — shaped 

*pubescetis Loew (111., N Y., Mich. Va., N. J.) 

3 C. laterale Loew. One female, Medina, one male, Ira, August. 

Fig. 241. 

Chrysogaster Meigen 

1 Base and tip of tibiae, or at least first two joints of tarsi, yellow or yellowish- 

red; last section of fourth longitudinal vein rectangular; antennae elongate. 2 

Legs wholly black; last section of fourth vein curved or bent; third joint of 

antennae rounded, nearly as broad as long, front of female strongly rugose 


2 The last section of the fourth vein joins the third beyond the tip of second 

vein, rectangular, with a stump of a vein in the middle; second joint of 

antennae nearly as long as the third; eyes with linear markings nitida 

The last section of fourth vein joins the third opposite or before the tip of the 
second ; disk of abdomen opaque 3 

3 Abdomen broadly oval; wings with browinsh clouds pictipennis 

Cross-veins of wings not clouded 

*p!ilc/iella \W\\\&i. {^\\c\\. N. H., Conn., Can., N. J.) ( Fig. 247) 

4 C. nigripes T/oew. One male, Columbus, four females, Columbus, 
Hinckley and Ft. Ancient; last of May to first of August. (Figs. 209, 245.) 


5 C. nitida Wiedeman. One male, Ft. Ancient, three Sandusky; 
three females Columbus, vSandusky, Wauseon , last of May to last of August. 

(Figs. 2IO, 248;. 

6 C. pictipennis Loew. One female has wings nearly clear. Three 
specimens, Medina, Columbus, Ira; April 23 and early August. (Figs. 
211, 249). 

^Chrysogaxter apisaon Walk (N. Y.). 

Psilota Meigen 
*/*. flavipennis Macq. (Philadelphia). 

Pipiza Fallen 

1 Abdomen with a basal interrupted yellow fascia 2 

Abdomen uniformly black 3 

2 Wings witli a brown spot in the middle festiva 

Wings without a brown spot in the middle femoralis 

3 Third joint of antennae at least twice as long as wide 4 

Third joint scarcely twice as long as wide, or rounded 5 

4 Third joint of antennae elongate; hind metatarsi much thickened; last section 

of fourth vein bent near its middle pulchella 

Third joint elliptical, hind metatarsi but slightly thickened; last section of 
fourth vein bent at its antepenultimate third radicum 

5 Black pilose nigripilosa 

Chiefly light pilose 6 

6 Wings with brownish cloud, abdomen chiefly light pilose 

*albipilosa Willst ( Pa. ) 

Wings without a brown cloud pisticoides 

Hind coxae armed with a long slender process, dilated and compressed toward 

the end *calcarata Loew(N. Y., N. J.) 

*/^. JHodesta Loew(N. Y., Can., N. J., N. M.) *nignbarba Loew (N. Y.) *frand- 
ulcnta Loew? (111.) and*5fl/a.t- Loew (Pa.) may be expected in the State. For descrip- 
tions of these species see Williston vSynopsis, pp. 24-26. 

7 P. femoralis Loew. 15 males, 2 females, Columbus, vSugar 
Grove, Ira; all taken in May. 

8 P. festiva Meigen. 6 females, Columbus, June: 2 females, Ira, 
September. Can this be the female of P. femoralis ? 

9 P. nigripilosa Williston. One male, Hinckle\-, late June. 

10 P. pisticoides Williston. 9 males, 8 females, Medina, Hinckley, 
Columbus; late April to early AugiLSt. (Fig. 208). 

11 P. pulchella Williston. One male, Lockbourne, Jul\- 3; three 
females, Medina, Akron, Ft. Ancient, Ju]\- to August. 


12 Pipiza radicum. Walsh and Riley. One female. Columbus, 
September 15. 

Paragus Latreille 

1 Sciitellum with a yellow border, at least in the female; face of male without 

a black median stripe; front of female narrow above bicolor 

Scutellum without a yellow border; face in both sexes with a black median 
stripe; front in female of nearly equal width 2 

2 Abdomen with more or less red on the dorsum; vertical triangle in the male 

large tibialis 

Abdomen wholly greenish-black angustifrons 

13 P. angustifrons Loew. 9 females, Columbus, Sandusky, Cin- 
cinnati, Waterloo, Kent, Vinton, Lockbourne, Sugar Grove; first of Maj^ 
to the last of Jul}'. 

14 P. bicolor Fabricius. For description of this species see Part II, 
p. 53 where the inunature stages are also described. Many specimens are at 
hand from Cohunbus, Lakeville, Sandusky, Waiiseon, Castalia, Vinton 
and Gypsimi; early May to late August. 

15 P. tibialis Fallen. Descriptions of the life stages are given in Part 
II p. 54. Numerous specimens, mostly males, Akron, Sandusky, Medina, 
Vinton; middle of May to early August. 

Chilosia Meigen 

Key to Species (adapted from Hunter, 

Canad-Ent. Vol. XXVIII, pp. 229-233, September., 1896.) 

r Eyes bare, tibiae at least largely yellow 2 

2 Scutellum without bristles or bristle-like hairs on the margin 3 

Scutellum with bristles or bristle-like hairs on the margin 5 

3 Posterior femora largely reddish, or at least so colored at the base; second 

abdominal segment partly opaque; four anterior tibiae entirely yellow 

* prima Hunter ( Pa . ) 

Posterior femora except the tip always black 4 

4 Abdomen entirely shining in both sexes comosa 

Abdomen at least in the male largely opaque; four anterior tibiae entirely yel- 
low; pile of front light colored capillata 

5 Arista briefly pubescent, femora yellow *pri}iia Hunter (Pa.) 

Arista plumose or long pilose, third antennal joint rounded-ovate or ovate. . 6 

6 Abdomen of both sexes entirely shining, anterior femora largely black 

.*cyanescens Loew (111., Conn., N. H., Montreal) 

Abdomen in the male largely opaque 7 

7 Posterior femora on basal third, and at apex, yellow; scutellum yellow except 

the narrow base pallipes 

Posterior femora except the apex black; scutellum only piceous at apex; first 
posterior cell broader and last section of fourth longitudinal vein accordingly 
longer tristis 


16 C. capillata Loevv. One male, Columbus, April 23. 

17 C. comosa Loew. One female, ColumbUvS, Ma}' 13. 

18 C. pallipes Loew. One female, Vinton, Early June. (Fig. 243.) 

19 C. trislis Loew. One male, Hinckley, August i. 

Chalcomyia Williston 

20 Chalcomyia aerea Loew. Three males, one female, Cincinnati, 
Columbus, Georgesville ; late April, early May. One male with rat-tailed 
puparium bears this label, "Pupa taken under bark, Columbus, Ohio, 4-11- 
02." (See Part II, p. 63, Figs. 203, 212.) 

Myiolepta Newman 

1 Face on the sides below with a large luteous spot, third joint of antennae 

ovate strigilata 

Face without a luteous spot below 2 

2 Legs partly yellow, abdomen black .... nigra 

Legs partly yellow, abdomen with luteous or yellow spots at the base 


2 1 M. nigra Loew. Two males, two females, Hinckley, Ft. Ancient; 
mid- June and early August. 

22 M. varipes Loew. Two males, two females, Columbus, San- 
du-sky, Ft. Ancient, Hinckle}-; mid-June to earh^ August. 

23 M. strigilata Loew. Five specimens, Cincinnati, May, 1 901. A 
male, Columbus, May 13, resembles M. strigilata Loew but lacks the 
luteous facial spots and has the eyes separated b}- the width of two and a 
half facets. Length 5.5 mm. Blackish-greenish, moderately shining, 
clothed with .short, rigid, apprcssed, yellowish-white pile. Vertical tri- 
angle black, shining, long. Frontal triangle and face thickly clothed 
with whitish pollen and pile except for a brown spot above the antennae. 
A black .spot on tubercle and thence to oral margin, and the cheeks; first 
two joints of antennae dark brown, third joint light ferruginous, ovate, a 
little longer than broad, arista concolorous. Legs and wings as in M. 
strigilata. Tip of marginal cell somewhat dilated into sub-marginal cell. 

Baccha Fabricious 

1 Abdomen distinctly narrowed toward the ; elongate, more or less club- 

shaped or spatulate 2 

2 Third joint of the antennae elongate oval, obtusely pointed; face verv 

prominent clavata 

Third joint short oval, obtusely rounded; face not prominent 3 



3 Wings cinereous hyaline, without distinct dark markings; abdomen very 

sknder cognata 

Wings more or less brownish or blackish 4 

4 Wings with a broad median cross- band, reaching to ihe fourth posterior cell; 

scutellum and posterior part of the dorsum shining golden fascipennis 

Wings with the front border, at least, for its whole length brownish or 

blackish 5 

Wings with front border narrowly darkened but not for its full length; body 

black, the first second and third abdominal segments with an oblique white 

spot on each side at base *costata Say ( Ind. ) 

5 Posterior half of the wings nearly hyaline tarchetius 

Wings more or less brown or blackish on the posterior part 6 

6 Wings subcinerescent; all the veins, except the last segment of the fourth 

broadely clouded with blackish, confluent near the costa 

*lugens (Loew N. Y. Wise, N. J., Fla.) 

Wings with a triangular hyaline space behind the outer end of third vein, the 
axillary portion more or less subhyaline. Ocyptaiuns fitscipi-niiis Say, See 
Ocyptamus (below) fuscipennis 

24 B. fascipennis Wied. Three males, fotir females, Sandusky, Cin- 
cinnati, Ira, Hinckley, Wauseon; last of May to early September. 

25 B. clavata Fal^r. Two Ohio specimens, male and female, November 

2. (Fig. 217.) 

26 B. cognata Loew. A small delicate species. One female. Ira, 

September 8. 

27 B. tarchetius Walker. Two males, one female, Sandtisky, Medina, 
Hocking Co. (Fttlton); Early July to early August. 

Ocyptamus Macquart 
28 O. fuscipennis Say. Common: Sandusky, Medina, Ira, Lake- 
ville, Hinckley, Lochbourne; July i to September 9. (Fig. 224.) 

Platychirus St. Fargeau and Serville. 

1 Front tibiae in the male gradually dilated from the base, the tarsi gradually 

decreasing in width from the base to the tip; profile of the face only gently 

concave above the tubercle, the latter small; cheeks convex below 2 

Front tibiae of the male slender, suddenly dilated at the tip, metatarsi much 
dilated, the remaining joints but slightly so; the front femora in the 
male with a thick row of hairy pile on the posterior side; face in both 
sexes with a conspicuous tubercle; cheeks concave below peltatus 

2 Front tibiae of the male, on the inner side toward the end, somewhat concave 

the outer angle produced into a lappet- like process, yellow spots on the 
abdomen in both sexes very large, leaving only a median stripe and cross- 
bands; hind femora and tibiae yellow quadratus 

Front tibiae of the male gently and evenly convex on the inner side, tlie tip 
on the outer side less produced, more angular; second segment of the 
abdomen in both sexes with a small rounded spot on each side, fifth seg- 
ment in the male without yellow, legs chiefly black hyperboreus 


28 P. hyperboreus Staeger. Numerous specimens Columbus, Lake- 
ville, Sandusky, Ira, Vinton, Medina, Hawkins, Milan, Newark; mid- 
April to late July. (Figs. 214, 240, 244. ) 

29 P. peltatus Meigen. One male, three females, Wauseon, Akron 
Hincklej- late July to late August. (Figs. 215, 242.) 

30 P. quadratus Say. Ten males, four females, Columbus, I^ake- 
ville, Sandusky, Ira, Hinckle}', Danville; early Aj^ril to earh^ September. 
(Fig. 216.J 

Melanostoma Schiner 

I Hind metatarsi not thickened, abdomen in the male with three pairs of qnad- 
rate reddish-3ellow spots, tubercle of face not prominent; abdomen in the 

female oval with four pairs of triangular spots mellinum 

Hind metatarsi of the male always somewhat thickened; bands of abdomen 
metallic or greenish, not reddish-yellow; pollen of face (uniform or) some- 
what ripple like but not of distinct circular spots; pile of thorax dusky 

31 M. mellinum Lin ne. Numerous specimens, Columbus, Lake- 
ville,, Medina, Ira, Hinckley, Kent; middle of April to middle of 

32 M. obscurum Say. Very common. Specimens from Columbus, 
Lakeville, Cincinnati, Vinton, Hinckley, Wauseon; late March to late 
August. (Fig. 250.) 

Didea Macquart 

33 D. fasciata Macquart var. fuscipes Loew. For description of 
stages see Part II, p. 58. 

Syrphus Fabricitis 

1 Three principal yellow bands of abdomen entire, the second and third ones 

not reaching the lateral margin; face with a brown stripe americanus 

First yellow cross-band interrupted, the others entire 2 

Three principal yellow bands interrupted; eyes bare; abdominal spots of 

third and fourth segments distinctly arcuated 10 

2 Abdomen narrow, with nearly parallel sides in the male; in the female the 

fifth segment half as long as the fourth diversipes 

Abdomen distinctly oval, the fifth segment in the female less than half as long 
as the fourth 3 

3 Femora black at the base 4 

Femora yellow at the base 7 

4 The first, second, and third abdominal cross-bands do not reacli the lateral 

margin, eyes bare, clieeks black americanus 

Tlie second and third yelluw-l)an(ls reacli the margin 5 


5 Eyes pubescent torvus 

Eyes bare 6 

6 The cross-bands attenuated at their ends ribesii 

The cross-bands reach the sides in nearly their full width grossulariae 

7 The second and third abdominal cross-bands do not quite reach the lateral 

margin; cheeks black, face with a brown stripe americanus 

The second and third bands attain the lateral margin 8 

8 The second and third cross-bands not distinctly attenuated at their ends, the 

bands broad; face and cheeks wholly yellow, the thorax with a distinct 

yellow pilose and poUinose lateral band xanthostomus 

The second and third bands distinctly narrowed at their ends; thorax not with 
distinct yellow lateral pollinose bands, face and cheeks 3'ellow 9 

9 Hind femora in the male entirely yellow; abdomen in the female broader, the 

bands narrower protritus 

Hind femora in the male black ribesii male 

10 Third vein of wings nearly straight; pile of pleurae white. Two rounded sep- 
arated spots above the antennae . . perplexus Osburnf 

Third vein strongly curved; pile of pleurae yellowish; a single biarcuate black 
band above the antennae. .*arcuahisV alien, (D. C, N. J., Col., Wash., Ariz., 
Can. etc.) 

34 S. americanus Wiedemann. For descriptions of stages see 
Part II, pp. 54-55. Ver}' abundant, middle of May to middle of Septem- 
ber apparently all over the state. See note on variety? pp. 55-56. 

35 S. diversipes Macquart. One male, Cincinnati, April 20. 

36 S. grossulariae Meigen. One male, one female, Ira; late August, 
early September. 

37 S. perplexus Osburn. Six specimens from Cincinnati. 

38 S. protritus Osten Sacken. One female, Wauseon, Sept. 10. Two 
other females resemble this species clo-sel)^ but have the base of the 
femora black. 

39 S. ribesii Linne. Numerous males and females, Columbus, Lake- 
ville, Sandusky, Ira, Vinton, Medina; April to September inclusive. 

40 S. torvus Osten Sacken. For description of adult, larva, and 
pupa see Part II, p. 56-57. Common Columbus, lyakeville, Ira, Vinton; 
middle of April to middle of September. 

41 S. xanthostomus Williston. For complete description of adult, 
larva and pupa see Part 11, ]). 57. Very common, Columbus, Sanduskj^ 
Ira, Akron, Hinckley, Medina, Blendon, Lockbourne, Kent; mid- May to 

+.Iournal N. Y. Eiit. Soc. Vol. XVIII, Xo. 1. pp. 53-57, March, 1910. 


Allograpta Osten Sacken 

42 A. obliqua Say. For description of life-stages see Part II, p. 
58. Common, Columbus, I.akeville, Sandusky, Put-in-Bay; early July 
to early September. 

Xanthogramma Schiner {P/iilhelms) 

. I Dorsum of thorax before the scutellum with two, coalescent, light-yellow spots; 

wings with a brown anterior margin *aequalis Loew ( Pa., D. C, N. J.) 

Dorsum of thorax without yellow spots on hind margin; wings not' brown 

in front 


2 Pleurae with distinct brig/U yellow spots of ground color flavipes 

Pleurae without distinct bright yellow spots of ground color - 

3 Yellow band on second abdominal segment attains the lateral margin; 

all three abdominal bands often interrupted; black stripes on front of 
female thinning out before reaching the antennae; antennae and hind leg 

usually dark ^_, • '. 

■' emarginata 

The yellow band of the second abdominal segment is separated by a distinct 
black interval from the lateral margin, the abdominal bands usually dis- 
tincly narrowed at the ends; black stripe on front of female reaches the 
antennae, slightly expanded below; antennae aiid hind legs usually lighter 

43 X. emarginata Say. Two males, Wauseon, and seven females, 
Ira; August 23 to September 9. 

44 X. felix Osten Sacken. Very near to A", emarginata. Six 
females, Ira, Wauseon; August 2)^, September 7. (Fig. 223.) 

45 X. flavipes Loew. Four males, Sandusky, Cincinnati, Hinck- 
le}-; one female Ira; early June to late August. 

Mesogramma I.oew ( Toxouiems) 

1 Hind femora in male thickened and arcuate, the tibiae dilated at tip geminata 
Hind femora in male simple 2 

2 Scutellum yellow, legs yellow, except the hind tarsi 3 

Scutellum black with yellow margin; front of female much narrowed above 

hind femora in part black *<56>i-m Macq . (Montreal, N. J., Fla., Ga.) 

Scutellum black or brown with a yellow border; front of female above only 
a little narrowed; hind femora wholly yellow marginata vart 

3 Front of female only a little narrowed above; third to fifth abdominal seg- 

ments with narrow lateral yellow margins. marginata 

Front of female much narrowed above; third to fifth abdominal segments no 
yellow on the margins polita 

46 M. geminata Say. Five males and one female, Columbus. 
Medina, Wauseon; early May to mid-September. (Fig. 213.) 

Syrp. 7 


47 M. marginata vSay. A ver}- abundant species, variable in the 
extent and distinctness of the black markings on the abdomen. Specimens at 
hand from Columbus, Ira, Medina, Akron, Lakeville; May to vSeptember. 

48 M. polita vSa}'. Eight specimens, Columbus, Lakeville, Medina, 
Portsmouth; late March to earl}- September. 

Sphaerophoria St. Fargeau and Serville 

1 Hypopygium large with a tuft of yellow pile below the globular part in 

front 2 

Hypopygium and its pileblackish; yellow thoracic margin distinct only to the 
suture; abdomen all black except for a narrow, interrupted, translucent 
fascia on the hinder part of the second, and a pair of large translucent quad- 
rate spots on the front part of the third abdominal segments nigricauda 

2 Larger spacies about 10 mm. long; yellow thoracic margins distinct to the scu- 

tellum; black median stripe on front of female narrowing below; narrow 
black fasciaon the oral margin in front; pecular color design on fourth and 

fifth abdominal segments in the male sp. 

vSmaller species 6 to 10 mm. the yellow thora cic margins distinct only to the 
suture; black stripe on front of female widened below above the antennae, 
black fascia on oral margin in front indistinct or wanting cylindrica 

49 S. cylindrica (Say). For descriptions of life-stages see Part II. 
p., 59. Abundant, Lakeville, Columbus, Akron, Vinton, Ira; April 21 
to October, especially abundant June and July. 

S. sp.? This form seems more or less distinct from cylindrica as 
indicated above but it may be a variety of the former. The abdominal 
color pattern suggests that it may be the ^. scripta Linne of Europe and 
Canada. Numerous specimens, male and female, Eakeville, Ira, Colum- 
bus; mid-June to mid-September. 

50 S. nigricauda Hine (Mss.) One male, Sandusky Hine, very dis- 
tinct from the other species of the genus, 

Pelecocera Meigen 
^P. pergaudei^\\\s\.. (D. C.) 

Sphegina Meigen 

1 Front in female much longer than broad 2 

2 Fifth abdominal segment in female considerably broader than long; posterior 

part of abdomen in males, dark brown or black, marked with yellow or red- 
dish; cross-bands interrupted or entire; hind femora dark brown at least on 

distal half. lobata 

Fifth abdominal segment in female but little broader than long .3 

3 Thorax more or less black; posterior part of abdomen in male reddish-brown 

unmarked; hind femora light brown or reddish-yellow on distal half 



Thorax not at all black (female); reddish-yellow; abdomen 3-ellow with black 
markings *kceniana Willst. (Phila., N. H., N. J.) 

Thorax entirely reddish (male); abdomen entirely reddish, shining 
campanulata Robertson (111. ) 

51 S. campanulata Robertson, One male, Cincinnati, June 23, 1900 

52 S. rufiventris IvOew. Tliree specimens, Vinton; mid-June. 

53 S. lobata IvOew. Three females, Medina, Vinton, Cincinnati 
mid-June and mid-August; one male Hinckley, last of July. 

Neoascia Williston 

54 N. globosa Walker. One female has the front and thorax black 
without any aeneous, the abdominal spots triangular, with apex towards 
the sides and the four front tibiae and femora with distinct narrow dark 
rings. Five females and an equal number of males, Columbus, Akron, 
Ira, Hawkins; mid-May to mid-August. 

Rhingia Scopoli 

^"^ R. nasicaSa}'. Seven specimens, Medina, Akron, Ira, Wauseon 
mid-Jul}- to early September. One male bears the label "on horse." 
(Fig. 227.) 

Brachyopa Meigen 

56 B. vacua Osten Sacken. One male, Columbus, May 6, '"ow Prunus 
serotina." One female, Cincinnati, April 30, 1904 (Dur}-). 

Volucella Goeffrey 

1 Thorax and abdomen very thickly pilose, that on the thorax and pleurae wholly 

yellow; face much excavated below the antennae, black or chestnut; arista 
very long and densely plumose; second segment of the abdomen yellow on 

the sides; wings with dark brown spot; large species evecta 

Thorax and abdomen not densely pilose 2 

2 Second vein bent into the sub-marginal cell near the end; wings sub-fasciate 

with brown; cheeks with a narrow yellow stripe; thud joint of antennae not 
notched above, face produced downwards; pleurae with five or six yellow 

spots; yellow abdominal bands entire; small species fasciata 

vSecond vein not bent into the sub-marginal cell near the end, wings hyaline 
with a faint brown spot at the tip of the auxiliary vein, thorax and abdo- 
men resplendent coppery, green or violet, the base of the latter yellow or 
translucent vesiculosa 

57 V. evecta Walker. Three specimens, Columbus, Ira, Kent; June, 
July. (Fig. 222.) 


58 V. fasciata Macquart. One male, Sandusky; June 17. 

59 V. vesiculosa ( Fabrici us). Two males, Cincinnati, July 3, igoo 
one female, Cincinnati, June 20, 1901. 

Sericomyia Meigen 

1 Second abiloiuinal segment with two yellow dotsor wholly black; hind femora 

of male considerably thickened militaris 

Second abdominal segment with a median, interrupted fascia; yellow bands 
narrowly interrupted, the spots not constricted 2 

2 Fourth segment (in the male at least) without yellow cross-bands 

*bifasc!ata Willst. ( N. H. , Pa. , N. Y. ) 

Second, third and fourth abdominal segments each with a median interrupted 
fascia; the elongate spots thrs formed, oblique, not con.^tricted in the middle 

60 S. chrysotoxoides Macquart. One male. Medina; July 22. 

61 S. militaris Walker. One female, Columbus, May 30, "at light." 
(Fig. 238.) 

Eristalis Latreille 

1 Scutellum of the same color as the thorax, abdomen without light markings, 

wholly shilling; eyes bare (except on uppermost part) with small round 
dark spots (sometimes disappearing after death); dorsum of thorax in 

female distinctly vittate; arista bare aeneus 

Scutellum more or less yellowish or reddish; eyes distinctly pilose, not so 
spotted 2 

2 Third segment of abdomen wholly shining, without opaque spots or bands 3 
Third abdominal segment with opaque markings 5 

3 Pile of eyes not confined to a vertical stripe; the black of second abdominal 

segment at least in part opaque; wings hyaline, femora not thickened. . . 11 

Pile of eyes mostly confined to a vertical stripe; abdomen wholly shining; 

large species 4 

4 Honey-bee like in appearance; moderately pilose; base of tibiae yellowish; 

posterior tarsi blackish; arista nearly bare tenax 

Bumble-bee like in appearance; thorax and abdomem with thick long pile; 
arista plumose, hind tarsi red f lavipes 

5 Thorax with one or more distinct light dusted transverse bands; front in 

female narrow above q 

Thorax without such transverse bands 6 

6 Thickly pilose species. Third abdominal segment with a posterior opaque 

cross-band; fourth segment wholly shining bastardi 

Moderately pilose species 7 

7 Third abdominal segment with a posterior, velvety black cross-band not 

interrupted in the middle , 8 

Third segment with an interrupted opaque cross-band behind and a similar 
spot in front; ihe opaque of second segment with a triangular shining spot 
behind; fourth segment with an oval spot in front dimidiatus 


8 Third segment with an opaque spot in front, broadly and conspicuously yel- 
low on the sides, joining the yellow of the second segment; the black of the second 
segment wholly opaque not extending outwards on the sides behind; fourth segment 
metallic; eyes briefly contiguous in the male ineigenii(brousi Willst. ) 

Third segment not conspicuously yellow, the posterior opaque fascia of 
second segment behind reaching toward the lateral margin, the side-spots inconspic- 
ouous; third and fourth segments with a narrow anterior velvety fascia; eyes broadlj- 
contiguous in the male; front of female narrow; deep bluish-black; scutellum but very 
little lighter *Saxoriim Wied. (Pa., N. J., Mass., Conn., Ga., N. C.) 

9 Hind femora slender; frontal triangle and front below (female) with black pile, 
arista 1)riefly pilose; opaque black of second segment extends nearly the whole width 
of the front border transversus 

Hind femora dilated or thickened 10 

10 Front of triangle thickly white pilose, lower part of front in the female not 
wholly so; third abdominal segment wholly opaque in the male; with a shining 
cross-band, and the second segment broadly black in the middle in female. Dorsum 
of thorax, besides the front border with two completelight cross-bands (female) or 
only one along suture (male) *albifroiis Wied. (Car., Ga., Fla) 

Pile of lower part. of front or the frontal triangle wholly white or yellow; 
third abdominal segment with a shining cross-band, second segment narrowly black 
in the middle, dorsum of thorax with two complete light cross-bands, besides the 

front border ''•vinetoniDi Fab (Phila., Fla.) 

II vSecond segment of abdomen with yellow lateral triangles, and a posterior 
interrupted or sub-interrupted velvety cross-band; posterior margin of segments 2-4 

yellowish white with a fringe of pale golden pile latifrons 

Second segment except the obsolete or metallic side spots, which extend the 
whole length of the segment, velvety black; third usually with a velvety triangle in 
front; the fourth with a similar but very small one; the yellowish white hind borders 
fringed less conspicuously with light colored pile meigenii 

62 E. aeneus vScopoli. For description of larva, pupa and adult see 
Part II. p. 61. Numerous .specimens, mid- April and late vSeptember. 
Cohimbtis, Cincinnati. 

63 E. bastardiiMacquart. Seven males and three females, Columbus, 
Sandusky, Castalia, Akron; late April to late 

64 E. meigenii Wied. One male, one female, Akron and Castalia; late 
June and mid-Julw Three males, Lakeville; mid-June. 

65 E. dimidiatus Wiedemann. A very abundant species the first of 
A])ril about willow {Salix .sp.); 50 specimens, Lakeville, Columbus, 
Sanduskv, Ira, Vinton, Georgesville ; late March to earl\- October. 
(Fig. 252.) 

66 E. flavipes Walker. Seven males and three females, Columbus,, Milan; middle of May to late August. (Fig. 221. ) 

67 E. latifrons Loew. Taken b}- Dury at Cinciiuiati. Ai)ril 4 to 
October 30. 


68 E. tenax Unne. The "drone fly." Cosmopolitan, eveo^here 
abundant from early spring to late autumn. 

69 E. transversus Wiedemann. Numerous specimens, I^akeville, 
Columbus, Sandusky, Ira, Wauseon; first of April and last of August. 

Meromacrus Rondani 

70 M. acutus Fab. A male, Cincinnati, Sept. i, 1909 (Dury). See 
Journal Cine. Soc. Nat. Hist. Vol. XXI, p. 62. 

Tropidia Meigen 

1 Femora black, at the tip testaceous; the hind femora below, near the base, 
with a strong mammiform process, {male) *>namillata Loew (111., Kan., Neb.) 

2 Front and middle femora yellow on distal end; hind femora without such 
process near the base quadrata 

3 Antennae large, reaching nearly to the oral margin, hind coxae of male with a 
large obtuse spur *calcarata Willist (Mich., N.J.) 

7 1 T. quadrata Say. One female has a broad, strongly arcuate, black 
band in the middle of the third segment, well separated from the margins, 
expanded on the middle line in front. Two females are only about eight 
millimeters long. Numerous specimens, Sandtisky, Columbus, Hinckley, 
Wauseon; May 23 to Sept. 10. (Figs. 229, 233.) 

Helophilus Meigen 

1 Face jutting forward into a sharp cone conostomus 

Face not conically produced forwards 2 

2 Sixth longitudinal vein distinctly sinuous; light colored species, stripes of tho- 

rax distinct ?> 

Sixth vein nearly straight or only gently curved; antennae reddish-yellow... 4 

3 Front of female black pilose; front of male narrow above similis 

Front of female black pilose only near the ocelli ; front of male broad . . . .latifrons 

4 Abdomen elongate, cylindrical in the male • 8 

Abdomen oval; face yellow; dorsum of thorax with distinct light colored stripes 


5 Third abdominal segment, except a small opaque spot in front, and the fourth, 

shining sub-metallic black bilinearis 

Third and fourth segments distinctly banded 6 

6 Hind femora yellow in the middle, abdomen predominately yellow. . .flavifacies? 
Hind femora in large part black above; luteous fasciae of the abdomen broad, 

the first narrowly interrupted, the remainder entire 

^integer Loew(N. Y.N., J.) 

Hind femora with a black ring at the middle 7 

7 Arista wholly black; yellow of each of the principal abdominal segments di- 

vided into two moderately curved lunules divisus 

Arista black at the tip; abdomen with much yellow laetus 


8 Hind coxae of the male with a stout process below chrysostomus 

Hind coxae of the male not with a stout process 

'^distindus Willst. (Conn., Va., Pa., N. J.) 

72 H. bUinearis Williston. Five males, Columbus; April 28 to May 2. 

73 H. chrysostomus Wiedeman. Five males and two females, Dan- 
ville, Medina,; June 10 to July 12. 

74 H. conostomus Williston. Fourteen specimens, males and females; 
Sandusky, Columbus, Hinckley; May 2 to July 20. 

75 H, divisus lyoew. One male and one female, Sandusky, Kent, 
mid-June and early July. 

76 H. flavifacies? Bigot. I place here with some que.stion, two males, 
Medina, and Sandusky; July. 

77 H. laetus Loew. One male, Columbus, mid-May; 30.specimens, 
males and females, Sandusky, May 30 to August 21. 

78 H. latifronsl^oew. Fifteen specimens, males and females, Colum- 
bus, Lakeville, Sandusky, Ira, Vinton; April i to October 20. 

79 H. similis Macquart. 25 specimens, males and females, Columbus, 
Lakeville, Wauseon, Georgesville, Cleveland, Jeffenson, Ira; March 29 to 
October 22. (Figs. 218, 219, 246.) 

Mallota Meigen 

1 Eyes pilose; more or less of the base of the abdomen with yellow pile 


Eyes bare 2 

2 Eyes contiguous in the male; abdomen almost wholly black pilose; hind tibiae 

of the male with a stout spur in the middle (form Baiitins) or wholly 

without such spur . • • ■ cimbiciformis 

Eyes separated in the male; front of female broader than in 31. posfuaia and 
cimbiciformis *illinoisensis Robertson (111. ) 

80 Mallota cimbiciformis Fallen. Three males all of form Baidius, 
four females smaller; Hinckley. Medina,; mid-June to Aug. 8. 

81 M. posticata Fabricius. Eight specimens, Hinckley, \Vau.seon,, Ira; of May to last of 

Triodonta Williston 

82 T. curvipes Wiedemann. Two males, one female, Ca.stalia; mid- 

Teuchocnemis Osten Sacken 

*r. /iliiratus Loew. (Pa., Conn., Mo., Quebec.) 


Pterallastes Loew. 

83 P. thoracicus Loew. Eight males and one female, Hinckley, Ira, 
Ft. Ancient, Cincinnati (Dury); June 10 to late August. 

Senogaster Macquart 

'^S. con/s^od-/ WiWst. (N. Y.) 

Syritta St. Fargeau and Serville 

84 S. pipiens Linne. Abundant; specimens from Eakeville, Colum- 
bus, Medina, Sandusky, Wauseon; early May to early October. The 
males have an area of enlarged facets above. One female has front all 
black, mcstly shining; the face also dark brown. (Figs. 232, 234.) 

Xylota Meigen 

1 Legs wholly black; hind femora much thickened 2 

Legs not wholly black 3 

2 Wholly black ; wings black chalybea 

Abdomen chiefly red; the second segment with a basal black triangle; wings 

nearly hyaline pigra 

3 Second and third abdominal segments (at least) red 4 

Second and third segments wholly black, or with yellow spots 6 

4 Abdomen wholly red except the first segment; hind coxae of the male without 

a tooth below *buolor Loew (111., Pa., N. J.) 

Abdomen except the first segment, not wholly red 5 

5 Second abdominal segment with a basal black triangle; the 2-4 segments wilh 

narrow lateral black margins marginalis 

Abdomen not so marked; hind coxae of male with a spur below 

*flavitibia Bigot (Cal., Col., Nebr., D. C, N. M.) 

6 Front and middle legs and a large part of the hind femora yellow; large 

species; coxae black *cnrripes hoew (N. H., N. Y., Minn., Cal.,) 

Front legs in large part black 7 

7 Abdomen, long, slender, with two distinct yellow spots on the second 

segment • .angustiventris 

Abdomen not unusually slender 8 

8 Abdomen with two pairs of yellow spots 10 

Abdomen wholly black • 9 

9 Third joint of antennae but little longer than broad, subquadrate, reddish- 

brown; the two basal joints black ; arista luteous at the base anthreas 

Third joint large, much longer than broad elongata 

10 Hind femora much thickened, smaller species; arista yellow at the l)ase 


Hind femora moderately thickened 1 1 


II Fourth abdominal segment brilliant bronze; third longitudinal vein gently 

curved; arista wholly luteous analis 

Fourth abdominal segment black; third vein quite straight; arista whollv 
black ejuncida 

8.5 X. analis Williston. One male, Sandusky; July 7. 

86 X. anthreas ? Walker. One male, Columbus, May 10, seems to fit 
very closely Williston' s description for the female except that the pile of 
the thoracic dorsum is erect, not appressed. 

87 X. angustiventrls Loew. Three males, Hinckley, lyondon; late 
May to early August. « 

88 X. chalybea Wiedemann. Four luales, Medina, Columbus, Cin- 
cinnati; mid- May to early Augtist. 

89 X. ejuncida Say. Abundant, Ira, Hinckley, Columbus, Cincin- 
nati; mid-May to mid- Augtist. Majority of specimens males. 

X. elongata Williston. Considered a synonym of angustivcntn's 
(Aldrich). Three females, Hinckley, Waterloo, Ashtabula; early June 
to early August. 

90 X. fraudulosa Loew. Six males, three females, Cincinnati, 
Coltirabus, Lockbotirne, vSandusky; early May to mid-Jul}'. 

91 X. marginalis Williston. One female, Cincinnati, May 3. 

92 X. pigra Fabricius. Taken by Dur\' at Cincinnati, May 14, 
1906, and June 26, 1904. 

Chrysochlamys Rondani 

1 Hind border of the second and third abdominal segments black, opaque; 

arista reddish 2 

2 Face in the middle with a V-shaped black spot; legs reddish-yellow dives 

Facial spot indistinct in outline; front femora at the base and the tip of all the 

tarsi black *buccata Loew, female ( Va. ) 

93 C. dives Osten Sacken. Two females, Medina, Sandusky; late 
June, early July. 

Brachypalpus Macquart 

1 Hind femora with short bristles below; abdomen with brilliant metallic cross- 

bands {CaUiprobola) : dorsum of thorax yellow pilose, 

*sorosis Willst. (Ga., N. J. ) 

Hind femora not with bristles below; abdomen uniformly black 2 

2 Legs wholly black: abdomen uniform black rileyi 

Lfg-! in part yellow; hind femora toward the end, the hind tibiae before tlie 

middle and at the lower end, spurred in the male; length 10 mm. or ninre 


94 B. frontosus Loew. One male, I^ondon, April 19. 

95 B. rileyi Williston. Two males, one female, Columbus, Cincin- 
nati; April 21 to May 6. 

Merapioidus Bigot 

96 M.villosus Bigot. One female, Hinckley, two females, Lakeville, 
April I (on Sa/ix). (Figs. 225, 226.) 

Crioprora Osten Sacken 
*C cya?iogaster hoQw (Pa., Col., Montreal.) 

Criorhina Meigen 

Face produced downwards and forwards; males dichoptic; ground 
color black, thickly pilose Sub-genus Criorhina 

Face produced downwards, convex below; males holoptic, ground 

color with ^xllow markings, moderateh' pilose ... 

vSub-genus Cyiiorhina Williston 

Face produced downwards, convex below; eyes dichoptic, moder- 
ately pilose, in large part yellow Sub-genus Souuila Macquart 


97 C. verbosa Walker. 12 specimens, Lakeville, March 31, April 
i; one, Ira, March 29. 

( Cynorhina ) 

1 Face without yellow produced somewhat forwards below; second segment of 

abdomen broadly and third and fourth narrowly on the sides, 5'ellow 


Face in large part yellow 2 

2 Face with a median shining black stripe; second segment of the abdomen on 

the sides, continued more narrowly on the third, yellow intersistens 

Face yellow. Without a median black stripe 3 

3 Front of female wholly yellow; abdomen black except a large part of fourth 
and the whole of the fifth segments, which are bright orange yellow 

*aiialis Macq. ( N. J. Can. L I. ) 

Front of female black on upper jiart 4 

4 Abdomen with two to four pairs of yellow side-spots touching the lateral mar- 
gins *nota(a Wied (Ga., Car. ) 

Abdomen with yellow markings as follows: sides of first segment, an inter- 
rupted or sub-interrupted anterior fascia on second segment expanded in 
the middle, and the remainder of the segments especially the fourth with 
a narrow posterior margin; elsewhere black shining pictipes? 



98 C. {Cviuviiiua) intersistens. Walker. Two males, Cincinnati, 
Vinton; mid- May and earlx" June. 

99 C. {Cy)iorhina) pictipes? Bigot. Two male.? and one female. Ft. 
Ancient and West Jefferson earl\- June, correspond fairh* with my trans- 
lation of Bigot's description. 

100 C. (Cv)ior/iiua) umbratilis Willi.ston. One male Ohio, May 22, 
190 1. 

( Somula) 

loi C. (Sonmla) decora Macquart. One male, two females. Hanging 
Rock, Vinton, Flint; mid- May to earl}^ June. 

Milesia lyatreille. 

102 M. virginiensis Drury. (^rwa/a Fabricius). Numerous specimens 
of this magnificent .species, Sandusky, Ira, Akron, Wau.seon, Vinton, 
Hinckley, Port.smouth; June to early September. (Figs. 231, 237.) 

Spilomyia Meigen. 

r Second joint of antennae ninch longer than the first (x 1.75); second segment 
of the abdomen with a broad arcuate yellow band, the third and fourth with 

a slender median one quadrifasciata 

Second joint of the antennae not much longer than the first; abdomen not so 
marked 2 

2 Abdomen yellow; first segment, except the lateral angles, black, each of the 

following segments with two narrow black bands, the one on the anterior 

margin entire, the others interrupted hamifera 

Abdomen black with yellow cross bands 3 

3 First and second abdominal segments wholly black, third with a posterior 

cross band, fourth with two, the anterior one interrupted; abdomen broadly 

oval , fusca 

First segment with a yellow side spot, the following each with two cross-bands, 
the first cross-band entire, the third and fifth may be very narrowly inter- 
rupted, not dilated on the sides longicornis 

103 S. fusca Loew. One male, two females, Hinckley, Ira, earl\- 

104 S. hamifera lyoew. Five specimens, Hinckle}', Ft. Ancient; 
early Jime and August i. (Fig. 228.) 

105 S. longicornis Loew. Fifteen specimens, Blendon, Hinckle\-, 
Wau.seon, Medina, vSandusky; July 10 to September 11. 

106 S. quadrifasciata Sa>-. Fifteen .specimens, Wau.seon, Blendon, 
Jefferson; Atigust 28 to September 11. 


Sphecomyia Latreille 

107 S. vittata Wiedemann. One male, one female, West Jefferson; 
mid-Ma}" and early June. (Figs. 236, 239.) 

Temnostoma vSt. Fargeaii and Serville 

1 Abdomen with three or four } ellow poUinose cross-bands of nearly equal 

width bombylans 

Abdomen of female has only three yellow pollinose cross-bands; the wings 

brown in front, this color not extending behind the fourth longitudinal vein; 

otherwise close to bojnhvlans *trifasciaia Robertson ( 111. ) 

Abdomen broadly oval, with more than four cross-bands, of unequal width. . 2 

2 The thorax has, in addition to the other spots, two on each side made by the 

interruption of the sutural stripe 4 

The thorax has, in addition to the other spots, only one elongate spot on each 
side; femora mostly yellow; distal part of abdomen with broad yellow and 
very narrow black cross-bands 3 

3 Scutellum except the base, densely yellow pollinose pictulum 

Sculletum, except the base, shining metallic excentricum 

4 Second segment of abdomen with a broad anterior cross-band, distal segments 

with three transverse black spots alternans 

Second segment without anterior cross-band, distal segments with a broad 

interrupted black cross-band; pile of scutellum black 

*ve}iiista Willst. (Lake Superior, Mass., N. H ) 

108 T. alternans Loew. Seven .specimens, Ira, Medina; June 10 to 
August 15. 

109 T. bombylans Fabricius. Six males and two females, Ira, 
Cohim1)us, Cincinnati; mid-May to mid-June. 

no T. excentrica Harris. Seven specimens, Ira, Cinciiuiati; June. 

(Fig. 235.) 

Ill T. pictula Williston. Four .specimens, Cincinnati; early Jtme. 

Ceria Fabricitis {Ceriodcs) 

Antennal process almost wholly wanting, first joint of antennae very slen- 
iler, nearly as long as the two following together; face vertical not at all excavated in 
profile; second segment of the abdomen much constricted, third and fourth seg- 
ments each with two arcuated spots willistoni 

Antennal process slender, longer than first joint of antennae; second to foiirtli 
abdominal segments without yellow spots in addition to bands of hind margin; 
second segment much shorter than the third; third longitudinal vein bent deeply into 
first posterior cell abbreviata 


112. C. abbrevlata lyoew. vSix specimens, lyakeville et. al. loc. June 
15 and 27. 

113. C. willistoni Kahl. Three taken by Dur^^ at Cincinnati, May 22. 
'^Ceria signifera IyOew,(a bred specimen, Pa.)- 

{Cei'ia signifera Loew of Williston, vSynop. N. A. vSyrph. p. 
2 64 =^ C 7i 'illiston i. ) 


The following bibliography makes no pretensions to being exhaustive nor complete 
even in any restricted sense. I have simply cited, for convenience, some of the more 
important papers which I have found useful in the present studies. Furthermore the 
reference^ given in Part 11. of the piper, are in some cases not repeated here. 

Aldrich, J. M. 

Cacalog of N. A. Diptera, Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, No. 1444, 1905; 
Review of the Species of Copestylum, Ent. News 21, pp. 222-225. 

Brauer, Friedrich 

Die Zvveiflugler des Kaiserlichen Museums 7,u Wein III. In Band XLVII. 1883, 
a systematic study of Dipteron larvae. 

Coquillett, D. W. 

Diptera of the Harriman Alaska Expedition, Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., II. 389-464; 
Dec. 1900. 

Hine, Jas. S. 

Proc. Ohio Acad. Sci. Vol. II. pp. 48-54, 1899, a list of 25 Ohio species. 
Ohio Naturalist, II., 229. 

Hubbard, H. G. 

"Iii^ajts Affecting the Orange," U. S. Dipt, of Ag. Div. Ent. pp. 181, 182, 1885. 

Hunter, W. D. 

A Contribution to the knowledge of North American Syrphidae I. Canad. Ento. 
XXVIII. pp. 87-101, Apr. 1896; do. II. Canad. Ento. XXIX. pp. 121-144, June, 
1897: The Henus Chilosia, Canad. Ento. XXVIII. pp. 227-233, Sept. 1896. 

Lintner, J. A. 

Reports of the N. Y. Slate Entomologist: F^irst Report, 1882, Mallota posticata 
life stages, pp. 211-216. Seventh Report, 1891, Helophilus latifrons, life-stages 
pp. 228-234. 

Loew, Hermann 

Diptera Americae septentrionalis indigina. In Berliner Entomol. Zeitsch. 
Centuria, I to X. 

Macquart, Jean 

Dipteris Nouveaux ou pen Connus, 2 Vols, and 5 Suppl. 

Osten Sacken, C. R. 

On the Oxen-born Bees of the Ancients (Bugonia) and their Relation to Eristalis 
tenax, Heidelberg, J. Hoerning pp. XVI. and 80, 1894. 

Riley, Chas. V. 

First Report State Ento. Mo. 1869. Life-history Pipiza radicuni. 


Riley and Howard, L. O. 

The Corn-Feeding Syrphus-Fly. Insect Life, I. 5-8, i{ 

Robertson, Chas. 

Some Diptera (Illinois) Canad. Ento. XXXIII. p. 284. 

Schiner, J. R. 

Fauna Austrica, Diptera, Vienna 2 Vols. 1862-64. 

Smith, J. B. 

"Plant Lice and How to Deal with Them," N. J. Ag. College, Ex. Sta. Bull 72 pp, 
11-14, 1890: Noteon Habits of Volucella fasciata Canad. Ento. XXIII. 242, 243, 

Snow, W. A. 

Notes and Descriptions of Syrphidae, Kans. Univ. Quat. I. 33-40, 1892; do. III. 
249-262, 1895; do. III. 225-247, 1895. 

Townsend, C. H. T. 

Contributions to Dipterology of N. A., I. Syrphidae. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc- 
XXII. 33-55; Mch. 1895. 

Verrall, G. H. 

British Flies, Vol. VHI. London, Gurney and Jackson, 1901. 

Walsh, B. D. 

American Ento. I. p. 83, Jan. 1869 on larva of Pipiza. 

Westcott, Oliver C. 

Distribution of Some N. A. Syrphidae. Ent. News. VIII. 190, 191; Oct. 1897. 

Wheeler, Wm. M. 

Microdon Larvae in Pseudomyrma Nests. Psyche, July 1901, 222, fig; Journ. N. Y. 
Ent. Soc. Vol. 16, pp. 202-210, Dec. 1908. "Ants" p. 383, fig. 227, Microdon 
tristis larva. 

Wiedemann, C. R. W. 

Aussereuropaische Zweiflugelige Insekten, 2 Vols. 12 plates; Hamni. 1828 and 

Williston, Samuel W. 

Synopsis N. A. Syrphidae, Bull. U. S. Natl. Museum, No. 31, Wash. 1886. 
Manual of N. A. Diptera (3rd ed.) New Haven, Conn. Hathaway, 1908; Copes- 
tylum marginatum and Volucella fasciata reared from Cactus, Ent. News. II. 161. 
Oct. 1891. 




Didca fasciata fuscipcs I^oew 

Fig. I Adult female X 6. 

Fig. 2 Larva about six times naUiral size; a, anterior spiracle; b, caudal spiracles. 

Fig. 3 Antero-ventral view of head and mouth-parts of larva, enlarged; a, upper 
jaw with a small pair of booklets at the side; b, lower jaw; c and d, lateral 
booklets; e, antennae; f, sense papillae. 

Fig. 4 Right anterior spiracle much magnified. 

Fig. 5 Posterior breathing organs enlarged; a, one of the radiating spiracles. 

Fig. 6 Dorsal view of puparium a little more than five times natural size; a, caudal 

Fig. 7 Puparium from the side showing arrangement of spines and line of cleav- 
age for escape of adult. 

Fig. 8 Head of male in profile. 






'I.:- ' 


-S ;' 

■:.* ■/'■ *. 


: 5« 



Syi-p S 









Syrphus torvKs Loew 

Adult male, natural size and enlarged. 

Larva, natural size and enlarged; a, anterior spiracle; b, posterior spiracle. 

Antero-ventral view of head and mouth-parts much enlarged; a and b, 

upper and lower jaws partially separated; c, outer pair of mouth hooks; d 

and e, two inner pairs of mouth-hooklets; f, antennae; g. anterior spiracle; 

h, sense papillae. 
Fig. 12 Anterior spiracle of larva highly magnified. 
Fig. 13 Posterior breathing appendages much enlarged; a, one of the six caudal 

Fig. i^ Puparium from above, natural size and enlarged; a, posterior spiracles. 
Fig. 15 Puparium from side showing line of clea vage for escpe of adult. 
Fig. 16 Head of female in profile. 




C L. Mi'.'iXAi.i'" 











Figures 21-30 Paragus bicolor (Fab.) 

Fig. 21 Mature larva x 10; a, antennae; b, anterior spiracle; c, posterior respiratory 

A segmental spine of the larva x 40. 

Antero-lateral view of mouth-parts of larva, much enlarged; a, outer pair of 
moulh-hooks; b. broad chitinous plates surrounding the esophagus; c, 
antennae; d, upper jaw; e, three pairs of lateral mouth-hooks; f, lower jaw. 
Right anterior spiracle highly magnified. 

Dorsal view of posterior respiratory organ x 60; a, the dorsal spine; b, one 
of the radiating spiracles. 

Fig. 26 End view of posterior respiratory organ x 70; a, its dorsal spine; b, a spira- 
cle; c, the circular plate. 

Fig. 27 Dorsal view of puparium x 5; a, posterior respiratory organ; b, median seg- 
mental spine of sixth larval segment; c, dorsal and d, dorso-lateral spines 
of sixth and seventh larval segments, respectively. 

Fig. 28 Lateral view of puparium X 5; a, posterior respiratory organ; b, median 
spine; d, dorso-lateral spine; e, lateral spine; f, posterior ventro-lateral; and 
g, anterior ventro-lateral. 

Fig. 29 Adult male about seven times natural size. 

Fig. 30 Front view of head of female x 12. 

Figures 31-38 Paragus tibialis Fallen. 

FJo-. 31 Posterior part of a young larva from the side greatly enlarged. 

Fig. 32 Segmental spine of a full grown larva x 40. 

F'K- 33 Dorsal view of posterior respiratory organ of larva x 60; a, the dorsal spine; 
b, one of the paired radiating spiracles. 

Fig. 34 End view of posterior respiratory organ x 60; a, its dorsal spine; b, a spira- 
cle; c, the circular plate. 

Lateral view of puparium x 5; a, posterior resj'iratory organ. 
Puparium which has been parasitized by hymenopteron, Bassns ladatorius 
showing typical form and the irregular hole thru which the parasite has 

Outline drawing of adult male from the side x 8. 
Head of female x 12. 



















































Syrp/uis amcricanus Wied. 

Egg from the side x 17. 
Dorsal view of egg x 1 7. 

A small part of the surface of egg-shell showing sculpturing, highly 

Adult male about 5 times natural size. 

Larva just hatched x 59; a, posterior respiratory a])pendage. 
Full-grown larva x 7; a, antennae; b, anterior spiracle; c, posterior respira- 
tory appendage. 

Anterior view of larva, much enlarged, showing mouth-parts, antennae 
etc.; a, right anterior spiracle; Ij, antennae; c, upper jaw; d, lower jaw; e, 
the three pairs of mouth-hooks. 

Dorsal view of right anterior spiracle, highly magnified. 
End or posterior view of posterior respiratory organ x 55; a, dorsal spirac- 
ular spine; b, one of the three pairs of slit-like spiracles. 
Side or dorsal vie w of posterior respiratory organ x 55 ; lettering as in Fig. 49. 
Appearance of a part of the puparium externally in the region of the mouth- 
parts much enlarged; a, right anterior spiracle with short piece of trachea 
attached; b, lower jaw of larva; c, upper jaw of larva; d, chitinous esopha- 
geal framework; e, mouth-hooks of larva. 
Hind leg of pupa showing flexure of tibiae at a. 

.All early pupal stage from the side; a, b, and c, developing legs; d, wing- 
pad; e, mouth-parts. 

A much later pupal stage, ventral view; a, the delicate investing membrane. 
Dorsal view of puparium x 5; a, posterior respiratory organ. 
Outline of puparium from the side. The dotted outline is given to show 
the typical shape of a parasitized puparium. 
Lateral view of head of female x 7. 

Larva of parasite, Bassiis laetatorius, mouth-parts at a, ventral view. 
Pupa of J>. laetaforius, ventral view. 
Figs. 53, 54, 58, and 59 each about 5 times natural size. 
















Figures 61-70 AUograpta obliqiia (Say) 

Egg X 20, from the side. 

Dorsal view of egg x 20. 

The sculpturing of the egg-shell, highly magnified. 

Adult female x 7. 

Young larva just hatched, X50 ; a, antennae; b, internal esophageal frame- 
work; c, the posterior respiratory tubes. 
Fig. 66 Mature larva x 9; a, antennae ; b, position of anterior spiracles; c, posterior 

respiratory tubes. 
Fig. 67 Antero-ventral view of head of larva much enlarged; a, antennae; b, upper 

jaw; c, outer pair of mouth-hooks; d, lateral mouth-hooklets; e, internal 

esophageal framework; f, lower jaw. 
Fig. 68 End view of posterior respiratory appendage; a, one of the spiracles; b, the 

circular plate; c, the in lerspiracular spines. 
Fig. 69 Dorsal view of pupariuni x 5; a, posterior respiratory appendage. 
Fig. 70 Lateral view of puparium x 3; a, posterior respiratory appendage. 

Figures 71-78 Sphaerophoria cylindrua (Say) 

Fig. 71 Adult male from the side x 7. 

Fig. 72 Dorsal view of posterior respiratory appendage; a, spiracles; b, circular plate. 

Fig. 73 End view of posterior respiratory appendage; a, circular plate; b, one of the 

three pairs of spiracles. 
Fig. 74 Anterior larval respiratory cornua with spiracles from the side, highly' 

Fig. 75 End view of the same. 

Fig. 76 Mature larva from the side x 6; a, posterior respiratory appendage. 
Fig. 77 Ventral view of head of larva much enlarged; a, antennae; b, upper jaw; c, 

lateral mouth-hooklets; d, the outer pair of mouth hooks; e, esophageal 

framework; f, lower jaw, 
Fig. 78 Lateral view of puparium x 7; a, the posterior respiratory appendage; the 

dotted lines represent other shapes in which the pupal envelope ma}- indurate. 



£ Sf' % ■^^ <^ ?■ 

C. L. Metcai.f 

Syrp. 9 



Figures 81-87 Syrphiis -xanthostoma Wills. 

Fig. 81 Antero-ventral view of head of larva much enlarged; a, sensory papillae; 
b, antennae; c, upper jaw; d, outer pair of mouth-hooks; e, lateral mouth- 
hooklets; f, lower jaw; g, anterior spiracles or larval respiratory cornua; 
h, esophageal framework. 

Fig. 82 Lateral view of larva x 6; a, median segmental spines; b, posterior respir- 
atory appendage. 

Fig. 83 End view of anterior spiracle highly magnified. 

Fig. 84 Dorsal view of posterior respiratory organ x 40; a, one of three pairs of slit- 
like spiracles; b, one of the inter-spiracular spurs; c, the median dorsal spi- 
racularspur; d, the circular plate. 

Fig. 85 End view of posterior respiratory organ, x 50; lettering as in Fig. 84. 

Fig. 86 Dorsal view of puparium x 3; a, posterior respiratory appendage. 

P^ig. 87 Lateral view of puparium X 3 

Figures 91-95 The Cock"s-Comb-Gall Ss^rphus Fly. 

Fig. 91 Ventral view of head of larva, much enlarged; a, outer pair of mouth-hooks 
b, upper jaw; c, antennae; d, lateral moulh-hooklets; e, anterior spiracles 
or larval respirator}- cornua; f, esophageal framework; g, lower jaw. 

Fig. 92 End view of anterior spiracle, highly magnified. 

Fig. 93 Side view of larval respiratory cornua, nmch magnified. 

Fig. 94 End view of posterior respiratory appendage x 40; a, one of the spiracles; 
b, circular plate; c, one of the inter spiracular hairs. 

Fig- 95 The posterior end of the larva from above x 6; a, the posterior respiratory 

Figures 101-103 Platychirus quadratits (Sa3^) 
Fig. loi Puparium from the side x 4. 
Fig. 102 Posterior respiratory appendage as it appears in the pupal stage, end view; 

a, spiracle; b, circular plate; c, inter-spiracular spur. 
Fig. 103 Postero-dorsal view of the posterior respiratory appendage. Lettering as 

in Fig. 102. 

Figures 111-115 Chalcomyia aerea (Loew.) 

Fig. Ill Lateral view of puparium x 4; a, anterior larval respiratory cornua; b, 
pupal respiratory cornua; c, posterior respiratory appendage; d, the anal 
flabellae; e, one of the seven pairs of pro-legs. 

Fig. 112 End view of anterior larval respiratory appendage much enlarged. 

Fig. 113 Side view of the same. 

Fig. 114 Pupal respiratory cornua from the side much enlarged. 

Fig. 115 Two of the numerous tubercles (spiracles) of the pupal cornua highly 

Figures 121, 122, Syrphus sp. 

Fig. 121 Lateral view of puparium x 2.5. 

Fig. 122 Dorsal view of puparium x 2 5. 

Fig. 17 Sculpturing on egg shell of Didea fasciata fuscipes . 





C. L. Metcai,f 



Figures 142-144 inclusive, Eristalis tenax (Linne) ; all 
the others from Eristalis aeneiis (Fabricius), 

Fig. 131 Dorsal view of mature larva X 9; a, antennae; b, anterior larval respiratory 

cornua; c, the large tiaclieal trunks; d, the posterior respiratory tube or 

"rat-tail."' To avoid confusion the vestiture is not represented in this figure. 
P"ig. 132 The anterior larval respiratory cornua, much enlarged, dissected out to show 

the large trachea leading from it. 
Fig. 133 Distal end of respiratory tube highly magnified showing wrinkling on out- 
side, the two inner trachea (a) the spiracles at the tip (b) and the delicate 

feather-like (interspiracular?) appendages (c). 
Fig. 134 A small area of ihe basal segment of the tube much enlarged, showing the 

nature of the vestiture and wrinkling. 
Fig. 135 A small area of the median segment of the tube much enlarged to show the 

nature of the vestiture and wrinkling. 

A, one of the bifid (segmental ? ) hairs of the larva, and b, one of the integ- 

umental hairs of the body, drawn to the same scale as Figs. 134 and 135. 

The anal opening of the larva (a) with the retractile flabellae (b) much en- 

Ventral view of the head of the larva much enlarged; a, antennae; b. mouth 

hood; c, the first pair of pro-legs. 

Mouth-hood and esophageal framework of larva dissected out and much 


The chitinized parts of the esophageal framework from the side; a. mouth- 

hooklets?; b, outer pair of mouth-hooks? 

The same from the ventral view. 

Three eggs from an egg-mass of E . tenax, x 17. 

A small area of the egg-shell to show sculpturing; highly magnified. 

Lateral view of larva of E. tenax, two hours after hatching, x 17; a 

antennae; b, pro-legs; c, trachea; d, posterior respiratory appendage. 
Fig. 145 Lateral view of puparium of E. aeneus x 4; a, anterior larval respiratory 

cornua; b, pupal respiratory cornua; c. posterior respiratory appendage 

("rattail"); d, position of anus; e, pro-legs of larva. 
Fig. 146 Nymph dissected out from puparium x 3; a, the pupal respiratory cornua, 

with their internal connections to the prothoracic spiracle of the adult; b, 

knee of front leg; c, wing-pad; d, scutellum. 
Fig. 147 Pupal respiratory cornua much enlarged showing the numerous tubercles. 
Fig. 148 Two tubercles of pupal respiratory cornua, highly magnified, showing their 

radiating elevations (spiracles?). 





















C. L. Mktcai.f 



Some Gross Anatomy of Syrphidae. 

Fig. 151 Dorsal view of male imago(5)'r/>//«5 sp.) with the principal structural fea- 
tures named. The following names of veins are sometimes used instead of 
those given; 

Mediastinal for auxiliary. 

Sub-costal for ist. longitudinal. 

Radial for 2nd longitudinal. 

Cubital for 3rd longitudinal. 

Discal for 4tli longitudinal. 

Postical for 5th longitvidinal. 

Anal for 6th longitudinal. 

"Vena spuria" for false vein. 

Likewise the following names of cells may be used: 

Mediastinal for costal. 

Cubital for sub-marginal. 

Sub-apical for ist. posterior. 

2nd. posterior for discal. 

Radial for ist. or 2nd. basal. 
Fig. 152 Dorsal view of head of Ceria tridens to show antennae with a terminal 
style (S). 

Figures 153-157 inclusive, mouth-parts of adtilt SyrpJms americanus. 

The labium with sides spread showing the inner surface. 

The maxilla; a, maxillary palp; b, maxillary lobe. 



Proboscis with parts intact. 

I^ateral view of body of Sphacrophoria cyliiidrica with most of appendages 

removed; a, prothorax with the prothoracic spiracle just above the letter; 

b, mesopleura; c, pteropleura; d, sternopleura; e, metapleura; f, hypopleura 

with the metathoracic spiracle directly above the letter. 1-6, abdominal 

Fig- 159 Two branched hairs; a, from Eristalis tenax; b, from Evistalis fJavipes. 
Fig. 160 Olfactory pit from antenna as it appears in section, showing a few of the 

perceptory end-organs. 
Fig. i6[ Outline drawing of median longitudinal section of antenna showing location 

of olfactory pit. 















C. L. JlirrcAi.F 



Figures i8i, 182, Microdon sp. 

Fig. 181 Ventral view of anterior end of larva of Microdon sp. showing the mouth- 
parts; a, the marginal fringe; Zi, antenna; r, mandible-like mouth-hooks; 
c/, t\ the tri-fid lower jaw; very much enlarged. 

Fig. 182 A dorsal view of larva of Microdon sp. showing general appearance, the- 
marginal fringe, the reticulate ornamentation of the dorsum and the pos- 
terior respiratory appendage, x 10. 

Figures 183-187, inclusive, Microdon iristis 

Fig. 183 E:npty pupariuni of Microdon tristis showing general sliape and appear- 
ance; the orifice through which the adult emerged; the posterior respiratory 
appendage, etc. x 5.5. 

Fig. 184 One half of the posterior respiratory appendage showing the arborescent 
stigmatic pattern; (7, the circular plate; x 40. 

Fig. 185 Antero-dorsal view of posterior respiratory appendage, x 40. 

Fig. 186 Anterior pupal respiratory cornuum, which is pushed off with the oper- 
culum; much enlarged showing the tubercles on its surface. 

Fig. 187 A small area of the surface of the pupal cornuum, highly magnified; showing 
the appearance of the tubercle- like spiracles, each with a short piece of 
its afferent trachea, visible thru the integuments. 

Figures 191- 194, inclusive, Mesogramma polita 

Fig. 191 The jaws of the larva as dissected from a pupariiim highly magnified 
The rest of the mouth-parts could not be determined. 

Fig. 192 Lateral view of puparium of JM. polita, x 10, showing general shape; a, 
the posterior respiratory appendage. 

Pift- 193 Antero-dorsal view of posterior respiratory appendage x 75; a, the most 
dorsal of the spiracles which is short, its elevation rounded; b, the dorsal, 
spiracular spine. 

Fig. 194 End view of the posterior respiratory appendage; magnification and let- 
tering same as in Fig. 193; f, d, the two more ventral and elongate spiracles. 




C. L. Metcalf 



Fig. 2or Microdon juscipennis, scutellum, showing the ornamental spines. 

Fig. 202 Microdon tristis, scutellum, showing the ornamental spines. 

Fig. 203 Chalcomyia aerea, female, large, sub-rectangular scutellum. 

Fig. 204 Microdon fuscipennis, antenna. 

Fig. 205 Microdon tristis, antenna. 

Fig. 206 Microdon fuscipennis, male, hind tarsus. 

Fig. 207 Microdon tristis, male, hind tarsus. 

Fig. 208 Pipiza pisticoides, female, face from the side. 

Fig. 209 Chrysogaster nigripes, female, face from the side. 

Fig. 210 Chrysogaster nitida, female, head from in front with antennae removed, 
showing the wrinkling of front and face and the color markings on the 

Fig. 211 Chrysogaster pictipennis, female, wing. 

Fig. 212 Chalcomyia aerea, hind leg showing distinctly thickened femur. 

Fig. 213 Mesogramma geminata, female, vertex and part of the front, showing 
ocelli remote from the vertex. 

Fig. 214 Platychirus hyperboreus, male, front tibia and tarsus. 

Fig. 215 Platychirus peltatus, male, front femur, tibia and tarsus. 

Fig. 216 Platychirus quadratus, male, front tibia and tarsus. 

Fig. 217 Baccha clavata, male, distinctly clubbed abdomen. 

Fig. 218 Helophilus similis, male, dorsal view of head with antennae removed, 
showing shape of front in a dichoptic male. 

Fig 219 Helophilus similis, female, dorsal view of head. 

Fig. 220 Chilosia rvillistonii, female, antero-lateral view of a part of the head to 
show the orbital groove (b); a, facial orbit. 

Fig. 221 Eristalis flavipes, female, antenna with a pubescent arista. 

Fig. 222 Volucella evecta, female, antenna with a plumose arista. 

Fig. 223 Xanthogramma felix, female, lateral view of head showing the face re- 
ceding below. 

Fig. 224 Ocyptamus fuscipennis, female, antero-dorsal view of head showing the 
long front much narrowed above. 

Fig. 225 Rleiapioidus villosns, lateral view of antenna, showing the peculiar shape 
of the third joint. 

Fig. 226 Dorsal view of the same. 

Fig. 227 Rhingia nasica, lateral view of the head showing the long porrect snout. 

Fig. 228 Spilomyia hamifera, female, hind femur and tibia. 

Fig. 229 Tropidia quadrata, female, antero-dorsal view of part of the head showing 
the carinate protuberant face, antennae removed; a, the carina or long- 
itudinal ridge. 

Fig. 230 IMicrodon fuscipennis, wing showing venation; the color pattern is not 



C L. Mktcai^f 



Fig. 231 Milesia virginiensis, wing, showing a closed marginal cell and anterior 
cross-vein beyond middle of discal cell. 

Fig. 232 Syritta pipiens, wing. 

Fig. 233 Tropidia quadrata, hind leg. 

Fig. 234 Syritta pipiens, hind leg, showing femur extraordinarily thickened and its 
color markings. 

Fig. 235 Temnostonia excentricayfeuiate, lateral view of head. 

Fig. 236 Sphecomyia vittata, female, lateral view of head. 

Fig. 237 Mtlesia virginiensis, male, hind femur and tibia. 

Fig. 238 Sericomyia militaris, wing. 

Fig. 239 Sphecomyia vittata, wing. 

Fig. 240 Platychirus hyperboreus, lateral view of head. 

Fig. 241 Chrysotoxutn laterale, male, lateral view of head. 

Fig. 242 Platychirus peltat us, female, lateral view of head. 

Fig. 243 Chilosia pallipes, male, head from the side. 

Fig. 244 Platychirus hyperborcus, female. Showing widened front tibia and tarsus 
characteristic of the genus. 

Fig. 245 Chrysogaster nigripes, female, medial view of antenna. 

Fig. 246 Helophilus similis, wing. 

Fig. 247 Chrysogaster put chella, female, dorso-medial view of antenna. 

Fig. 248 Chrysogaster nitida, male, dorsal view of antenna. 

Fig. 249 Chrysogaster pictipennis, female, dorsal view of antenna. 

Fig. 250 Melanostoma obscurum, male, wing. 

Fig. 251 Eristalis temporalis, male, abdomen except the first segment, illustrating 
the color pattern ; the solid black represents the extent of opaque black mark- 
ings on the specimen ; Ihe stippled area represents shining black ; the uncol- 
ored indicates the yellow or translucent spots or bands. 

Fig. 252 Eristalis dimidiatus, abdomen showing color pattern; conventions as in 
Fig- 251. 





Volume XVIII Number 24 



Catalog of 

Ohio Vascular Plants 

MARCH, 1914 


Entered as second-class matter November 17, 1905, at the postoffice at 
Columbus, Ohio, under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894, 


Herbert Osborn, Director 


operating institutions. 

E. L. Fullmer, 

E. R. Gregory, 
M. E. Stickney, 
W. N. Speckman, 
L. B. Walton, 
Miss M. Getman, 
Bruce Fink, 

F. 0. Grover, 
E. L. Rice, 

H. M. Benedict, 
W. E. SulUvan, 
C. G. Shatzer, 

Board consisting of Representatives from co- 

Baldwin University, 
University of Akron, 
Denison University, 
German Wallace College, 
Kenyon College, 
Lake Erie College, 
Miami University, 
Oberlin College, 
Ohio Wesleyan University, 
University of Cincinnati, 
Western Reserve University, 
Wittenberg' College, 

Berea, 0. 

Akron, O. 

Granville, 0. 

Berea, 0. 

Gambier, 0. 

'Painesville, 0. 

Oxford, 0. 

Oberlin, O. 

Delaware, 0. 

Cincinnati, 0. 

Cleveland, 0. 

Springfield, 0. 


The Bulletins of the Ohio Biological Survey will be issued as 
work on any special subject is completed, and will form volumes of 
about 500 pages each. 

They will be sent to co-operating institutions and individuals, 
libraries and colleges in Ohio and to such surveys, societies and other 
organizations as may offer suitable exchange material. 

Additional copies of each bulletin and of completed volumes will 
be sold at such price as may cover the cost of publication. Special rates 
on quantities to schools for classes. 

Subscription for entire volumes, $2.00 
Price of this number, 50 

All orders should be accompanied by remittance which should be 
made payable to Ohio Biological Survey and sent to the Director. 

Correspondence concerning the Survey, applications for exchanges 
and purchase of copies of Bulletins should be addressed to the Director — 
Professor Herbert Osborn, Columbus, Ohio. 

Volume I Bulletin 2 



Arranged according to the phyletic classification; with notes on 
the geographical distribution in the state, based mainly on specimens 
in the State Herbarium, Botanical Laboratory, The Ohio State Uni- 


Published by 




STATE UNIVERSITY, No. 83. : : : : : 


This catalog of the vascular plants of Ohio is based on specimens 
for the most part in the State Herbarium of the Ohio State University, 
although some records have also been obtained from other collections. 
The State Herbarium is at present a collection of about 30,000 sheets, 
and represents the labors of many Ohio botanists. The distribution by 
counties is in many cases not the known distribution, but it was thought 
advisable to give only such data as could be verified by specimens. A 
list* of 254 species and varieties was published with a view to their ex- 
clusion from the state catalog if no evidence of their presence in the 
state were forthcoming. As a result of this publication, numerous 
records and specimens were obtained. The present catalog contains 
2065 numbered species, about one-fourth of which are non-indigenous. 
Three additional species have been inserted in their proper places since 
the list was numbered for publication. A considerable number of varie- 
ties and supposed hybrids are also included. 

"The Fourth State Catalogue of Ohio Plants," by W. A. Keller- 
man, 1899, was based on specimens in the State Herbarium at that time. 
However, a large number of species was included for which there was 
no direct evidence. Most of these, together with some species wrongly 
identified, have been omitted. A large list of contributors of specimens 
from various parts of the state was published in the "Fourth Cata- 
logue." Many of these have greatly increased their collections in the 
State Herbarium and a number of other botanists have sent important 

The species in the State Herbarium have been carefully deter- 
mined, in the more difficult groups by the best experts in the counti-y, 
and it is believed that there are few mistakes in the list as now pub- 
lished. Any errors, however, can be definitely corrected in the future. 
Several species became uncertain through the shifting of names and 
have been omitted until more and better material can be studied. 

The species are numbered serially, and the varieties, forms, and 
supposed hybrids are indicated by letters. Additions of species will 

*Plants on the Ohio State list not represented in the State Herbarium Ohio 
9: 413-415. 


be made b}^ means of the decimal system. For example, if a new species 
is to be added after No. 1866, it will be numbered 1866.1. Additions 
will only be made on the basis of good herbarium specimens. It is 
much better to have a small, reliable list than a large one with many 
doubtful entries. Tlie introduced species have been designated by 
some phrase by which they can be distinguished from the indigenous 

The nomenclature used is that of Britton and Brown's "An Illus- 
trated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada, and the British 
Possessions," second edition. The few names which differ because of 
a different conception of the genus will cause no special trouble in 
reference. "Kellerman's Fourth State Catalogue of Ohio Plants" 
was based on the first edition of the "Illustrated Flora," and thus the 
names following the "American Code" on the principle of priority 
have been used very generally in Ohio since that time. The author 
sees no reason for abandoning the principle of priority at the present 
stage of progress of botanical knowledge. 

The arrangenu^nt of the species and larger groups follows strictly 
the phyletic classification. The time has come when taxonomy must 
readjust itself to the more modern conceptions in i-egard to morphology 
and evolution. 

The map of Ohio by counties will enable one to see, at a glance, 
the distribution indicated, and whether a given species is considered 
rare or unusual in any locality. It will now be possible to concentrate 
attention on the exact distribution of our more interesting plants 
and in the near future data should be at hand to definitely delimit the 
natural plant regions of the state. When this can be done, a consider- 
able advance will have been made in the knowledge of the natural agri- 
cultural and horticultural regions of Ohio. 

A number of useful lists have been published in the past which 
are still available. Among these may be mentioned the following : 

Poisonous and Other Injurious Plants of Ohio. Ohio Nat. 4 : 16-19 ; 
82-35; 69-73. 1903-1904. Bv the author. 

7 » 

Medicinal Plants of Ohio. Ohio Nat. 10: 55-60; 73-85. 1910. By 
Freda Detmers. 

The Non-Indigenous Flora of Ohio. Univ. Bull. Series 4, No. 27. 
1900. By W. A. Kellerman and Mrs. Kellerman. 


To the many botanists and collectors who have aided in the prepa- 
ration of this catalog during the past five years, the author wishes to 
express his hearty thanks. It is hoped that all who take an interest 
in Ohio plants will continue to send collections and rare specimens to 
the State Herbarium. In this way alone can a truly great collection 
be accumulated. 


Department of Botany, The Ohio State University. 
January 1, 1914. 






Class, FiLiCES. Ferns. 


Order, Opliioglossales. 

Ophiog-lossaceae. Adder-tongue Family, 

1. Ophioglossum vulgatum L. Adder-tongue. Rather generally 

distributed but local. 

2. Botrychiura simplex Hitch. Little Grape-fern. Cedar Point, 

Erie County. 

3. Botrychium neglectum Wood. Wood's Grape-fern. Northern 


4. Botrychium lanceolatum (Gmel.) Angs. Lanceleaf Grape-fern. 

Geauga, Portage. 

5. Botrychium obliquum Muhl. Oblique Grape-fern. General. 

6. Botrychiura dissectum Spreng. Cutleaf Grape-fern. General. 

7. Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. Virginia Grape-fern. Gen- 

eral and common. 


Order, Filicales. 

Osmundaceae. Royal-fern Family. 

8. Osmunda regalis L. Royal-fern. General. 

9. Osmunda claytoniana L. Clayton's Fern. General. 

10. Osmunda cinnamomea L. Cinnamon-fern. General. 
10a. Osmunda cinnamomea frondosa Gr. Wayne County. 

Polypodiaceae. Polypody Family. 
Subfamily, polypodiatae. 

11. Polypodium vulgare L. Common Polypody. General in the 

eastern half of the state. 

12. Polypodivim polypodioides (L.) Hitch. Gray Polypody. Adams, 


13. Phegopteris phegopteris (L.) Und. (Dryopteris phegopteris 

(L.) Chr.) Long Beech-fern. Rather general but appar- 
ently local. 



14. Phegopteris hexagoiioptera (Mx.) Fee. (Dryopteris hexagon- 

optera (Mx.) Chr). Broad Beech-fern. General. 

15. Phegopteris dryopteris (L.) Fee. (Dryopteris dryopteris (L.) 

Britt). Oak-fern. Geauga, Lake, Ashtabula, Wayne, Sum- 

Subfamily, pteridatae. 

16. Adiantum pedatum L. Maiden-hair-fern. General and common. 
16a. Adiantum pedatum laciniatum Hopkins. Wayne County. 

17. Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Eagle-fern. General. 

18. Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link. Purple Cliff-brake. Ottawa, 

Stark, Franklin, Licking, Clark, Greene, Highland, Adams. 

Subfamily, aspleniatae. 

19. Anchistea virginica (L.) Presl. Virginia Chain-fern. Ashta- 

bula, Defiance, Geauga, Portage, Wayne, Williams. 

20. Asplenium pinnatifidum Nutt. Pinnatifid Spleenwort. Mahon- 

ing, Licking, Fairfield, Hocking, Lawrence. 

21. Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes. Ebony Spleenwort. Gen- 

eral except in the northeastern fourth of the state. 
21a. Asplenium platyneuron x Camptosorus rhizophyllus (Asplenium 
ebenoides Scott). Hocking County. 

22. Asplenium resiliens Kunze. Small Spleenwort. Adams County. 

23. Asplenium trichomanes L. Maidenhair Spleenwort. General 

except in the northwestern fourth of the state. 

24. Asplenium pycnocarpon Spreng. Narrow-leaf Spleenwort. 


25. Asplenium ruta-muraria L. Wall-rue Spleenwort. Highland, 


26. Asplenium montanum Willd. Mountain Spleenwort. Hocking, 

Fairfield, Summit. ]\[ahoning, (Tuscarawas — Hopkins.) 

27. Athyrium thelypteroides (Mx.) Desv. Silvery Spleenwort. 


28. Athyrium filix-foemina (L.) Roth. Lady-fern. General. 

29. Camptosorus rhizophyllus CL.) Link. Walking-fern. General. 

Subfamily, dryopteridatae. 

30. Dryopteris noveboracensis (L.) Gr. New York Shield-fern. 



31. Dryopteris thelypteris (L.) Gr. Marsh Shield-fern. GeneraL 

32. Dryopteris cristata (L.) Gr. Crested Shield-fern. General. 
32a. Dryopteris cristata x spinulosa. Wayne, Portage. 

321). Dryopteris cristata x intermedia. (D. boottii (Tuck.) Und.). 
Wayne, Geauga, Portage. 

33. Dryopteris clintoniana (Eat.) Dow. Wayne, Geauga. 
33a. Dryopteris clintoniana X spinulosa. Wayne County. 

34. Dryopteris goldiana (Hook.) Gr. Goldie's Shield-fern. Rather 

general, but no specimens from the southern third of the 
state, nor from the northwestern counties. 

35. Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.) Gr. American Shield-fern. 

Rather general. 
35a. Dryopteris intermedia x marginalis. Wajme County — Hopkins. 

36. Dryopteris spinulosa (Muell.) Ktz. Spinulose Shield-fern. Gen- 


37. Dryopteris dilatata (Hoffm.) Gr. Spreading Shield-fern. Tus- 

carawas County. 

38. Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gr. Marginal Shield-fern. General 

and common. 

30. Polystichum acrostichoides (Mx. ) Schott. Christmas-fern. Gen- 

39a. Polystichum aci-ostichoides schweinitzii (Beck) Small. Wayne 

40. Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Mx.) Moore. Boulder-fern. In the 

southern and eastern parts of the state. (Erie County — 
Moseley Herb.) 

41. Filix bulbifera (L.) Und. Bulbiferous Bladder-fern. (Cys- 

topteris.) General, but no specimens from the northwest. 

42. Filix fragilis (L.) Und. Fragile Bladder-fern. General and 


42a. Filix fragilis magnasora (Clute). Tuscarawas County. 
42b. Filix fragilis cristata (Hopkins). Portage County. 

43. Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. Blunt-lobed Woodsia. In the 

southern half of the state. 

44. Matteuccia struthioptci-is (L.) Todaro. Ostrich-fern. Cuya- 

hoga, (Erie County — Moseley Herb.). 

45. Onoclea sensibilis L. Sensitive-fern. General and common. 


Class, Hydropteridae. Water-ferns. 
Order, Marsileales. 

Marsileaceae. Marsilea Family. 

46. Marsilea quadrifolia L. European Marsilea. A waif in Frank- 

lin County, 

Order, Salviniales. 

Salviniaceae. Salvinia Family. 

47. Azolla caroliniana Willd. Carolina Azolla. Hamilton, Lucas, 


Class, IsoETEAE. Quillworts. 
Order, Isoetales. 

Isoetaceae. Quillwort Family. 

48. Isoetes braunii Durieu. Braun's Quillwort. Lake Brady, Por- 

tage County — Hopkins. 

49. Isoetes foveolata Eat. Pitted Quillwort. Lake Brady, Portage 

County — Hopkins. 


Class, Equiseteae. Horsetails and S^ouring-rushes. 
Order, Equisetales. 

Equisetaceae. Horsetail Family. 

50. Equisetuni hyemale L. Common Scouring-rush. General. 

51. Equisetum prealtum Raf. Great Scouring-rush. (E. robustum 

A. Br.). General in the state. 

52. Equisetum variegatum Schleich. Variegated Scouring-rush. 

Lake, Erie. 

53. Equisetum laevigatum A. Br. Smooth Scouring-rush. General 

but apparently not common. 

54. Equisetum fluviatile L. Swamp Horsetail. Not common but to 

be found in most parts of the state in suitable places. 

55. Equisetum sylvaticum L. Wood Horsetail. Auglaize, Cuya- 

hoga, Geauga. 

56. Equisetum pratense Ehrh. Thicket Horsetail. Supposed to 

occur in the state but no definite specimens. 

57. Equisetum arvpuse L. Field Horsetail. General and abundant. 



Class, Lycopodieae. Lycopods. 
Order, Lycopodiales. 

Lycopodiaceae. Club-moss Family. 

58. Lycopodium lucidulum Mx. Shining Club-moss. General in 

the eastern half of the state. 

59. Lycopodium porophilum Lloyd & Und. Rock Club-moss. Lick- 

ing, Fairfield, Hocking, Portage. 

60. Lycopodium inundatum L. Bog Club-moss. Portage County. 

61. Lycopodium clavatum L. Common Club-moss. Ashtabula, Cuy- 

ahoga, Geauga, Portage, Hocking, (Stark — Hopkins). 

62. Lycopodium obscurum L. Tree Club-moss. Ashtabula, Lake, 

Medina, Portage, Licking, Defiance, Fairfield, Hocking. 

63. Lj'copodium complanatum L. Trailing Club-moss. Ashtabula, 

Cuyahoga, Carroll, Geauga, Licking, Fairfield, Hocking, 
Portage, Lake, (Erie — Moseley), (Wayne — ^Hopkins). 

Class, Selaginelleae. Selaginellas. 
Order, Selagivellales. 

Selaginellaceae. Selaginella Family. 

64. Selaginella rupestris (L.) Spring. Rock Selaginella. Licking, 

Fairfield, Hocking. 

65. Selaginella apus (L.) Spring. Creeping Selaginella. Lake, 



Class, Coniferae. Conifers. 
Order, Finales. 

Pinaceae. Pine Family. 

66. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Hemlock. Eastern half of Ohio; 

occasional toward the west. 

67. Larix laricina (DuR.) Koch. Tamarack. Northern third of the 


68. Pinus sirobus L. White Pine. Nortlici-n part of Ohio. 

69. Pinus ligida INIill. Pitch Pine. Lawrence, Scioto, Jackson, 



70. Pinus virginiana Mill. Scrub Pine. From Licking County 


71. Pinus echinata Mill. Yellow Pine. Auglaize County. Probably 

accidental from seed from cultivated trees. Not native. 

Juniperaceae. Juniper Family. 
Subfamily, cupressatae. 

72. Thuja occidentalis L. Arborvitae. Champaign, Franklin, 

Greene, Highland, Adams. 

Subfamily, juniperatae. 

73. Juniperus communis L. Common Juniper. Northern Ohio, as 

far south as Fairfield County. 

74. Juniperus sibirica Burgs. Low Juniper. Erie County. 

75. Juniperus virginiana L. Red Juniper. General. 

Order, Taxales. 

Taxaceae. Yew Family. 

76. Taxus canadensis Marsh. American Yew. Northern Ohio, as 

far south as Hocking, Highland, and Greene Counties. 


Class, MoNOCOTYLAE. Monocotyls. 

Subclass, HELOBIAE. 

Order, Alisniales. 

Alismaceae. AVater-plantain Family. 

77. Lophotocarpus calycinus (Eng.) Sm. Large Lophotoearpus. 

Erie, Ottawa, Auglaize. 

78. Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Broadleaf Arrow-head. General and 


79. Sagittaria cuneata Sheld. Arum-leaf Arrow-head. (Erie 

County — Moseley Herbarium. ) 

80. Sagittaria rigida Pursh. Sessile-fruited Arrow-head. Mostly in 

the northern counties. 

81. Sagittaria graminea Mx. Grassleaf Arrow-head. Lucas County. 

82. Alisma subcordatum Raf. American Water-plantain. GeneraL 


Scheuchzeriaceae. Arrow-grass Family. 

83. Triglochin palustris L. Marsh Arrow-grass. Erie, Madison. 

84. Triglochin maritinia L. Seaside Arrow-grass. Summit, Stark, 

Clark, Champaign. 

85. Scheuchzeria palustris L. Scheuchzeria. Licking, Ashtabula. 

Potamogetonaceae. Pondweed Family. 

86. Potamogeton natans L. Common Floating Pondweed. General. 

87. Potamogeton amplifolius Tuck. Large-leaf Pondweed. Wayne, 

Stark, Summit, Erie. 

88. Potamogeton epihydrus Raf. Nuttall's Pondweed. Trumbull, 


89. Potamogeton americanus Cham. & Sclil. Longleaf Pondweed. 

Rather general. 

90. Potamogeton heterophyllus Schreb. Variant-leaf Pondweed. 

Ottawa, Erie, Wayne, Stark, Ashtabula. 

91. Potamogeton angustifolius Berch & Presl. Narrowleaf Pond- 

weed. Wayne County. 

92. Potamogeton lucens L. Shining Pondweed. Summit, Cuyahoga, 

Wayne, Erie. 

93. Potamogeton praelongus Wulf. White-stem Pondweed. Ashta- 

Inila, Wayne. 

94. Potamogeton perfoliatus L. Clasping-leaf Pondweed. Erie, 


95. Potamogeton compressus L. Eel-grass Pondweed. Perry, Lo- 

gan, Erie, Stark. 

96. Potamogeton hillii Mor. Hill's Pondweed. (Ottawa County — 

Moseley Herbarium.) 

97. Potamogeton foliosus Raf. Leafy Pondweed. General. 

98. Potamogeton obtusifolius Mert. & Koch. Bluntleaf Pondweed. 

Medina County. 

99. Potamogeton friesii Rupr. Fries' Pondweed. (Erie County — 

Moseley Herbarium. ) 

100. Potamogeton pusillus L. Small Pondweed. Erie, Auglaize, 

Fairfield, Perry, Summit. 

101. Potamogeton diversifolius Raf. Rafinesquo's Pondweed. Ash- 

tabula, Portage. 


102. Potamogeton pectinatus L. Fennel-leaf Pondweed. General. 

103. Potamogeton interruptus Kit. Interrupted Pondweed. Erie 


104. Potamogeton robbinsii Oakes. Robbins' Pondweed. Erie, Sum- 


105. Zanniehellia palustris L. Zannachellia. General. 

Naiadaceae. Naias Family. 

106. Naias flexilis (Willd.) Rost. & Schm. Slender Naias. General. 

107. Naias gracillima (A. Br.) Magnus. Thread-like Naias. Wayne 


Order, Nympliaeales. 

Nymphaeaceae. AVater-lily Family. 
Subfamily, cabombatae. 

108. Brasenia schreberi Gmel. Water-shield. Geauga, Suunnit, Por- 

tage, Stark, Wayne. 
Subfamily, nelumbonatae. 

109. Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. American Water-lotus. Licking, 

Perry, Erie, Auglaize. 

Subfamily, nymphaeatae. 

110. Nymphaea advena Sol. Large yellow Water-lily. General. 

111. Castalia odorata (Dry.) W. & W. Sweet-scented White Water- 

lily. Rather general. 

112. Castalia tuberosa (Paine) Greene. Tuberous White Water-lily. 

Erie, Holmes, Licking. 

Order, Hydrocharitales. 

Vallisneriaceae. Tape-grass Family. 

113. Philotria canadensis (Mx.) Britt. Common Water- weed. Gen- 


114. Philotria minor (Eng.) Small. Lesser Water-weed. No speci- 


115. Vallisneria spiralis L. Tape-grass. Shelby, Fairfield, Stark, 

Summit, Geauga, Erie. 



Order, Pandanales. 

Sparganiaceae. Bur-reed Family. 

116. Sparganiuni euryearpum Eng. Broad-fruited Bur-reed. Gen- 


117. Sparganium androcladum (Eng.) Morong. Branching Bur- 

reed. Franklin, Auglaize, Lucas. 

118. Sparganium lucidum Fern. & Eames. Shining-fruited Bur-reed. 

Richland County. 

119. Sparganium simplex Huds. Simple-stemmed Bur-reed. (Erie 

County — Moseley Herbarium.) 

Typhaceae. Cat-tail Family. 

120. Typha latifolia L. Broad-leaf Cat-tail. General. 

121. Typha angustifolia L. Narrow-leaf Cat-tail. Auglaize, Licking, 

Knox, Erie, Cuyahoga, Geauga. 

Order, Arales. 

Araceae. Arum Family. 

Subfamily, pothatae. 

122. Acorns calamus L. Sweet-tlag. General. 

Subfamily, callatae. 

123. Calla palustris L. Wild Calla. Ashtabula, Portage, Summit, 


124. Spathyema foetida (L.) Raf. Skunk-cabbage. General. 

Subfamily, philodendratae. 

125. Peltrandra virginica (L.) Kunth. Green Arrow-arum. Cuya- 

hoga, Summit, Stark, Licking, Perry. 

Subfamily, aratae. 

126. Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Torr. Jaek-in-the-pulpit. General. 

127. Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott. Green-dragon. General. 

Lemnaceae. Duckweed Family. 

128. Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schl. Greater Duckweed. General. 


129. Lemna trisulca L. Ivy-jointed Duckweed. General. 

130. Lemna cyclostasa (Ell.) Chev. Valdivia Duckweed. Lake 


131. Lemna minor L. Lesser Duckweed. General. 

132. Wolffiella floridiana (J. D. Sm.) Thomp. Florida Wolffiella. 

Licking County. 

133. Wolffia Columbiana Karst. Columbia Wolffia. Ottawa, Frank- 


134. Wolffia punctata Griseb. Punctate Wolffia. Erie County. 


Order, Graminales. 
Cyperaceae. Sedge Family. 

Subfamily, scirpatae. 

135. Cyperus scliweinitzii Torr. Scliweinitz 's Cyperus. Erie, Cuya- 


136. Cyperus esculentus L. Nut-grass (Cyperus). Western half of 

state, as far east as Wayne County. 

137. Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl. Red-rooted Cyperus. Rather 


138. Cyperus inflexus Muhl. Awned Cyperus. Lucas, Champaign. 

139. Cyperus strigosus L. Straw-colored Cyperus. General. 

140. Cyperus filiculmis Vahl. Slender Cyperus. Rather general. 

141. Cyperus engelraanni Steud. Engelmann's Cyperus. Wayne, 


142. Cyperus speciosus Vahl. Michaux's Cyperus. Ashtabula, Erie. 

143. Cyperus flavescens L. Yellow Cyperus. Fairfield, Richland, 


144. Cyperus diandrus Ton-. Low Cyperus. Northern half of state, 

as far south as Champaign County. 

145. Cyperus rivularis Kunth. Shining Cyperus. Rather general. 

146. Kyllinga pumila Mx. Low Kyllinga. Fairfield, Hocking, Cuya- 

hoga, Auglaize. 

147. Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britt. Dulichium. Northern 

part of the state, south to Hocking and Clark Counties. 

148. Eleocharis mutata (L.) R. & S. Four-angled Spike-rush. Ash- 

land County. 


149. Eleocharis olivacea Torr. Olivaceous Spike-rush. Auglaize, 

Licking, Summit, Cuyahoga. 

150. Eleocharis ovata (Roth) R. & S. Ovoid Spike-rush. Erie 


151. Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Sehul. Blunt Spike-rush. General. 

152. Eleocharis engelmanni Steud. Engelmann's Spike-rush. Lick- 

ing County. 

153. Eleocharis palustris (L.) R. & S. Creeping Spike-rush. Gen- 

15-1. Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. Needle Spike-rush. General. 

155. Eleocharis tenuis (Willd.) Schultes. Slender Spike-rush. Lucas, 


156. Eleocharis acuminata (Muhl.) Nees. Flat-stemmed Spike-rush. 

Lucas, Ottawa, Auglaize. 

157. Eleocharis intermedia (Muhl.) Schultes. Matted Spike-rush. 

Erie, Franklin. 

158. Stenophyllus capillaris (L.) Britt. Hair-like Stenophyllus. 

Lucas County. 

159. Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) R. & S. Slender Fimbristylis. 

Hamilton, Defiance, Fairfield, Hocking. 

160. Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth. Wool-grass. General. 

161. Scirpus lineatus Mx. Reddish Bulrush. General. 

162. Scirpus polyphyllus A^ahl. Leafy Bulrush. Eastern half of the 

state to Crawford and Adams Counties. 

163. Scirpus ati-ovirens Muhl. Dark-green Bulrush. General. 

164. Scirpus sylvaticus L. Wood Bulrush. Ottawa, Wayne, Ham- 


165. Scirpus fluviatilis (Torr.) Gr. River Bulrush. Champaign, 

Licking, Lucas, Wayne, Medina, Lake. 

166. Scirpus validus Vahl. Great Bulrush. General. 

167. Scirpus torreyi Olney. Torrey's Club-rush. Lake, Erie. 

168. Scirpus americanus Pers. Chair-maker's Club-rush. General. 

169. Scirpus debilis Pursh. Weak Club-rush. Summit, Ottawa. 

170. Scirpus planifolius ]\lulil. Flat-leaf Club-rush. Licking, Knox, 


171 Eriophorum vii'idieaiiiiat uiii (Eng.) Fern. Thin-leaf Cotton- 
grass. Geauga, Suiiiinil. Tricking. 

172. Eriophorniii virginicum L. Virginia Cotton-grass. Northern 
Ohio, as far sonlli as Tiickiiig County. 


Subfamily, rynchosporatae. 

173. Ryncliospora corniculata (Lam.) Gr. Horned-rush. None in 

the herbarium. 

174. Rynchospora alba (L.) Vahl. White Beaked-rush. Geauga, Lo- 

rain, Summit, Ashland, Stark, Licking, Champaign. 

175. Rynchospora capillacea Torr. Capillary Beaked-rush. Madi- 

son, Greene, Champaign, Erie. 

176. Rynchospora glomerata (L.) Vahl. Clustered Beak-rush. Erie, 

Ashtabula, Portage, Summit, Fairfield. 

177. Rynchospora cymosa Ell. Grass-like Beak-rush. Erie County. 

178. Mariscus mariscoides (Muhl.) Kuntze. Twig-rush. Erie County. 

179. Scleria triglomerata Mx. Tall Nut-rush. Erie County. 

180. Scleria pauciflora Muhl. Papillose Nut-rush. Erie County. 

181. Scleria verticillata Muhl. Low Nut-rush. Erie, Franklin, 


Subfamily, caricatae. 

182. Carex sartwellii Dew^ Sartwell's Sedge. Erie County. 

183. Carex siccata Dew. Dry-spiked Sedge. No specimens. (Erie 

County — Moseley Herbarium. ) 

184. Carex retroflexa Muhl. Reflexed Sedge. From Erie, Huron, 

Wayne, Knox and Perry Counties westward. 

185. Carex rosea Schk. Stellate Sedge. General. 

186. Carex muricata L. Lesser Prickly Sedge. No specimens. (Erie 

County — Moseley Herbarium.) Naturalized from Europe. 

187. Carex muhlenbergii Schk. Muhlenberg's Sedge. Carroll, Sum- 

mit, Cuyahoga, Erie, Lucas. 

188. Carex cephalophora Muhl. Oval-headed Sedge. General. 

189. Carex gravida Bail. Heavy Sedge. No specimens. 

190. Carex cephaloidea Dew. Thinleaf Sedge. Cuyahoga, Licking. 

191. Carex sparganioides Muld. Bur-reed Sedge. General. 

192. Carex conjuncta Boott. Soft Fox Sedge. General, but no 

specimens from the eastern and southern counties. 

193. Carex vulpinoidea Mx. Fox Sedge. General and abundant. 

194. Carex setacea Dew. Bristly-spiked Sedge. Erie County. 

195. Carex diandra Schr. Lesser Panicled Sedge. Lake County. 

196. Carex prairea Dew. Prairie Sedge. Summit, Erie. 

197. Carex decomposita Muhl. Large-panicled Sedge. Licking 



198. Carex stipitata Mulil. Awl-fruited Sedge. General, but no speci- 

mens from the extreme southern and southeastern counties. 

199. Carex crus-corvi Shuttlw. Raven-foot Sedge. Defiance, Aug- 

laize, Wayne. 

200. Carex disperma Dew. Soft-leaf Sedge. Erie County. 

201. Carex trisperma Dew. Three-fruited Sedge. Lake, Portage, 

Summit, Williams. 

202. Carex canescens L. Silvery Sedge. Summit, Lorain, Logan. 

203. Carex brunnescens (Pers.) Poir. Brownish Sedge. Logan 


204. Carex deweyana Schw. Dewey's Sedge. Auglaize County. 

205. Carex bromoides Schk. Brome-like Sedge. Cuyahoga, Erie, 

Hancock, Hardin, Auglaize. 

206. Carex interior Bail. Inland Sedge. Cuyahoga, Summit, Erie, 

Stark, Licking. 

207. Carex leersii Willd. Little Prickly Sedge. Ottawa, Erie, Madi- 

son, Geauga, Portage. 

208. Carex scoparia Schk. Pointed Broom Sedge. Northern Ohio, 

as far south as Auglaize, Madison and Tuscarawas Counties. 

209. Carex tribuloides Wahl. Blunt Broom Sedge. General. 

210. Carex cristatella Britt. Crested Sedge. General. 

211. Carex muskingumensis Schw. Muskingum Sedge. Defiance, 

Auglaize, Wyandot, Franklin, Champaign. 

212. Carex bebbii Olney. Bebb's Sedge. Franklin County. 

213. Carex straminea Willd. Straw Sedge. Cuyahoga, Portage^ 

Lucas, Williams. 

214. Carex normalis Mack. Larger Straw Sedge. Hamilton, Aug- 

laize, Wayne, Hancock, (Erie County — Moseley Herbarium). 

215. Carex festucacea Schk. Fescue Sedge. Lake, Erie, Stark, Lo- 

gan, Madison. 

216. Carex bicknellii Britt. Bicknell's Sedge. Lake County, (Erie 

County — Moseley Herbarium) . 

217. Carex alata Torr. Broad-wdnged Sedge. Summit County. 

218. Carex albolutescens Schw. Greenish-wliite Sedge. Champaign 


219. Carex foenea Willd. Hay Sedge. Geauga County. 

220. Carex willdenovii Schk. Willdenow's Sedge. Cuyahoga County. 
22L Carex jamesii Schw. James' Sedge. General. 

222. Carex durifolia Bail. Back's Sedge. No specimens. 


223. Carex leptalea Wahl. Bristle-stalked Sedge. Lake, Cuyahoga, 

Summit, Madison. 

224. Carex communis Bail. Fibrous-rooted Sedge. Summit County. 

(Erie County — Moseley Herbarium). 

225. Carex pennsylvanica Lam. Pennsylvania Sedge. General. 

226. Carex varia Muhl. Emmons' Sedge. From Erie, Madison, and 

Clermont Counties eastward. 

227. Carex hirtifolia Mack. Pubescent Sedge. From Lake, Wayne, 

Delaware, and Greene Counties northwestward. 

228. Carex pedunculata Muhi. Long-stalked Sedge. Lake, Cuya- 

hoga, Geauga, Erie. 

229. Carex richardsonii R. Br. Richardson's Sedge. (Erie County 

— Moseley Herbarium. ) 

230. Carex eburnea Boott. Bristle-leaf Sedge. Greene, Ottawa. 

231. Carex aurea Nutt. Golden-fruited Sedge. Erie County. 

232. Carex meadii Dew. Mead's Sedge. Erie County. 

233. Carex tetanica Schk. Wood's Sedge. Geauga, Cuyahoga, Erie, 

Huron, Auglaize. 

234. Carex plantaginea Lam. Plantain-leaf Sedge. Fairfield, Dela- 

ware, Huron, Lorain, Cuyahoga, Summit. 

235. Carex careyana Torr. Carey's Sedge. Lorain County. 

236. Carex platyphylla Car. Broadleaf Sedge. From Cuyahoga, 

Knox, Fairfield, and Hocking Counties eastward. 

237. Carex digitalis Willd. Slender Wood Sedge. Rather general. 

238. Carex laxiculmis Schw. Spreading Sedge. Lake, Cuyahoga, 

Auglaize, Franklin. 

239. Carex albursina Sheld. White Bear Sedge. General. 

240. Carex blanda Dew. Woodland Sedge. Rather general. 

241. Calex laxiflora Lam. Loose-flowered Sedge. Rather general. 

242. Carex anceps Muhl. Two-edged Sedge. Rather general. 

243. Carex shriveri Britt. Shriver's Sedge. No specimens. 

244. Carex granularis Mubl. Meadow Sedge. General, but no speci- 

mens from the southeastern counties. 

245. Carex crawei Dew. Ci'awe's Sedge. Erie County. 

246. Carex oligocarpa Schk. Few-fruited Sedge. Hamilton, Mont- 

gomery, Greene, Ross. 

247. Carex hitchcockiana Dew. Hitchcock's Sedge. Butler, High- 

land, Auglaize. 


248. Carex conoidea Schk. Field Sedge. Wood County. 

249. Carex amphibola Steud. Narrow-leaf Sedge. Cuyahoga, Har- 

din, Auglaize. 

250. Carex grisea Wald. Gray Sedge. Rather general, but the only 

southern county represented is Lawrence. 

251. Carex glaueodea Tuck. Glaucescent Sedge. Cuyahoga County. 

252. Carex gracillima Schw. Graceful Sedge. Northern Ohio, as far 

south as Licking and Franklin Counties. 

253. Carex prasina Wahl. Drooping Sedge. Trumbull, Cuyahoga, 

Crawford, Fairfield, Hamilton. 

254. Carex davisii Schw. Davis' Sedge. Lake, Lorain, "Wayne, Aug- 

laize, Licking, Ross. 

255. Carex flexuosa Muhl. Slender-stalked Sedge. Cuyahoga, Geau- 

ga, Lake. 

256. Carex arctata Boott. Drooping "Wood Sedge. Summit County, 

(Erie County — Moseley Herbarium). 

257. Carex virescens Muhl. Ril)l)ed Sedge. Northern Ohio, as far 

south as Geauga, Hocking, and Auglaize Counties. 

258. Carex complanata Torr. Hirsute Sedge. General. 

259. Carex scabrata Schw. Rough Sedge. Lake, Cuyahoga, Summit. 

260. Carex limosa L. Mud Sedge. No specimens. 

261. Carex paupercula Mx. Bog Sedge. Licking County. 

262. Carex buxbaumii "Wahl. Brown Sedge. Lorain, Erie, Lucas. 

263. Carex shortiana Dew. Short's Sedge. General; no specimens 

from the southeastern counties. 

264. Carex stricta Lam. Tussock Sedge. From Trumbull, Madison, 

Champaign, and Auglaize Counties, northward. 

265. Carex haydeni Dew. Hayden's Sedge. No specimens; (Mose- 

ley Herbarium — Erie County). 

266. Carex torta Boott. Twisted Sedge. Cuyahoga, Erie, Hardin, 

Knox, Delaware, Franklin. 

267. Carex aquatilis "Wahl. "Water Sedge. Auglaize, Lucas. 

268. Carex gynandra Schw. Nodding Sedge. Harrison, Perry. 

269. Carex crinita Lam. Fiinged Sedge. General. 

270. Carex lacustris "Willd. Lake-bank Sedge. Northern Ohio, south 

to Summit, Morrow, and Logan Counties. 

271. Carex impressa (Wright) Mack. Wriglit's Sedge. No specimens. 

272. Carex lanuginosa Mx. Woolly Sedge. From Ashtabula, Frank- 

lin, IMadison, Champaign, and Auglaize Counties northward. 


273. Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. Slender Sedge. Licking, Stark. 

274. Carex trichocarpa Mnbl. Hairy-fruited Sedge. Lorain, Erie, 

Licking, Madison. 

275. Carex atherodes Spreng. Awned Sedge. Erie County. 

276. Carex oederi Retz. Green Sedge. Erie County. 

277. Carex flava L. Yellow Sedge. Lake County. 

278. Carex folliculata L. Long Sedge. Crawford, Portage. 

279. Carex monile Tuck. Necklace Sedge. Lake, Cuyahoga, Wayne, 


280. Carex vesicaria L. Inflated Sedge. No specimens. 

281. Carex rostrata Stokes. Beaked Sedge. Licking, Geauga. 

282. Carex tuckernianii Dew. Tuckerman's Sedge. Northern Ohio, 

south to Auglaize, Franklin, and Perry Counties. 

283. Carex retrorsa Schw. Retrorse Sedge. Lucas County. 

284. Carex oligosperma Mx. Few-seeded Sedge. Defiance County. 

285. Carex lurida "Wahl. Sallow Sedge. General; no specimens from 

the northwestern counties. 

286. Carex hystricina Muhl. Porcupine Sedge. Rather general. 

287. Carex pseudo-cyperus L. Cyperuslike Sedge. Greene, Tusca- 

rawas, Wayne. 

288. Carex coraosa Boott. Bristly Sedge. Northern part of the state. 

as far south as Champaign, Franklin, and Tuscarawas Coun- 

289. Carex frankii Kunth. Frank's Sedge. General as far north as 

Auglaize, Knox, and Jefferson Counties; also in Wyandot, 
Erie, and Cuyahoga. 

290. Carex squarrosa L. Squarrose Sedge. General. 

291. Carex typhina Mx. Cat-tail Sedge. Lake, Cuyahoga, Morrow, 


292. Carex intumescens Rudge. Bladder Sedge. Northern Ohio, as 

far south as Trumbull, Crawford, and Allen Counties. 

293. Carex asa-grayi Bail. Gray's Sedge. General. 

294. Carex lupulina Muhl. Hop Sedge. Rather general. 

295. Carex lupuliformis Sartw. Hop-like Sedge. Cuyahoga, Wayne, 


Graminaceae. Grass Family. 
Subf am ily, ro.\CAT.\r.. 

296. Bromus brizaeformis Fisch. & Mey Awnless Chess. Intro- 

duced. Cuyahoga County. 


297. Bronius kalmii Gr. Kalm's Chess. Frauklin, Lucas. 

298. Bromus hordeaceus L. Soft Chess. Introduced. Wayne, Lo- 


299. Bromus seealinus L. Common Chess. Naturalized. General and 


300. Bromus racemosus L. Upright Chess. Naturalized. General 

and abundant. 

301. Bromus arvensis L. Field Chess. Introduced. Franklin 


302. Bromus inermis Leyss. Hungarian Brome-grass. Introduced. 

Wayne County. 

303. Bromus ciliatus L. Fringed Brome-grass. Erie, Wayne, Frank- 

lin, Champaign, Hocking. 

304. Bromus purgans L. Hairy Brome-grass. General. 

305. Bromus asper Murr. Rough Brome-grass. No specimens. Eu- 


306. Bromus tectorum L. Do^vny Brome-grass. Introduced. Gen- 

eral and abundant. 

307. Bromus sterilis L. Barren Brome-grass. Introduced. Licking, 

Sandusky, Cuyahoga. 

308. Melica nitens Nutt. Tall Melic-grass. Erie County. 

309. Festuca elatior L. Tall Fescue-grass. Introduced. General. 

310. Festuca nutans Willd. Nodding Fescue-grass. General. 

311. Festuca ovina L. Sheep Fescue-grass. From Europe. Ei-ie, 

Franklin, Wayne. 

312. Festuca capillata Lam. Filiform Fescue-grass. From Europe. 

Cuyahoga County. 

313. Festuca octoflora Walt. Slender Fescue-grass. Ashtabula, Erie, 

Lucas, Ashland, Delaware, Licking, Lawrence. 

314. Festuca myuros L. Rat-tail Fescue-gress. From Europe. Lake 


315. Panicularia acutiflora (Torr") Ktz. Sbarp-glunicd ^Fauna-grass. 

No specimens. 

316. Panicularia fluitans (L.) Ktz. Floating Manna-grass. General 

as far south as Harrison, Perry, Franklin, and Auglaize 

317. Panicuhiria canadensis (Mx.) Ktz. Rattlesnake Manna-grass. 

Ashtal)ula, Geauga, Portage, Cuyahoga, Lorain, Summit, 
Stat-k. Wavne. 


318. Pauicularia torreyana (Spreug.) Merr. Long Manna-grass. 

Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Summit, Erie, Fairfield. 

319. Panieularia nervata (Willd.) Ktz. Nerved Manna-grass. Gen- 


320. Panieularia grandis (Wats.) Nash. Tall Manna-grass. Stark, 


321. Panieularia pallida (Torr.) Ktz. Pale Manna-grass. (Ottawa 

County — Moseley Herbarium.) 

322. Poa compressa L. Flat-stemmed Blue-grass. From Europe. 

General and alnindant. 

323. Poa trivialis L. Rough-stalked Meadow-grass. From Europe. 

Crawford County. 

324. Poa debilis Torr. Weak Spear-grass. (Erie County — Moseley 

Herbarium. ) 

325. Poa triflora Gilib. Fowl Meadow-grass. Fairfield, Geauga, 


326. Poa nemoralis L. Wood Meadow-grass. Introduced. Lake 


327. Poa pratensis L. Kentucky Blue-grass. General and abundant. 

328. Poa autuinnalis Muhl. Flexuous Spear-grass. Hocking County. 

329. Poa sylvestris Gr. Sylvan Spear-grass. Rather general; no 

specimens from the northwestern counties. 

330. Poa alsodes Gr. Grove Meadow-grass. Seneca, Franklin, Sum- 

mit, Cuyahoga, TrumbiTll, Knox. 

331. Poa brachyphylla Schult. Short-leaf Spear-grass. Lawrence, 

Perry, Medina, Cuyahoga, Trumbull. 

332. Poa annua L. Annual Meadow-grass. From Europe. General. 

333. Daetylis glomerata L. Orchard-grass. Naturalized. General; 

no specimens from the southeastern counties. 

334. Eragrostis pectinacea (Mx.) Steud. Purple Love-grass. Lake, 

Cuyahoga, Erie, Auglaize. 

335. Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B. S. P. Creeping Love-grass. 

Rather general ; no specimens from the central eastern 

336. Eragrostis major Host. Strong-scented Love-grass. Natural- 

ized. General. 

337. Eragrostis purshii Schrad. Pursh's Love-grass. Erie County. 


338. Eragrostis pilosa (L.) Beauv. Tufted Love-grass. Rather gen- 

eral; no specimens from the northwestern counties. Nat- 

339. Eragrostis frankii Steud. Frank's Love-grass. Rather general; 

no specimens from the southeastern nor from the north- 
western counties. 

340. Eragrostis capillaris (L.) Nees. Capillary Love-grass. Ottawa, 

Madison, Clinton. 

341. Sphenopholis ohtusata (Mx.) Scribn. Blunt-scaled Eaton-grass. 

No specimens. 

342. Sphenopholis pallens (Spreng.) Scribn. Tall Eaton-grass. 


343. Sphenopholis nitida (Spreng.) Scribn. Slender Eaton-grass. 

Cuyahoga, Knox, Licking, Fairfield, Hocking, Lawrence, 
344 Koeleria cristata (L.) Pers. Crested Koeler-grass. Ottawa 

345. Korycarpus arundinaceus Zea. American Korycarpus. Ross, 

Franklin, Auglaize, Highland. 

346. Tridens flava (L.) Hitch. Tall Purple-top. Rather general; no 

specimens from the northwestern counties nor the extreme 
eastern part. 

347. Triplasis purpurea (Walt.) Chapm. Purple Sand-grass. Ash- 

tabula, Cuyahoga, Erie. 

348. Cynosurus cristatus L. Dogtail-grass. From Europe. Mahon- 

ing County. 

349. Phragmites phragmites (L.) Karst. Common Reed-grass. Ash- 

taubula, Cuyahog, Erie, Lucas, Huron, AVayne, Franklin. 

350. Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Common Wild-oat-grass. Gen- 


351. Danthonia compressa Aust. Flattened Wild-oat-grass. Portage 


352. Arrenatherum elatius (L.) Beauv. Oat-grass. From Europe. 

Hamilton County. 

353. Trisetum pennsylvanicum (L.) Beauv. Marsh False-oats. No 


354. Avena torreyi Nash. Purple Oats. Franklin County. 

355. Avena sativa L. Common Oats. Rather general. Escaped from 



356. Avena fatua L. Wild Oats. From Europe. No specimens. 

357. Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. Wavy Hair-grass. Portage 


358. Aspris caryophyllea (L.) Nash. Silvery Hair-grass. From 

Europe. Lake County. 

359. Nothoholcus lanatus (L.) Nash. Velvet-grass. Lake, Trumbull, 

Cuyahoga, Lorain, Erie, Wayne, Fairfield. From Europe. 

360. Lolium perenne L. Red Darnel. Rather general. Prom 


361. Lolium multiflorum Lam. Awned Darnel. Hamilton, Madison. 

From Europe. 

362. Lolium temulentum L. Poison Darnel. No specimens. From 


363. Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. Couch-grass. Rather general; 

no specimens from the southeastern part of the state. From 
36-1. Agropyron caninum (L.) R. & S. Awned Wheat-grass. Por- 
tage County. From Europe. 

365. Triticum vulgare L. Wheat. Erie, Belmont, Harrison, Tusca- 

rawas, Morrow, Fayette, Madison, Preble, Franklin. Escaped 
from cultivation. 

366. Secale cereale L. Rye. Erie, Morrow, Franklin, Scioto. Es- 


367. Elymus virginicus L. Virginia Wild-rye. General. 

368. Elymus hirsutiglumis Scrib. & Sm. Strict Wild-rye. Ottawa, 


369. Elymus canadensis L. Nodding Wild-rye. Rather general. 

370. Elymus striatus Willd. Slender Wild-rye. Wayne, Erie, Aug- 


371. Hystrix hystrix (L.) Millsp. Bottle-brush-grass. General. 

372. Hordeum vulgare L. Common Barley. Franklin, Tuscarawas, 

Portage. Escaped from cultivation. 

373. Hordeum distichum L. Two-rowed Barley. Escaped in Lake 


374. Hordeum nodosum L. Meadow Barley. Hamilton County. 

375. Hordeum jubatum L. Squirrel-lail Barley. From Lake to 

Lucas County; also in Franklin, Madison, Greene, Allen, De- 
fiance, and Williams. Ni'lnrnli/cd from llic West. 


376. Spartina michaiixiana Hitch. Tall Slough-grass. Rather gen- 

eral; no specimens from the central eastern nor from the 
southwestern counties. 

377. Beckmannia erucaeformis (L.) Host. Beckmannia. Cuyahoga 


378. Capriola dactylon (L.) Ktz. Bermuda-grass. No specimens. 

From Europe. 

379. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaert. Yard-grass. General. Naturalized. 

380. Atheropogon curtipendulus (Mx.) Fourn. Tall Gramma-grass. 

Lake, Erie, Ottawa, Franklin, Adams. 

381. Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. Hairy Mesquite-grass. Waifs in Frank- 

lin County. 

382. Bouteloua oligostachya (Nutt.) Torr. Smooth Mesquite-grass. 

Waifs in Franklin County. 

383. Sporoholus asper (Mx.) Kunth. Longleaf Rush-grass. Lake, 

Erie, Franklin. 

384. Sporobolus vaginaeflorus (Torr.) Wood. Sheathed Rush-grass. 

Auglaize, Madison, Warren, Vinton, Athens. 

385. Sporobolus neglectus Nash. Small Rush-grass. Cuyahoga, 

Wayne, Huron, Auglaize. 

386. Sporobolus eryptandrus (Torr.) Gr. Sand Dropseed. Lucas. 

Ottawa, Erie, Lorain. 

387. Sporobolus heterolepis Gr. Northern Dropseed. Franklin, 

Madison, Champaign. 

388. Calamagrostis canadensis (Mx.) Beauv. Bluejoint Reed-grass. 

Northern Ohio, as far south as Stark, Fi-anklin, and Auglaize 

389. Calamagrostis cinnoides (Muhl.) Scrib. Nuttall's Reed-grass. 

No specimens. 

390. Agrostis alba L. Red-top. General. From Europe. 

391. Agrostis schweinitzii Trin. Thin Bent-grass. Rather general. 

392. Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B. S. P. Rough Silk-grass. Rather 

general, but no specimens from the northwestern nor south- 
eastern counties. 

393. Apera spica-venti (L.) Beauv. Silky Windlestraw. From Eu- 

rope. Lake County. 

394. Cinna arundinacea L. Wood Reed-grass. (Jeiieral. 

395. Ammophila arenaria (L.) Link. Sand Beecli-grass. Eric 



396. Alopeciirus geniculatus L. Marsh Foxtail. Lake, Ottawa, Craw- 

ford, Auglaize, Madison, Franklin, Perry. Introduced. 

397. Alopecurus pratensis L. Meadow Foxtail. No specimens. From 


398. Heleochloa schoenoides (L.) Host. Cat-tail-grass. Greene Coun- 

ty. From Europe. 

399. Plileum pratense L. Timothy. General. From Europe. 

400. Muhlenbergia sobolifera (Muhl.) Trin. Rock Muhlenbergia. 

Highland, Wayne. 

401. Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. Mexican Muhlenbergia. 


402. Muhlenbergia racemosa (Mx.) B. S. P. Marsh Muhlenbergia. 

Summit, Wayne, Huron, Wyandot, Champaign, Licking. 

403. Muhlenbergia umbrosa Scribn. Wood Muhlenbergia. Cuya- 

hoga, Champaign. 

404. Muhlenbergia tenuitiora (Willd.) B. S. P. Slender Muhlen- 

bergia. Portage, Wayne, Fairfield, Madison, Greene. 

405. Muhlenbergia schreberi Gmel. Spreading Muhlenbergia. Gen- 


406. Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb.) Beauv. Brachyelytrum. 

Cuyahoga, Portage, Lorain, Wayne, Highland, Franklin, 
Madison, Hocking, Adams. 

407. Milium efifusum L. Tall Millet-grass. Lake, Cuyahoga, Lorain, 

Wayne, Stark. 

408. Oryzopsis racemosa (Sm.) Kicker. Black-fruited Mountain-rice. 

Geauga, Summit, Erie, Greene, Highland. 

409. Stipa spartea Trin. Porcupine-grass. Erie County, where it 

occurs on Cedar Point. 

410. Aristida dichotoma Mx. Poverty-grass. Scioto, Vinton, Fair- 


411. Aristida oligantha Mx. Few-flowered Triple-awned-grass. Cuy- 

ahoga County. 

412. Aristida gracilis Ell. Slender Triple-awned-grass. Hamilton, 

Clermont, Athens, Erie, Cuyahoga. 

413. Aristida purpurascens Poir. Purplish Triple-awned-grass. 

Wood, Fulton. 

414. Savastana odorata (L.) Scrib. Vanilla-grass. Trumbull, Madi- 

son, Pickaway. 


415. Phalaris arundinacea L. Reed Canary-grass. Rather general; 

no specimens from the northwestern nor from the south- 
eastern counties. 

416. Phalaris canariensis L. Canary-grass. Montgomery, Hamilton. 

From Europe. 

417. Anthoxantliura odoratum L. Sweet Vernal-grass. Ashtabula, 

Cuyahoga, Summit, Mahoning, Wayne, Franklin. From 

418. Anthoxanthum puelii Lee. & Lamotte. Long-awned Vernal- 

grass. Hamilton County. A native of Europe. 

Subfamily, panicatae. 

419. Panicum agrostoides Spreng. Agrostis-like Panic-grass. Erie 


420. Panicum stipitatuni Nash. Long Panic-grass. Northeastern 

Ohio to Lorain, Fairfield, and Columbiana Counties. 
. 421. Panicum virgatuiu L. Tall, smooth Panic-grass. General. 

422. Panicum dichotomiflorum Mx. Spreading Panic-grass. Gen- 


423. Panicum miliaceum L. Millet Panic-grass. Lawrence, Richland, 

Erie. Introduced. 

424. Panicum capillare L. Tumble Panic-grass. General and 


425. Panicum gattingeri Nash. Gattinger's Panic-grass. Rather 


426. Panicum flexile (Gatt.) Scrib. Wiry Panic-grass. Adams, 

Champaign, Madison, Franklin, Erie, Cuyahoga. 

427. Panicum philadelphicum Bernh. Philadelphia Panic-grass. Ot- 

tawa County. 

428. Panicum depauperatum Muhl. Starved Panic-grass. Cuyahoga 


429. Panicum linearifolium Scrib. Linear-leaf Panic-grass. Rather 


430. Panicum werneri Scrib. Werner's Panic-grass. Lake, Cuya- 

hoga, Franklin, Athens. 

431. Panicum bicknellii Nash. Bickiu'lTs Panic-grass. Gallia County. 

432. Panicum sphaerocarpon Ell. Round-fruited Panic-grass. Cuy- 

ahoga, Summit, Trumbull, Hocking, Scioto. 

433. Panicum polyantbes Schultes. Many-flowere.l Panic-grass. Fair- 

field. Hocking, Jackson. 


434. Paniciiin dicliotomum L. Forked Panic-grass. Rather general; 

no specimens fro mthe northwestern counties. 

435. Panicum microcarpon Muhl. Small-fruited Panic-grass. Cuya- 

hoga, Lorain, Erie, Fairfield, Hocking, Jackson. Adams. 

436. Panicum boreale Nash. Northern Panic-grass. Fulton County. 

437. Panicum lindheimeri Nash. Lindheimer's Panic-grass. Ashta- 

bula, Hocking. 

438. Panicum huachucae Ashe. Hairy Panic-grass. General. 

439. Panicum villosissimum Nash. Villous Panic-grass. Cuyahoga, 

Erie, Licking. 

440. Panicum implicatum Scrib. Slender-stemmed Panic-grass. Gal- 

lia County. 

441. Panicum tsugetorum Nash. Hemlock Panic-grass. Defiance, 


442. Panicum leibergii (Vasey) Scrib. Leiberg's Panic-grass. No 


443. Panicinn scribnerianum Nash. Scribner's Panic-grass. Cuya- 

hoga, Erie, Wood, Franklin. 

444. Panicum xanthophysum Gr. Slender Panic-grass. Lake County. 

445. Panicum ashei Pear. Ashe's Panic-grass. Cuyahoga, Lake, 

Trumbull, Fairfield. 

446. Panicum coramutatum Schultes. Variable Panic-grass. Law- 

rence, Gallia, Fairfield, Wayne. 

447. Panicum latifolium L. Broad-leaf Panic-grass. General. 

448. Panicum boscii Poir. Bosc's Panic-grass. Warren, Adams, Jack- 

son, Belmont. 
448a. Panicum boscii molle (Vas.) Hitch. & Ch. Hamilton, Lawrenc^i, 

449. Panicum clandestinum L. Hispid Panic-grass. General. 

450. Leptaloma cognatum (Schultes) Chase. Fall Witch-grass. From 

the West. Lake County. 

451. Syntherisma filiforme (L.) Nash. Slender Crab-grass. No 


452. Syntherisma ischaemum (Schreb.) Nash. Small Crab-grass. 

Lorain, Wayne, Auglaize, Fairfield. From Europe. 

453. Syntherisma sanguinale (L.) Dulac. Large Crab-grass. Gen- 

eral. Naturalized. 

454. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Common Barnyard-grass. 

General and abundant. Naturalized from Europe. 


455. Echinochloa walteri (Pursli.) Nash. Marsh Cockspur-grass. 

Erie, Lorain, Shelby, Auglaize, Licking. 

456. Paspalum muhlenbergii Nash. Muhlenberg's Paspalum. Cuya- 

hoga, Erie, Warren, Hamilton, Scioto, Guernsey. 

457. Chaetochloa verticillata (L.) Scrib. Verticillate Foxtail-grass. 

, From Europe. Cuyahoga, Wayne, Jef¥erson, Franklin, Ross, 
Montgomery, Warren, Hamilton. 

458. Chaetochloa glauca (L.) Scrib. Yellow Foxtail-grass. General. 

From Europe. 

459. Chaetochloa viridis (L.) Scrib. Green Foxtail-grass. General. 

Naturalized from Europe. 

460. Chaetochloa italica (L.) Scrib. Italian Millet. Rather general. 


461. Cenchrus tribuJoides L. Sandbur-grass. Lucas, Wood, Ottawa, 

Erie, Lorain, Cuyahoga, Franklin, Highland, Gallia. 

462. Homalocenchrus virginicus (Willd.) Britt. Virginia Cut-grass. 

Rather general. 

463. Homalocenchrus oryzoides (L.) Poll. Rice Cut-grass. Rather 


464. Zizania aquatica L. Wild Rice. Erie, Licking, Perry, Hocking. 

465. Holcus halapense L. Johnson-grass. Native of Europe. Cuja- 

hoga, Erie, Franklin, Madison 

466. Holcus sorghum L. Common Sorghum. Volunteer in Adams 


467 Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Tndian-grass. Ashtabula, Cuy- 
ahoga, Erie, Wyandot, Auglaize, Franklin, Madison, Adams. 

468. Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. Chinese Plume-grass. An escape 

in Lake County. 

469. Andropognn I'urcatiis Muhl. Big Bluestem. Ratber general. 

470. Andropognn virginicus L. Virginia Beard-grass. Gallia, Jack- 

son, Meigs, Athens, Vinton, Hocking, Fairfield, Belmont. 

471. Andropogon scoparius Mx. Little Bluestem. (Schizachyrium 

scoparium (Mx. ) Nash). I\ather general. 

472. Coix lacryma L. Job's-tears. Persistent in Franklin County. 

473. Zea mays L. Indian Coin. Spontaneous in Brown, Adams, 

Scioto, FaveHc. Moiiioc. and Hancock Counties. 



Order, Liliales. 

Liliaceae. Lily Family. 
Subfamily, Dracaena tae. 

474. Yucca filamentosa L. Adam 's-needle. Escaped in Franklin 


Subfamily, liliatae. 

475. Lilium superbum L. Turk's-cap Lily. Erie County — Moseley 


476. Lilium canadense L. Canada Lily. General. 

477. Lilium philadelpbicum L. Philadelphia Lily. Fulton, Lucas, 

Sandusky, (Erie County — Moseley herbarium). 

478. Lilium umbellatum Pursh. Western Red Lily. Stark County. 

479. Erythronium americanum Ker. Yellow Dog-tooth Lily. Gen- 


480. Erythronium albidum Nutt. Wbite Dog-tooth Lily. General. 

481. Hemerocallis fulva L. Common Day-lily. General. Escaped 

from cultivation. 

482. Allium tricoccum Ait. Wild Leek. West central part of state 

to Delaware and Franklin; also in Lorain, Cuyahoga^ and 
Medina Counties. 

483. Allium vineale L. Field Garlic. Franklin, Harrison. From 


484. Allium cepa L. Common Onion. Cultivated. Sometimes per- 


485. Allium canadense L. Meadow Garlic. General. 

486. Allium cernuum Roth. Nodding Onion. General. 

487. Quamasia hyacinthina (Raf.) Britt. Wild Hyacinth. General, 

but rare in eastern Ohio. 

488. Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Star-of-Bethlehem. From Europe. 

Montgomery, Miami, Gallia, Franklin, Auglaize. 

489. Muscari botryoides (L.) Mill. Grape-hyacinth. From Europe. 

Llontgomery, Lake. 

490. Aletris farinosa L. Colic-root. In counties bordering Lake Erie. 

Subfamilv, melanthatae. 

491. Uvularia sessilifolia L. Sessile-leaf Bellwort. Lucas, Cuyahoga, 

Portage, Summit, Mahoning, Gallia. 


492. Uvularia grandiflora Sm. Large-flowered Bellwort. General. 

493. Uvularia pei'foliata L. Perfoliate Bellwort. General. 

494. Melantliiiim virginicum L. Virginia Bunchflower. Ricliland, 


495. Veratrura woodii Robb. Wood's False-liellebore. Auglaize 


496. Veratrum viride Ait. American False-hellebore. Ashtabula 


497. Anticlea elegans (Pursh) Rydb. Glaucous Anticlea. Cham- 

paign, Portage, Stark, Highland, Ottawa. 

498. Stenanthiuni robustum Wats. Stout Stenanthium. Fairfield 


499. Chamaelirium luteum (L.) Gr. Chamaelirium. Northeastern 

Ohio to Licking County ; also in Lawrence County. 

500. Triantha glutinosa (Mx.) Baker. Glutinous Triantha. Stark, 


Subfamily, trilliatae. 

501. Trillium grandiflorum (Mx.) Salisb. Large-flowered Trillium. 


502. Trillium erectum L. Til-scented Trillium. General. 

503. Trillium cernuum L. Xodding Trillium. Auglaize, Champaign, 


504. Trillium decliuatuin (Gr.^ Gleason. Di-oopiug Ti-illium. No 


505. Trillium undulatum Willd. Painted Trillium. Ashtabula 


506. Trillium nivale Ridd. Early Trillium. Miami, Clark, Greene, 


507. Trillium sessile L. Sessile Trillium. General. 

508. Trillium recurvatum P>eck. Pi-aii'ie Trillium. Auglaize, Ham- 


509. Medeola virginiana L. Indian Cucumber-root. General. 

Sul)fatiiily, convallariatae. 

510. Strepto])us amplexifoHus (L.) DC. Clasping-leaf Twisted-stalk. 

Reported for Ohio. 

511. Disporum lanuginosum (Mx.) Nich. liaiiy Disporum. Eastern 

half of state; also in Adams County. 


512. Polygonatum commutatuni (R. & S.) Dietr. Smooth Solomon 's- 

seal. General. 

513. Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. Hairy Solomon 's-seal. Gen- 


514. Vagnera racemosa (L.) Mor. Panicled False Solomon 's-seal. 


515. Vagnera stellata (L.) Mor. Stellate False Solomon 's-seal. 

Rather general. 

516. Vagnera trifolia (L.) Mor. Three-leaf False Solomon 's-seal. 

Fulton, Lorain. 

517. Unifolium canadense (Desf.) Greene. False Lily-of-the-valley. 


518. Clintonia borealis (Ait.) Raf. Yellow Clintonia. Ashtabula 


519. Clintonia umbellulata (Mx.) Torr. White Clintonia. Harrison, 

Portage, Wayne. 

520. Convallaria majalis L. Lily-of-the-valley. Escaped in Franklin 


521. Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus. General. Introduced from 


Smilaceae. Smilax Family. 

522. Smilax ecirrhata (Engel.) Wats. Upright Smilax. Erie, Ot- 

tawa, Wood, Hardin, Preble, Clinton, Brown, Fairfield. 

523. Smilax herbacea L. Common Carrion-flower. General. 

524. Smilax pseudo-china L. Long-stalked Greenbrier. Erie, Vin- 

ton, Brown. 

525. Smilax hispida Muhl. Hispid Greenbrier. General. 

526. Smilax glauca Walt. Glaucous Greenbrier. Southeastern part 

of the state to Clermont, Warren, Fairfield, Knox, and Sum- 
mit Counties ; also in Lucas County. 

527. Smilax rotundifolia L. Roundleaf Greenbrier. Lawrence, 

Hocking, Fairfield, Licking, Belmont, Lorain, Cuyahoga. 

Pontederiaceae. Pickerel-weed Family. 

528. Pontederia cordata L. Pickerel -weed. From Licking and Perry 

northeast; also in Defiance, Fulton, Lucas, and Erie. 

529. Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM. Water-stargrass. Rather 



Commelinaceae. Spiderwort Family. 

530. Tradescantia retlexa Raf. Keflexed Spidenvort. Ashtabula, Erie, 

Mahoning, Richland, Coshocton, Licking, Franklin, Auglaize. 

531. Tradescantia virginiana L. Virginia Spiderwort. General as 

far north as Auglaize and Stark. 

532. Tradescantia pilosa Lehm. Zigzag Spiderwort. Hamilton, Cler- 

mont, Montgomery. 

533. Commelina virginica L. Virginia Day-flower. Clermont, Mont- 

gomery, Lake. 

Juncaceae. Eush Family. 

534. Juncus effusus L. Common Rush. General. 

535. Juncus ballicus Willd. Baltic Rush. Erie County. 

536. Juncus gerardi Lois. Gerard's Rush. Cuyahoga County. 

537. Juncus dudleyi Wieg. Dudley's Rush. Montgomery, Clinton, 

Champaign, Delaware, Licking, Tuscarawas. 

538. Juncus tenuis Willd. Slender Rush. General. 

539. Juncus bufonius L. Toad Rush. Williams, Lucas, Lorain, 


540. Juncus monostichus Bartl. One-ranked Rush. Trumbull 


541. Juncus aristulatus Mx. Small-headed Grass-leaf Rush. Fair- 

field, Wayne, Summit. 

542. Juncus marginatus Rostk. Grass-leaf Rush. Cuyahoga County. 

543. Juncus alpinus Vill. Richardson's Rush. Cuyahoga County. 

544. Juncus articulatus L. Jointed Rush. Cuyahoga County. 

545. Juncus torreyi Cov. Torrey's Rush. Adams, Madison, Wood, 

Erie, Cuyahoga. 

546. Juncus nodosus L. Knotted Rush. Madison, Franklin, Cuya- 

hoga, Erie. 

547. Juncus brachycephalus (Engelm.) Buch. Small-headed Rush. 

Erie, Cuyahoga, Franklin, Madison, Champaign. 

548. Juncus acuminatus Mx. Sharp-fruited Rush. General. 

540. Juncus canadensis J. Gay. Canada Rush. Cuyahoga, Geauga, 
Licking, ^Madison, Auglaize. 

550. Juncus scirpoides Lam. Scirpus-like Rush. Erie County. 

551. Juncoides carolinae (Wats.) Ktz. Hairy Wood-rush. Lucas, 

Cuyahoga, Trumbull, Mahoning, Hocking. 

552. Juncoides campestre (L.) Ktz. Conuuon Wood-rush. General. 


Xyridaceae. Yellow-eyed-grass Family. 

553. Xyris flexuosa Mubl. Slender Yellow-eyed-grass. Portage, 


Eriocaulaceae. Pipewort Family. 

554. Eriocaulon septangulare With. Seven-angled Pipewort. Sum- 

]nit County. 

Order, Iridales. 

Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllis Family. 

555. Manfreda virginica (L.) Salisb. False Aloe. Lawrence County. 

556. Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Cov. Yellow Stargrass. General. 

Iridaceae. Iris Family. 

557. Iris versicolor L. Large Blue-flag. General. 

558. Iris cristata Ait. Crested Dwarf Iris. Lawrence, Adams, Scioto, 

Pike, Ross, Jackson, Yinton, Hocking, Cuyahoga, Trumbull. 

559. Gemmingia chinensis (L.) Ktz. Blackberry-lily. From Asia. 

Franklin County. 

560. Crocus verna L. Crocus. Escaped in Lake County. 

561. Sisyrinchium angustifolium Mill. Pointed Blue-eyed-grass. 

Rather general. 

562. Sisyrinchium graminoides Bickn. Stout Blue-eyed-grass. Gen- 


Dioscoreaceae. Yam Family. 

563. Dioscorea villosa L. Wild Yam. General. 

563.1. Dioscorea bulbifera L. Air Potato (Yam). Escaped from gar- 
dens in Madison County. 

Order, Orchidales. 

Orchidaceae. Orchid Family. 
Subfamily, cypripediatae. 

564. Cypripedium reginae Walt. Showy Lady's-slipper. Fulton, 

Champaign, Lucas, Geauga, Portage, Muskingum. 

565. Cypripedium candidum Willd. White Lady's-slipper. Wyan- 

dot, Erie, Montgomery. 


566. Cypripediiim parviflorum Salisb. Yellow Lady's-slipper. Gen- 


567. Fissipes acaulis (Ait.) Small. Moccasin-flower. Medina, Por- 

tage, Hocking, Fairfield, Stark, Cuyahoga. 

Subfamily, orchidatae. 

568. Galeorchis spectabilis (L.) Rydb. Showy Orchis. General. 

569. Perularia flava (L.) Farw. Tubercled Orchis. General. 

570. Coeloglossum bracteatum (Willd.) Pari. Long-bracted Orchis. 

Lucas, Lorain, Medina, Portage, Franklin, Butler, Auglaize. 

571. Gymnadeniopsis clavellata (Mx. ) Eydb. Green Wood-orchis. 

Geauga, Trumbull, Portage, Summit, Richland, Licking, 

572. Limnorchis hyperborea (L.) Rydb. Tall Bog-orchis. Stark 


573. Lysias orbiculata (Pursh.) Rydb. Large Roundleaf Orchis. 

Cuyahoga, Geauga, Wayne. 

574. Lysias hookeriana (Gr.) Rydb. Hooker's Orchis. Medina 


575. Blepharigiottis ciliaris (L.) Rydb. Yellow Fringed-orchis. Ful- 

ton County. 

576. Blepharigiottis blepharigiottis (Willd.) Rydb. White Fringed- 

orchis. Geauga, Portage. 

577. Blepharigiottis lacera (Mx.) Farw. Ragged Fringed-orchis. 

Cuyahoga, Portage, Crawford, Richland, Wayne, Holmes, 
Stark, Licking, Fairfield. 

578. Blepharigiottis leucophaea (Nutt.) Farw. Prairie Fringed- 

orchis. Auglaize County. 

579. Blepharigiottis psycodes (L.) Rydb. Smaller Purple Fringed- 

orchis. Rather general. 
579a. Blephaiiglottis psycodes grandiflora (Bigel.). Portage County 
(R. J. Webb). 

580. Blepharigiottis peramoena (Gr.) Rydb. Fringeless Purple 

Orchis. Perry, Gallia, Clermont, Wayne, Hocking. 

58L Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker. Rose Pogonia. Lucas, Cuya- 
hoga, Geauga, Ashland, Portage, Richland, Licking, Lorain, 

582. Isotria verticillata (Willd.) Raf. Wliorled Tsoli-ia. Defiance, 
Cuyahoga, Geauga, Medina, Coshocton, Fairfield. 


583. Triphora triaiitliophora (Sw.) Rydb. Nodding Triphora. Hu- 

ron, Cuyahoga, Wayne, Summit, Stark, Licking, Franklin, 
Ross, Clark. 

584. Arethusa bulbosa L. Arethusa. Licking, Portage. 

585. Limodorum tuberosum L. Limodorum. Fulton, Lucas, Erie, 

Geauga, Portage, Summit, Ashland, Stark, Clark, Fairfield, 
Licking, Wayne. 

586. Ibidium strictum (Rydb.) House. Hooded Lady's-tresses. Ash- 

tabula County. 

587. Ibidium plantagineum (Raf.) House. Broadleaf Lady's-tresses. 

Medina, Portage. 

588. Ibidium cernuum (L.) House. Nodding Lady's-tresses. Erie, 

Lorain, Cuyahoga, Medina, Portage, Stark, Lake, Licking. 

589. Ibidium ovale (Lindl.) House. Small-flowered Lady's-tresses. 

No specimens. 

590. Ibidium praecox (Walt.) House. Grass-leaf Lady's-tresses. 

Wayne County. 

591. Ibidium beckii (Lindl.) House. Little Lady's-tresses. Fairfield 


592. Ibidium gracile (Bigel.) House. Slender Lady's-tresses. Erie, 

Cuyahoga, Lake, Licking, Muskingum, Fairfield, Hocking, 
Adams, Gallia, Morgan. 

593. Peramium pubescens (Willd.) MacM. Downy Rattlesnake- 

plantain. Adams, Hocking, Lake, Fairfield, Highland, 
Wayne, Noble, Portage. 

594. Malaxis unifolia Mx. Green Addermouth. Fairfield, Hocking, 


595. Liparis liliifolia (L.) Rich. Large Twayblade. Portage, Frank- 

lin, Fairfield, Clark, Wayne. 

596. Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich. Fen Twayblade. Champaign, Cuya- 

hoga, Summit, Stark. 

597. Tipularia unifolia (Muhl.) B. S. P. Crane-fly Orchis. Medina, 

(Lorain, Cuyahoga — Oberlin College Herbarium). 

598. Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl.) Torr. Putty-root. General. 

599. Corallorrhiza eorallorrhiza (L.) Karst. Early Coral-root. No 


600. Corallonhiza mficu'.uta Kaf. Large Coral-root. Eiie, Huron, 

Cuyahoga, Wayne, Fail field, Franklin, Gallia, Noble. 


601. Corallorrhiza wisteriaiia Conrad. Wister's Coral-root. Hamil- 

ton, Lawrence. 

602. Corallorrhiza odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt. Small-flowered Coral- 

root. Erie, Cuyahoga, Stark, Licking, Fairfield, Madison. 

Class, DicoTYLAE. Dieotyls. 


Order, Ranales. 

Mag-noliaceae. Magnolia Family. 

603. Magnolia acuminata L. Cucumber Magnolia. Eastern half of 

state, west to Lorain and Madison Counties. 

604. Magnolia tripetala L. Umbrella Magnolia. Scioto County. 

605. Liriodendron tulipifera L. Tuliptree. General. 

Anonaceae. Custard-apple Family. 

606. Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal. Papaw. General. 

Ranunculaceae. Crowfoot Family. 

607. Ranunculus abortivus L. Kindney-leaf Crowfoot. General and 


608. Ranunculus micranthus Nutt. Rock Crowfoot. Clermont 


609. Ranunculus sceleratus L. Celery-leaf Crowfoot. Rather general. 

610. Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. Hooked Crowfoot. General and 


611. Ranunculus acris L. Tall Buttercup. Rather general excejit in 

the southern part. From Europe. 

612. Ranunculus bulbosus L. Bulbous Buttercup. Columbiana 

County. From Europe. 

613. Ranunculus pennsylvanicus L. f. Bristly Buttercup. Lucas, 

Ottawa, Cuyahoga, Lake, Wayne, Licking, Fairfield, Perry. 

614. Ranunculus repens L. Creeping Buttercup. Scioto, Columbi- 

ana. From Europe. 

615. Ranunculus septentrionalis Poir. Swamp Buttercup. General 

and abundant. 

616. Ranunculus hispidus IMx. Hispid Buttercup. General. 

617. Ranunculus faseicularis Muhl, Tufted Buttercup. Lucas, Ot- 

tawa, Cuyahoga. 


618. Ranunculus arvensis L. Corn Crowfoot. No specimens. From 


619. Ranunculus obtusiusculus Raf. Lance-leaf Buttercup. Jack- 

son, Franklin, Licking, Erie, Lorain, Cuyahoga, Lake, Ash- 

620. Ranunculus delphinifolius Torr. Yellow Water-crowfoot. 

Northwestern fourth of state to Huron and Madison Coun- 
ties; also in Ashtabula County. 

621. Ficaria ficaria (L.) Karst. Golden-cup. Lake County. From 


622. Batrachium trichophyllum (Chaix.) Schultz. White Water- 

crowfoot. Rather general. 

623. Batrachium circinatum (Sibth.) Rchb. Circinate White Water- 

crowfoot. Licking, Defiance. 

624. Trollius laxus Salisb. American Globe-flower. Columbiana, 


625. Helleborus viridis L. Green Hellebore. Gallia, Miami, Franklin, 

Stark. From Europe. 

626. Nigella damascena L. Love-in-a-mist. Hamilton County. (Erie 

County — Moseley Herbarium.) Escaped from gardens. 

627. Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. Gold-thread. Defiance, Portage, 

Summit, Stark, Geauga. 

628. Aquilegia canadensis L. Wild Columbine. General. 

629. Aquilegia vulgaris L. European Columbine. Escaped in Fulton 


630. Aconitum noveboracense Gr. New York Monkshood. Summit, 


631. Delphinium tricorne Mx. Dwarf Larkspur. Southern half of 

the state; also in Columbiana County. 

632. Delphinium exaltatum Ait. Tall Larkspur. Stark, Franklin. 

633. Delphinium ajacis L. Garden Larkspur. General. Naturalized 

from Europe. 

634. Anemone cylindrica Gr. Long-fruited Anemone. Wood, Otta- 

wa, Erie. 

635. Anemone virginiana L. Virginia Anemone. General. 

636. Anemone canadensis L. Canada Anemone. General. 

637. Anemone quinquefolia L. Wind-flower. General except south- 

ern and southeastern narts of the state. 

638. Hepatica hepatica (L.) Karst. Roundlobed Liver-loaf. General. 


639. Hepatica acutiloba DC. Sharplobed Liver-leaf. General. 

640. Clematis virginiana L. Virginia Virgin 's-bower. General. 

641. Viorna viorna (L.) Small. Leather-flower. Southern half of 

Ohio ; also in Auglaize County. 

642. Caltha palustris L. Marsh-marigold. General. 

643. Hydrastis canadensis L. Golden-seal. General. 

644. Actaea rubra (Ait.) Willd. Red Baneberry. Erie, Sandusky. 

645. Actaea alba (L.) Mill. White Baneberry. General. 

646. Cimicifuga racemosa (L.) Nutt. Black Cohosh. Eastern half 

of state to Erie, Fairfield, and Clermont Counties. 

647. Syndesmon thalietroides (L.) Iloffm. Rue-anemone. General 

and abundant. 

648. Isopyrum biternatum (Raf.) T. & G. False Rue-anemone. 

Southwestern fourth of state ; also in Cuyahoga County. 

649. Thalictrum dioicum L. Early Meadow-rue. General. 

650. Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch & Lall. Purplish Meadow-rue. 


651. Thalictrum polygamum Muhl. Fall Meadow-rue. Rather gen- 


Parnissiaceae. Grass-of-Parnassus Family. 

652. Pai-nassia caroliniana Mx. Carolina Grass-of-Parnassus. Rather 


Ceratophyllaceae. Ilornleaf Family. 

653. Ceratophyllum dcmei-sum L. Hornleaf. General. 

Berberidaceae. Barberry Fannly. 

654. Podophyllum peltatum L. May-apple. General and abundant. 

655. Jef rsonia diphylla (L.) Pers. Twinleaf. General. 

656. Caulophjdlum thalietroides (L.) Mx. Blue Cohosh. General. 

657. Berberis vulgaris L. Common Barberry. Escaped rather gen- 


658. Odostemon aciuifolium (Pursli.) Kydb. Tailing Mahonia. Es- 

caped in Lake County. 

Menispermaceae. Moonsced Family. 

659. Menispcniimii canadcnsr L. ]\Ioonseed. General and abundant. 


Lauraceae. Laurel Family. 

660. Sassafras sassafras (L.) Karst. Sassafras. General. 

661. Benzoin aestivale (L.) Nees. Spicebush. General. 

Order, Sarraceniales. 

Sarraceniaceae. Piteher-plant Family. 

662. Sarraceuia purpurea L. Pitcher-plant. Geauga, Summit, Ashta- 

bula, Wayne, Richland, Defiance, Williams. 

Droseraceae. Sundew Family. 

663. Drosera rotundifolia L. Roundleaf Sundew. Licking, Wayne, 

Portage, Stark, Geauga, Ashtabula. 

664. Drosera intermedia Hayne. Spatulate Sundew. Wayne County. 

Order, Brassicales. 

Papaveraceae. Poppy Family. 

665. Papaver somniferum L. Opium Poppy. No specimens. From 


666. Papaver rhoeas L. Field Poppy. Ashtabula County. From 


667. Papaver dubium L. Corn Poppy. No specimens. From 


668. Papaver argemone L. Rough-fruited Poppy. (Erie County- 

Moseley Herbarium.) From Europe. 

669. Argemone mexicana L. Mexican Prickly-poppy. Franklin 

County. From tropical America. 

670. Sanguinaria canadensis L. Bloodroot. General and abundant. 

671. Stylophorum diphyllum (Mx.) Nutt. Yellow Poppy. Southern 

half of state. 

672. Macleya cordata (Willd.) R. Br. Macleya. Escaped in Madison 

and Franklin Counties. 

673. Chelidonium majus L. Celandine. General. From Europe. 

Fumariaceae. Fumitory Family. 

674. Bicuculla cucullaria (L.) Millsp. Dutchman 's-breeches. Gen- 


675. Bicuculla canadensis (Goldie) Millsp. S(iuirrel-corn. General. 


676. Adluniia fungosa (Ait.) Greene. Climbing Fumitory. Lorain, 

Cuyahoga, Lake, Summit, Belmont. 

677. Capnoides sempervirens (L.) Borck. Pink Corydalis. Fairfield, 

Knox, Portage. 

678. Capnoides flavulum (Raf.) Ktz. Pale Corydalis. Southwestern 

fourth of state; also in Ottawa and Erie Counties. 

679. Capnoides aureuni (Willd.) Ktz. Golden Corydalis. (Ottawa 

County — Moseley Herbarium. ) 

680. Fumaria offlcinalis L. Common Fumitory. Columbiana County. 

From Europe. 

681. Fumaria i^arvitlora Lam. Small-flowered Fumitory. Introduced 

in Lake County. 

Brassicaceae. ^Mustard Family, 

682. Berteroa incana (L.) DC. Hoary Berteroa. No specimens. From 


683. Koniga maritima (L.) R. Br. Sweet Alyssum. Erie County. 


684. Alyssum alyssoides L. Yellow Alyssum. Sandusky County. 

From Europe. 

685. Draba verna L. Vernal Whitlow-grass. Southern half of state ; 

also in Portage County. From Europe. 

686. Draba caroliniana Walt. Carolina Whitlow-grass. Adams, 

Clark, Erie, Ottawa. 

687. Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz. Common False-flax. Sandusky, 

Auglaize, Miami, Montgomery, Franklin. From Europe. 

688. Camelina microcarpa Andrz. Small-fruited False-flax. Clark 

County. From Europe. 

689. Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britt. Shepherd 's-purse. General 

and abundant. From Europe. 

690. Neslia paniculata (L.) Desv. Ball-mustard. Escaped in Lake 


691. Armoracia armoracia (L.) Britt. Horsei-adish. General. From 


692. Neobeckia acjuatica (Eat.) Britt. Lake Water-cress. Lucas, 

Coshocton, Licking, Perry, Madison. 

693. Sisymbrium nasturtium-ariuaticum L. True Water-cress. Ixathor 

general. From Europe. 


69-1. Radicula hispida (Desv.) Britt. Hispid Yellow-cvess. Monroe, 
Shelby, Logan, Ottawa, Erie, Huron, Cuyahoga, Summit. 

695. Radicula palustris (L.) Moench. Marsh Yellow-cress. General. 

696. Radicula sylvestris (L.) Druce. Creeping Yellow-cress. Lucas, 

Erie, Cuyahoga. From Europe. 

697. Lepidium ruderale L. Roadside Peppergrass. No specimens. 

From Europe. 

698. Lepidium virginicum L. Virginia Peppergrass. General and 


699. Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. Wild Peppergrass. Auglaize, 

Champaign, Franklin, Fayette, Wayne, Lorain, Cuyahoga, 

700. Lepidium draba L. Hoary Pejipergrass. Lucas County. Fi-om 


701. Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br. Field Peppergrass. Rather 

general. From Europe. 

702. Carara didyma (L.) Britt. Lesser Wart-cress. Lake Covinty. 


703. Thlaspi arvense L. Field Penny-cress. Cuyahoga, Henry. From 


704. Myagrum perfoliatum L. Myagrum. Lake County. From 


705. Alliaria alliaria (L.) Britt. Garlic Mustard. (Erie County— 

Moseley Herbarium.) From Europe. 

706. Sophia pinnata (Walt.) Howell. Pinnate Tanzy-mustard. Ham- 

ilton, Montgomery, Miami, Ottawa, Jackson. 

707. Sophia incisa (Eng.) Greene. Western Tanzy-mustard. Miami, 


708. Cheirinia cheiranthoides (L.) Link. Worm-seed Mustard. Ham- 

ilton, Lucas, Lake, Portage. 

709. Cheirinia repanda (Jj.) Link. Repand Cheirinia. Logan, Erie. 

From Europe. 

710. Cheirinia aspera (DC.) Britt. Western Cheirinia. Franklin 


711. Erysimum officinale L. Hedge-mustard. General and abundant. 

From Europe. 

712. Norta altissima (L.) Britt. Tall Hedge-mustard. Lake, Cuya- 

hoga, Erie, Ottawa, Wayne, Jackson, Greene, Belmont, Por- 
tage. From Euroi^e. 


713. Norta irio (L.) Britt. Loiigleaf Hedge-mnstard. Portage 

County. Introduced. 
71-1. Conringia orientalis (L.) Dum. Hare's-ear Mustard. Lake, 

Cuyahoga, Geauga. From Europe. 

715. Hesperis matronalis L. Dame's Rocket. Hamilton, Franklin, 

Portage. From Europe. 

716. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Li^tt. Mouse-ear Cress. Clinton, 

Montgomery, Lucas, Asthtabula. From Europe. 

717. Barbarea barbarea (L.) MacM. Yellow Winter-ci-ess. General. 

From Europe. 

718. Barbarea stricta Andrz. Erect Winter-cress. Erie County. 

From Europe. 

719. Barbarea verna (Mill.) Aschers. Early Winter-cress. Belmont, 

Portage, Harrison, Preble. From Europe. 

720. lodanthus pinnatifidus (Mx.) Steud. Purple Rocket. Rather 


721. Arabis dentata T. & G. Toothed Rock-cress. Rather general. 

722. Arabis j^atens Sull. Spreading Rock-cress. Franklin County. 

723. Arabis hirsuta (L.) Scop. Hairy Rock-cress. Rather general. 

724. Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh. Tower Mustard. Hamilton, Frank- 

lin, Auglaize, Lucas, Richland, Cuyahoga, Geauga, Belmont. 

725. Arabis laevigata (Muhl.) Poir. Smooth Rock-cress. General. 

726. Arabis canadensis L. Sickle-pod Rock-grass. General. 

727. Arabis virginica (L.) Trel. Virginia Rock-cress. Clermont. 

Lawrence, Clark. 

728. Arabis lyrata L. Lyre-leaf Rock-cress. Pike, Muskingum, Aug- 

laize. Wood, Erie. 

729. Arabis (Iruimnondii Gr. Drummond's Rock-cress. No specimens. 

730. Arabis bracliycarpa (T. & G.) Britt. Purple Rock-cress. Erie, 


731. Cardamine douglassii (Torr.) Britt. Purpk' Bitter-cress. Gen- 

eral and abundant. 

732. Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb.) B. S. P. Bulbous Bitter-cress. 


733. Cardamine rotundifolia Mx. Roundleaf Bitter-cress. Belmont, 


734. Cardamine ])ratensis L. Meadow Bitter-cress. Portage County. 

735. Cardamine liii-suta L. Hairv Bitter-cress. Lake Count v. 


736. Cardamine pennsylvanica Mulil. Pennsylvania Bitter-cress. 


737. Cardamine arenicola Britt. Sand Bitter-cress. Lake County. 

738. Cardamine parviflora L. Small-flowered Bitter-cress. Law- 

rence, Hocking, Fairfield, Delaware. 

739. Dentaria dipylla Mx. Two-leaf Toothwort. Eastern half of 


740. Dentaria maxima Niitt. Large Toothwort. No specimens. 

741. Dentaria heterophylla Nntt. Slender Toothwort. Auglaize, 

Hocking, Vinton, Belmont, Clermont. 

742. Dentaria laciniata Muhl. Cutleaf Toothwort. General and 


743. Sinapis alba L. White Mustard. Lucas County. From Europe. 

744. Sinapis arvensis L. Corn Mustard. General except in the 

southern part. From Europe. 

745. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Black Mustard. General and abun- 

dant. From Europe. 

746. Brassica juncea (L.) Cosson. Indian Mustard. "Wayne, Por- 

tage. From Asia. 

747. Brassica campestris L. Common Turnip. Miami, Auglaize, 

Franklin, Wayne. From Europe. 

748. Brassica napus L. Rape. Franklin County. Introduced. 

749. Brassica oleracea L. Cabbage. No specimens. Spontaneous 

after cultivation. 

750. Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC. Sand Rocket. Cuyahoga County. 

From Europe. 

751. Raphanus raphanistrum L. Wild Radish. Lake County. From 


752. Raphanus sativus L. Garden Radish. Rather general. Sponta- 

neous after cultivation. 

753. Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook. Sea Rocket. Ashtabula, Lake, 

Cuyahoga, Erie. 

Capparidaceae. Caper Family. 

754. Polanisia graveolens Raf. Clammy- weed. Hamilton, Clermont, 

Warren, Montgomery, Greene, Ross, Monroe, Erie, Cuyahoga. 

755. Cleome spinosa L. Spider-flower. Montgomery, Cuyahoga. 

From tropical America. 


Resedaceae. Mignonette Family. 

756. Reseda luteola L. Dyer's Mignonette. Licking, Belmont. From 


757. Reseda alba L. "White Mignonette. Cuyahoga County. From 


Order, Geraniales. 

Geraniaceae. Geranium Family. 

758. Geranium maculatiun L. Wild Crane's-bill. General and abun- 


759. Geranium columbinum L. Long-stalked Crane's-bill. Lake 

County. From Europe. 

760. Geranium carolinianum L. Carolina Crane's-bill. General. 

761. Geranium molle L. Dove's-foot Crane's-bill. Madison, Lake. 

From Europe. 

762. Geranium pusillum L. Small-flowered Crane's-bill. Cuyahoga, 

Lake, Ashtabula. From Europe. 

763. Robertiella robertiana (L.) Hanks. Herb-Robert. North central 


764. Erodium cicutarium (L.) L'Her. Stork's-bill. Auglaize, Lake. 

From Europe. 

Oxalidaceae. AVood-sorrel Family. 

765. Oxalis grandis Small. Great Wood-sorrel. General except in 

the northwestern part of the state. 

766. Oxalis cymosa Small. Tall Wood-sorrel. General and abundant. 

767. Oxalis stricta L. Upright Wood-sorrel. General. 

768. Oxalis brittoniae Small. Britton's Wood-sorrel. Franklin, Lake. 

769. Oxalis rufa Small. Red Wood-sorrel. Franklin, Lake. 

770. Oxalis corniculata L. Procumbent Wood-sorrel. JMonroe, Frank- 

lin, Lake. From tropical America. 

771. Oxalis violacea L. Violet Wood-sorrel. Rather general. 

Limnanthaceae. False-mermaid Family. 

772. Floerkea proserpinacoides Wilkl. False-mermaid. Rather 



Linaceae. Flax Family. 

773. Linuni iisitatissiinum L. Common Flax. Rather general. In- 


774. Linum perenne L. Perennial Flax. Escaped in Lake County. 

775. Linum virginiauum L. Virginia Flax. Eastern half of state to 

Erie, Franklin, and Adams Counties. 

776. Linum medium (Planch.) Britt. Stiff Flax. Erie County. 

777. Linum sulcatum Ridd. Grooved Flax. Erie County. 

Balsaminaceae. Jewel-weed Family. 

778. Lnpatiens pallida Nutt. Pale Touch-me-not. General. 

779. Impatiens biflora Walt. Spotted Touch-me-not. General and 


Rutaceae. Rue Family. 

780. Zanthoxylum amerieanum Mill. Prickly-ash. General in west- 

ern Ohio as far east as Huron and Licking Counties. 

781. Ptelea trifoliata L. Ploptree. General. 

Simarubaceae. Ailanthus Family. 

782. Ailanthus gladulosa Desf. Tree-of -heaven. General. Intro- 


Polygalaceae. IMilkwort Family. 

783. Polygala cruciata L. Crossleaf Milkwort. Gallia, Lucas. 

784. Polygala verticillata L. Whorled Milkwort. General; no speci- 

mens from the western part of the state. 

785. Polygala ambigua Nutt. Loose-spiked Milkwort. Rather general. 

786. Polygala viridescens L. Purple Milk^rort. General. 

787. Polygala senega L. Seneca Snakeroot. Rather general. 

788. Polygala polygama Walt. Racemed ^Milkwort. Ashtabula, Cuy- 

ahoga, Lucas. 

789. Polygala pauciflora Willd. Fringed Milkwort. Stai-k County. 

Euphorbiaceae. Spurge Family. 

790. Phyllantluis earolinensis Walt. Carolina Phyllanthus. Hamil- 

ton, Warren. 

791. Croton capitatus Mx. Capitate Croton. Hamilton, Franklin. 


792. Croton monanthogynus Mx. Single-fruited Croton. Franklin 


793. Acalypha virginica L. Virginia Three-seeded Mercury. General. 

794. Acalypha gracilens Gr. Slender Three-seeded Mercury. Rather 


795. Acalypha ostryaefolia Ridd. Hornbeam Three-seeded Mercury. 

Washington County. 

796. Mercurialis annua L. Mercury. Lake County. Introduced. 

797. Ricinus communis L. Castor-oil-plant. Erie, Ottawa, Franklin. 


798. Poinsettia dentata (Mx.) Small. Toothed Spurge. Lake, Cuya- 

hoga, Ottawa, Lucas, Franklin, Greene, Warren, Hamilton. 

799. Tithymalus lathyrus (L.) Hill. Caper Spurge. Hocking Coun- 

ty. From Europe. 

800. Tithymalus obtusatus (Pursh) K. & G. Bluntleaf Spurge. 

Lucas, Wyandot, Auglaize, Jackson, Hamilton. 

801. Tithymalus platyphyllus (L.) Hill. Broadleaf Spurge. Ash- 

talnila, Cuyahoga. From Europe. 

802. Tithymalus helioscopia (L.) Hill. Sun Spurge. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

803. Tithymalus cyparissias (L.) Hill. Cypress Spurge. General. 

From Europe. 

804. Tithymalus peplus (L.) Hill. Petty Spurge. Clark, Erie, Sum- 

mit, Lake. From Europe. 

805. Tithymalus eommutatus (Eng.) K. & G. Tinted Spurge. Gen- 


806. Tithymalus corollata (L.) K. & G. Flowering Spurge. General 

and abundant. 

807. Dichroi)hyllum nuirginatum iPui'sii) K. & G. Snow-on-the- 

mountain. Lake, Cuyahoga, Erie, Auglaize, Franklin, Clark, 
Montgomery, Hamilton. From the West. 

808. Chamaesyce preslii (Guss.) Arth. Nodding Spurge. General 

and abundant. 

809. Chamaesyce rafines(|ui (Greene) Small. Hairy Spurge. Defi- 

ance, Vinton. 

810. Chamaesyce humistrata (Eng.) Small. Hairy Spreading Spurge. 

Cuyahoga, Erie. Belmont, Champaign. 

811. Chamaesyce macnlata (L.) Small. Spotted Spurge. TJatlu-r 



812. Chamaesvce polygonifolia (L.) Small. Knotweed Spurge. Erie, 

Cuyahoga, Lake. 

813. Chamaesyce serpens. (H. B. K.) Small. Koundleaf Spurge. Ot- 

tawa County. 

Callitrichaceae. Water-starAvort Family. 

814. Callitriche austini Eng. Terrestrial Water-starwort. Cuyahoga, 


815. Callitriche palustris L. Vernal Water-starwort. Auglaize, Lo- 

rain, Trumbull. 

816. Callitriche heterophylla Pursh. Larger Water-starwort. Cuya- 
hoe-a County. 


Order. MaJvaJes. 

Malvaceae. Mallow Family. 

817. Malva sylvestris L. High ^Mallow. Cuyahoga, Auglaize. From 


818. Malva rotuiidifolia L. Rouudleaf Mallow. General and abun- 

dant. From Europe. 

819. Malva verticillata L. Curled Mallow. No specimens. From 


820. Malva alcea L. European Mallow. Escaped in Cuyahoga Coun- 

ty. From Europe. 

821. Malva moschata L. Musk Mallow. Northern part of the state, 

as far south as Muskingum County. From Europe. 

822. Callirhoe involuerata (T. & G.) Gr. Purple Poppy-mallow. A 

waif in Franklin County. 

823. Althaea officinalis L. Marsh-mallow. A waif in Scioto County. 

824. Althaea rosea L. Hollyhock. Lucas, Erie, Madison, Brown, 

Montgomery, Scioto. Escaped from cultivation. 

825. Sida spinosa L. Prickly Sida. Rather general. From the 


826. Sida hermaphrodita (L.) Rusby. Tall Sida. No specimens. 

827. Napaea dioica L. Glade-mallow. Defiance, Clark, Madison, 

Franklin, Fairfield, Highland. 

828. Abutilon abutilon (L.) Rusby. Velvet-leaf. General and abun- 

dant. From Asia. 

829. Hibiscus moscheutos L. Swamp Rose-mallow. Ashtabula, Cuya- 

hoga, Erie, Wayne, Licking, Perry. 


830. Hibiscus militaiis Car. Halberd-leaf Rose-mallow. Lucas, 

Paulding, Auglaize, Defiance, Shelby, Franklin. 

831. Hibiscus trionuni L. Bladder Ketmia. General. From Europe. 

Tiliaceae. Linden Family. 

832. Tilia americana L. American Linden. General and abundant. 

833. Tilia lieteropliylla Vent. "White Linden. Hamilton, Scioto. 

834. Tilia michauxii Nutt. Michaux's Linden. Xo specimens. 

Order, Violalcs. 

Hypericaceae. St. John's-wort Family. 

835. Hypeiieum ascyron L. Great St. John's-wort. Rather general. 

836. Hypericum kalmianuni L. Kalm's St. John's-wort. Ottawa, 

Erie, Summit. 

837. Hypericum prolificum L. Shrubby St. John's-wort. Rather 


838. Hypericum perforatum L. Common St. John's-wort. General. 

From Europe. 

839. Hypericum punctatum Lam. Spotted St. John's-wort. General. 

840. Hypei'icum cistifolium Lam. Round-iiodded St. John's-wort. 

Montgomery, Clermont, Franklin. 

84L Hypericum ellipticum Hook. Ellii)tic-leaf St. John's-wort. Lake 

842. Hypericum virgatum Lam. Virgate St. John's-wort. Jackson 


843. Hypericum boreale (Britt.) Biekn. Northern St. John's-woi-t. 

Geauga, Defiance, Wayne. 

844. Hypericum mutilum L. Small-flowered St. John's- woi-t. General. 

845. Hypericum gymnanthum Eng. & Gr. Clasping-leaf St. John's- 

wort. Erie, Ottawa. 

846. Hypericum majus (Gr.) Britt. Large Canadian St. John's-wort. 

(Erie County — Moseley Herbarium.) 

847. Hypericum canadense L. Canadian St. John's-wort.. (Erie 

County — Moseley Herbarium. ) 
848 Hypericum druiiunondii (Grev. & Hook.) T. & G. Dnnumond's 
St. John 's-Avort. Hamilton, Clermont, Ashtabula, Hocking. 

849. Sarothra gentianoides L. Orange-grass. Erie, Gallia, Scioto. 

850. Triadenum virginicum (L.) Raf. Marsh St. John's-wort. Cuya- 

hoga, Geauga, Erie, Huron, Wayne, Licking. 


851. Ascyruui hypericoides L. St. Andrew 's-cross. Hamilton, Scioto, 

Lawrence, Gallia, Jackson, Hocking, Fairfield. 

Cistaceae. Rock-rose Family. 

852. Crocanthemum majus (L.) Britt. Hoary Frostweed. Lucas, 

Portage, Fairfield. 

853. Crocanthemum canadense (L.) Mx. Canada Frostweed. Erie, 

Lucas, Wood. 

854. Lechea minor L. Thyme-leaf Pinweed. Jefferson, Hocking, 


855. Lechea racemulosa Mx. Oblong-fruited Pinweed. Adams, Sci- 

oto, Jackson, Hocking, Fairfield, Licking, Lucas. 

856. Lechea villosa Ell. Hairy Pinweed. Summit, Wayne, Erie, 


857. Lechea tenuifolia Mx. Narrow-leaf Pinweed. Lucas. 

858. Lechea leggettii Britt & HoU. Leggett's Pinweed. No specimens. 

859. Lechea stricta Legg. Prairie Pinweed. Portage County. 

Violaceae. Violet Family. 

860. Cubeliura concolor (Forst.) Raf. Green Violet. Southern half 

of state to Auglaize, Licking, and Belmont Counties ; also in 
Lake County. 

861. Viola canadensis L. Canada A^iolet. Southeastern half of state ; 

from Huron to Fairfield and Hamilton Counties. 

862. Viola eriocarpa Schw. Smooth Yellow Violet. General. 

863. Viola pubescens Ait. Hairy YelloW' Violet. General. 

864. Viola hastata Mx. Halberd-leaf Yellow Violet. Cuyahoga, Lake, 

Portage, Columbiana, Belmont. 

865. Viola striata Ait. Striped Violet. General and abundant. 

866. Viola conspersa Reich. American Dog Violet. Lucas, Wyandot, 

Lorain, Portage, Trumlndl. 

867. Viola rostrata Pursh. Long-sinu red Violet. Rather general. 

868. Viola rafines(iuii Greene. Wild Ptuisy. Hamilton, ^Montgomery, 

Miami, Pike, Ross, Franklin. Ottawa, Erie, Lake. 

869. Viola tricolor L. Garden Pansy. Cuyahoga, County. From 


870. Viola odorata L. Sweet Violet. Lake, Franklin. From Europe. 

871. Viola rotundifolia Mx. Roundleaf Violet. Ashtabula, Cuya- 

hoga, Tuscarawas, Hocking. 


872. Viola blaiula Willd. Sweet White Violet. Rather general. 

873. Viola pallens (Banks) Brain. Woodland White Violet. Cuya- 

hoga, Hancock, Fairfield, Vinton. 

874. Viola lanceolata L. Lanceleaf Violet. Lake, Fairfield. 

875. Viola affinis Le C. Thinleaf Blue Violet. General and abundant. 

876. Viola papilonacea Pursh. Common Blue Violet. General and 


877. Viola liirsutula Brain. Southern Wood Violet. Hocking, Fair- 


878. Viola sororia Willd. Woolly blue Violet. Lake, Portage, Bel- 

mont, Wood Warren, 

879. Viola palmata L. Early Blue Violet. General and abundant. 

880. Viola triloba Schw. Three-lobed Violet. Lake County. 

881. Viola emarginata (Nutt.) Le Conte. Triangle-leaf Violet. Lake 


882. Viola pedatifida Don. Larkspur Violet. Ottawa, Auglaize. 
888. Viola fimbriatula Sm. Ovate-leaf Violet. Wood, Licking, Jeffer- 
son, Wayne, Portage, Cuyahoga, Lake. 

884. Viola sagittata Ait. Arrowleaf Violet. Franklin, Fulton, Erie, 

Lorain, Cu.yahoga. 

885. Viola pedata L. Birdfoot Violet. Lawrence, Scioto. 

Passifloraceae. Passionflower Family. 

886. Passiflora lutea L. Yellow Passion-flower. Southern half of 

state to Darke and Franklin Counties. 


Order, Canjoph yllales. 

Caryophyllaceae. Pinlc Family. 
Subfamily, alsinatae. 

887. Sagina procumbens L. Procumbent Pearlwort. Lake, Gallia. 

From Europe. 

888. Sagina decumbens (Ell.) T. & G. Decumbent Pearlwort. Law- 

rence County. 
88f). Ai-enaria serpyllifolia L. Thyiiic-h'af Sandwort. General. From 

8!)0. Arena ria stricta Mx. Rock Sandwort. Ottawa, Erie, Cuyahoga, 

Clark, Franklin. 
8i)l. Arenaria patula Mx. Pitcher's Sandwort. Montgomery County. 


892. Moehringia lateriflora (L.) Fenzl. Bluntleaf Moeringia. Otta- 

wa, Auglaize, Morrow, Perry, Franklin, Darke. 

893. Holosteum nmbellatuin L. Jagged Chickweed. Hamilton County. 

From Europe. 

894. Alsine aquatica (L.) Britt. Water Chickweed. Guernsey Coun- 

ty. From Europe. 

895. Alsine media L. Common Chickweed. General and abundant. 

From Europe. 

896. Alsine pubera (Mx.) Britt. Great Chickweed. Southern Ohio 

as far north as Preble and Fairfield Counties. 

897. Alsine longifolia (Muhl.) Britt. Longleaf Stichwort. General. 

898. Alsine graminea (L.) Britt. Lesser Stichwort. Cuyahoga, Aug- 

laize, Belmont. From Evirope. 

899. Cerastium vulgatum L. Common Mouse-ear Chickweed. General. 

From Europe. 

900. Cerastium longipedunculatum Muhl. Nodding Chickweed. Gen- 


901. Cerastium arvense L. Field Chickweed. Monroe, Trumbull, Ot- 

tawa, Sandusky, Miami. 
901a. Cerastium arvense webbii Jennings. Cuyahoga Count3^ 

902. Cerastium velutinum Raf. Barren Chickweed. Erie, Monroe. 

903. Spergula arvensis L. Corn Spurry. Lake County. From 


904. Tissa rubra (L.) Britt. Sand Spurry. Lake County. From 


Subfamily, caryophyllatae. 

905. Agrostemma githago L. Corn Cockle. General. From Europe. 

906. Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desv. Mullen Pink. Lake, Cuyahoga, 

Portage, Fairfield. From Europe. 
S07. Lychnis viscaria L. Viscid Lychnis. Lake County. Escaped. 

908. Lychnis alba Mill. White Lychnis. Lake, Wayne, Xoble, Meigs. 

Fiom Europe. 

909. Lychnis dioica L. Red Lychnis. From Eiiiojv.'. (Erie County 

— Moseley Herbarium.) 

910. Silene stellata (L.) Ait. Starry Campion. General. 

911. Silene alba Muhl. White Campion. Butler, Clermont. 

912. Silene latifolia (Mill.) Britt & Rend. Bladder Campion. Ei-ie 

County. From Europe. 


913. Silene virginica L. Fire Pink. General. 

914. Silene rotundifolia Nutt. Roiindleaf Catehfly. Hocking, Jack- 


915. Silene armeria L. Sweet William Catehfly. Monroe, Licking, 

Cuyahoga, Lake. From Europe. 

916. Silene noctiflora L. Xight-blooming Catehfly. Greene, Auglaize, 

Lucas, Sandusky, Erie, Cuyahoga, Lake, Belmont, Jefferson. 
From Europe. 

917. Silen(^ dichotoma Ehrh. Forked Catehfly. Noble County, (Ot- 

tawa County — Moseley Herbarium). From Europe. 

918. Silene conica L. Striate Catehfly. Sandusky County. From 


919. Silene regia Sims. Royal Catehfly. Clark, Madison. 

920. Silene caroliniana Walt. Carolina Catehfly. Washington, Mon- 

roe, Jefferson. 

921. Silene antirrhina L. Sleepy Catehfly. General. 

922. Saponaria officinalis L. Bouncing-Bet. General. From Europe. 

923. Vaccaria vaccaria (L.) Britt. Cowherb. Ashtabula, Lake. From 


924. Dianthus prolifer L. Proliferous Pink. Cuyahoga County. 

From Europe. 

925. Dianthus armeria L. Deptford Pink. Jefferson, Gallia, Lick- 

ing. From Europe. 

926. Dianthus deltoides L. Maiden Pink. Lake County. Escaped. 

927. Dianthus barbatus L. Sweet William. Portage County. From 


Aizoaceae. Carpetweed Family. 

928. Mollugo verticillata L. Carpetweed. General. From the South. 


Portulacaceae. Purslane Family. 

Claytonia virginica L. Spring-beauty. General and abundant. 

Limnia perfoliata (Donn.) Haw. Spanish-lettuce. No specimens. 

From the West. 

931. Portulaca oleracea L. Purslane. Hamilton, Fayette, Auglaize, 

Holmes, Huron, Erie, Franklin. From llie Southwest. 

932. Portulaca gr;iiidifloi'a Hook. Garden Portulaca. Aughiize, 

P'raiikliti. Escaped. 


Nyctaginaceae. Fuui'-o "clock Family. 

9C3. Allionia nyctaginea Mx. Heartleaf Umbrella-wort. Hamilton. 

Montgomery, Greene, Champaign, Monroe, Erie. From the 

934. Allionia hirsuta Pursh. Hairy Umbrella-wort. Ashtabula 

County. From the West. 

935. Mirabilis jalapa L. Four-o'clock. Persistent in Franklin 


Phytolaccaceae. Pokeweed Family. 

936. Phytolacca americana L. Poki^weed. General and abundant. 

Order, Clioiopodiaks. 

Corrigiolaceae. Whitlow-wort Family. 

937. Anychia polygonoides Raf. Forked Anychia. Southern part of 

state as far north as Franklin, Holmes, and Belmont Coun- 
ties ; also in Ottawa and Erie Counties. 

938. Anychia canadensis (L.) B. S. P. Slender Anychia. General. 

939. Scleranthus annuus L. Knawel. Lake County. From Europe. 

Amaranthaceae. Amaranth Family. 

940. Celosia cristata L. Cock's-comb. Franklin County. Persistent. 

941. Amaranthus retroflexus L. Rough Pigweed. General and abun- 

dant. From tropical America. 

942. Amaranthus hybridus L. Slender Pigweed. General. From 

tropical America. 

943. Amaranthus spinosus L. ►Spiny Amaranth. Southern half of 

state. From tropical America. 

944. Amaranthus graecizans L. Tumble-weed (Amaranth). Western 

half of state, from Hamilton to Franklin and Lake Counties. 

945. Amaranthus blitoides Wats. Mat Amaranth. General. From 

the West. 

946. Acnida tuberculata Mocj. Tubercled Water-hemp. Rather gen- 


947. Acnida tamariscina (Xutt.) Wood. Western Water-hemp. 

Franklin, Clinton. From the West. 

948. Iresine paniculata (L.) Ktz. Bloodleaf. No specimens. 

949. Gomphrena globosa L. Globe-amaranth. Wood County. Es- 

caped from gardens. 


Chenopodiaceae. Goosefoot Family. 

950. Chenopodiuiii album L. Lamb's-quarter. General and abundant. 

From Europe. 

951. Chenopodinm glaucum L. Oakleaf Goosefoot. Summit, Erie, 

Ottawa, Lucas, Auglaize. From Europe. 

952. Chenopodinm leptophyllum (Moq.) Nutt. Narrowleaf Goosefoot. 

Lake, Lorain. 

953. Chenopodinm vulvaria L. Fetid Goosefoot. Lorain County. 

From Europe. 

954. Chenopodinm polyspermnm L. Many-seeded Goosefoot. Lake 

County. From Europe. 

955. Chenopodiiuii boscianum Moq. Bosc's Goosefoot. Washington, 

Meigs, Ross, Franklin, Miami, Ottawa, Erie. 

956. Chenopodinm murale L. Nettle-leaf Goosefoot. Rather general. 

From Europe. 

957. (-henopodium hybridum L. Maple-leaf Goosefoot. Rather gen- 


958. Chenopodinm botrys L. Feather Geranium. Rather general. 

From Europe. 

959. Chenopodinm ambrosioides L. Mexican Tea. Rather general. 

From tropical America. 
960. Blitum capitatnm L. Strawberry Blite. Summit County. 

961. Spinacia oleracea L. Common Spinach. Lorain County. Es- 

caped from gardens. 

962. Cycloloma atriplicifolium (Spreng. ) Coult. Tumbleweed. Erie, 

Lake. From the West. 

963. Kochia scoparia (L.) Roth. Mock-cypress. Morgan, Franklin, 

Cuyahoga. From Europe. 

964. Atriplex hastata L. Halberd-leaf Orache. General. 

965. Atriplex ros(^a L. Red Orache. Erie County. From Europe. 

966. Salsola ])estifer Nels. Russian-thistle. Williams, Lucas, Aug- 

laize, Ottawa, Erie, Wayne, Cuyahoga, Lake, Portage. Prom 

Order, Poli/ffoiKih s. 

Polygonaceae. Buckwbeat Family. 

967. Rumex altissimus Wood. Tall Dock. Rather general. 

968. Rumex vertieillatus L. Swamp Dock. Rather general. 

969. Rumex mexicanus Meisn. Willow-leaf Dock. Allen County. 


970. Eumex patientia L. Patience Dock. From Europe. No speci- 


971. Rumex britannica L. Great Water Dock. Williams, Erie, Co- 

shocton, Licking, Franklin, Hocking, Champaign. 

972. Rumex crispus L. Curled Dock. Naturalized from Europe. 

General and abundant. 

973. Eumex conglomeratus Murr. Clustered Dock. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

974. Rumex obtusifolius L. Broadleaf Dock. Naturalized from 

Europe. General and abundant. 

975. Rumex acetosella L. Sheep Sorrel. General and abundant. 

From Europe. 

976. Pleuropterus zuccarinii Small. Japanese Knotweed. Cuyahoga 

County. From Japan. 

977. Tiniaria convolvulus (L.) W. & M. Black Bindweed. General. 

Naturalized from Europe. 

978. Tiniaria scandeus (L.) Small. Climbing False Buckwheat. 


979. Tiniaria dumetorum (L.) Opiz. Copse False Buckwheat. From 

Europe. (Erie, Ottawa — Moseley Herbarium.) 

980. Tracaulon arifolium (L.) Raf. Halberd-leaf Tear-thumb. North- 

ern part of state as far south as Auglaize and Belmont 

981. Tracaulon sagittatum (L.) Small. Arrow-leaf Tear-thumb. 


982. Fagopyrum fagopyrum (L.) Karst. Buckwheat. From Europe. 


983. Persicaria amphibia (L.) S. F. Gr. Water Persicaria. Summit, 

Fairfield, OttaAva, Stark, Franklin, Clark. 

984. Persicaria mulilenbergii (Wats.) Small. Swamp Persicaria. 

Northern half of state to Shelby and Perry Counties. 

985. Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) S. F. Gray. Pale Persicaria. Gen- 

eral. Naturalized from Europe. 

986. Persicaria pennsylvanica (L.) Small. Pennsylvania Persicaria. 

General and abundant. 

987. Persicaria careyi (Olney) Greene. Carey's Persicaria. Erie 


988. Pei'sicaria persicaria (L.) Small. Lady's-thumb. General and 

abundant. Naturalized from Europe. 


Persiearia hvdropiperoides (Mx.) Small. Mild Smart weed. 

990. Persiearia hydropiper (L.) Opiz. Water Smartweed. General. 

From Europe. 

991. Persiearia punctata (Ell.) Small. Dotted Smartweed. General. 

992. Persiearia orientalis (L.) Spach. Prince 's-feather. Lucas, 

Montgomery, Franklin, Hocking, Meigs, Scioto. Native of 

993. Tovara virginiana (L.) Raf. Virginia Knotweed. General. 

994. Polygonum aviculare L. Doorweed. General and abundant. 

995. Polygonum buxiforme Small. Shore Knotweed. Wayne County. 

996. Polygonum erectum L. Erect Knotweed. Lake, Richland, 

Franklin, Muskingum, Morgan, Hocking, Athens, Meigs, 
Warren, Clermont. 

997. Polygoniun ramosissimum jMx. Bushy Knotweed. Lake, Frank- 

lin. Waifs from the West. 

998. Polygonum tenue Mx. Slender Knotweed. Erie County. 

Order, Pi pf rales. 

Saururaceae. Lizard 's-tail Family. 

999. Saururus cernuus L. Lizard 's-tail. General. 


Order, Rosalcs. 

Rosaceae. Ross Family. 
Suljfamily, rosatae. 

1000. Geum rivale L. Purple Avens. Chami)aign, Geauga. 

1001. Geum canaadense Jacq. White Avens. General. 

1002. Geum flavum (Port.) Bickn. Cream-colored Avens. No speci- 


1003. Geum virginianum L. Rough Avens. General. 

1004:. Geum strictum Ait. Yellow Avens. Eastern half of state; also 
in Preble County. 

1005. Geum vernum (Raf.) T. & G. Spring Avens. General. 

1006. Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rydb. Slir-nbby Ciii(|uefoil. Rather 


1007. Potentilla paradoxa Nutt. Bushy Cinquefoil. Erie County. 

1008. Potentilla argentea L. Silvery Cinquefoil. Portage. Cuyahoga, 

Erie, Licking. 


1009. Poteiitilla recta L. Upright Cinquefoil. Lake, Erie, Fi-aiiklin, 

Hocking. From Europe. 

1010. Poteiitilla monspeliensis L. Rough Cinquefoil. General. 

1011. Potentilla canadensis L. Common Five-finger. General and 


1012. Potentilla puniila Poir. Dwarf Five-finger. Lake, Monroe, Vin- 


1013. Potentilla reptans L. European Five-finger. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

1014. Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb. Silverweed. Cuyahoga, Lorain, 

Erie, Ottawa, Lucas, Hamilton. 

1015. Comarum palustre L. Purple Mar.shlocks. Ashtabula, Lorain, 

Portage, Summit, Ashland, Stark, Licking. 

1016. Drymocallis agrimonioides (Pursh.) Rydb. Tall Cinquefoil. 

Erie, Cuyahoga, Lake. 

1017. Waldsteinia fragarioides (Mx.) Tratt. Dry Strawberry. Ash- 

tabula, Cuyahoga, Portage, Medina, Clark, Franklin, Greene. 

1018. Fragaria americana (Port.) Britt. American Wood Strawberry. 

Rather general. 

1019. Fi-agaria vesca L. Europtvan Wood Strawberry (white-fruited 

variety). Belmont, Hocking. From Europe. 

1020. Fragaria virginiana Duch. Virginia Strawberry. General and 


1021. Rubus frondosus Bigel. Leafy-finwered Blackberry. Lake, Co- 

lumbiana, Coshocton, Hancock, Gallia. 

1022. Rubus alleghanieiisis Port. High Blackberry. General and 


1023. Rubus procumbens Muhl. Common Dewberry. General. 

1024. Rubus hispidus L. Hispid Dewberry. Ashtabula, Lake, Por- 

tage, Summit, Geauga, Cuyahoga, Lucas, Logan. 

1025. Rubus occidentalis L. Black Raspberry. General and abundant. 

1026. Rubus neglectus Peck. Purple Raspberry. Ashtabula, Stark, 

Defiance, Williams. 

1027. Rubus strigosus Mx. Wild Red Raspberry. Summit, Erie, 


1028. Rubus trifloi-us Richards. Dwarf Raspberry. Lake, Stark, 

Lucas, Wood, Sandusky, Wyandot, Cliampaign, Fairfield, 
Vinton, Brown. 


1029. Rubus phoenicolasius Max. Wineberry. Lake County. Es- 

caped from cultivation. 

1030. Rubus odoratus L. Rose-flowered Raspberry. Lake, Cuyahoga, 

Ashtabula, Summit, Belmont, Jefferson, Monroe, Muskingum 

1031. Porteranthus trifoliatus (L.) Bi-itt. Indian-physic. No speci- 


1032. Porteranthus stipulatus (Muhl.) Britt. American Ipecac. 

Southern Ohio to Clinton and Guernsey Counties. 

1033. Schizonotus sorbifolius (L.) Lindl. Mountain-ash Spiraea. 

Lake Harrison. From Asia. 

1034. Filipendula rubra (Hill.) Rob. Queen-of-the-prairie. Cuyahoga, 

Erie, Madison, Champaign, Holmes. 

1035. Opulaster opulifolius (L.) Ktz. Ninebark. General. 

1036. Spiraea alba DuRoi. Narrowleaf Spiraea. General. 

1037. Spiraea tomcntosa L. Steeple-bush. Eastern half of state west 

to Cuyahoga, Fairfield, and Jackson Counties; also in Lucas 

Aruncus aruncus (L.) Karst. Aruncus. Southeastern part of 

state to Columbiana, Licking, and Scioto Counties. 
Dalibai-da repens L. Dalibarda. Ashtabula County. 
Rosa blanda Ait. Smooth Rose. Lake, Lorain, Erie, Williams, 
Mercer, Clinton, Clermont. 

1041. Rosa Carolina L. Swamp Rose. General and abundant. 

1042. Rosa virginiana Mill. Virginia Rose. General and abundant. 

1043. Rosa rubiginosa L. Swetbi-iei- (Rose). General. From Euro])e. 

1043. Rosa i-ubiginosa L. Sweetbrier (Rose). General. From Europe. 

1044. Rosa gallica L. French Rose. Lake County. Escaped. 

1046. Agrimonia parvilflora Sol. Small-flowered Agrimony. General. 

1047. Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. Hairy Agrhuony. General. 

1048. Agrimonia rostellata Wallr. Woodland Agrimony. Rather gen- 


1049. Agi-imonia striata Mx. Striate Agrimony. Clinton County. 

1050. Agrimonia mollis (T. & G.) Britt. Soft Agrimony. Rather gen- 


1051. Sanguisorba canadensis L. American lUum-t. Lake, Cuyahoga, 

Stai-k, Miami, Champaign, Clark, Franklin. 

1052. Potei-iu;ii sanguisoi'ba L. Garden Burnet. Lake County. Fi'om 





Subfamily, malatae. 

1053. Sorbus scopulina Greeue. Western Mountain-ash. Ashtabula, 

1053.1. Sorbus aucuparia L. European Mountain-ash. Lake, Crawford, 

1054. Pyrus connnunis L. Pear. Ashtabula, Cuyahog, Summit, Preble, 

Franklin, Brown. From Europe. 

1055. Mains glaucescens Rehd. American Crab-apple. General. 

1056. ]\Ialus coronaria (L.) Mill. Narrow-leaf Crab-apple. Rather 


1057. Malus mains (L.) Britt. Common Apple. General. From Eu- 


1058. Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Ell. Red Chokeberry. Ashtabula, 

Geauga, Stark, Licking, Wood. 

1059. Aronia atropurpurea Britt. Purple Chokeberry. Licking County. 

1060. Aronia melanocarpa (Mx.) Britt. Black Chokeberry. Rather 


1061. Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Med. Common Juneberry. Gen- 


1062. Amelanchier sanguinea (Pursh.) DC. Roundleaf Juneberry. 

Highland, Franklin, Erie, Lorain. 

1063. Crataegus crus-galli L. Cockspur Hawthorn. General. 

1064. Crataegus cuneiformis (Marsh.) Eggl. Marshall's Hawthorn. 

Rather general. 

1065. Crataegus punctata Jacc]. Dotted Hawthorn. General. 

1066. Crataegus margaretta Ashe. Margaret Hawthorn. From Adams, 

Franklin, and Lucas Counties westward. 

1067. Crataegus succulenta Schrad. Long-spined Hawthorn. Gen- 


1068. Crataegus calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medic. Pear Hawthorn. Gen- 


1069. Crataegus brainerdi Sarg. Brainerd's Hawthorn. Lucas, Rich- 


1070. Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe. Roundleaf Hawthurn. Williams 


1071. Crataegus straminea Beadle. Allegheny Hawthorn. Knox, 

Franklin, Hocking. 

1072. Crataegus boyntoni Beadle. Boynton's Hawthorn. Adams, Mor- 

gan, Noble, Guernsey, Tuscarawas. 


1073. Crataegus niacrosperma Ashe. Large-seeded Hawthorn. Gen- 
J 074. Crataegus leiophylla Sarg. Maine's Hawthorn. Jefferson County. 

1075. Crataegus beata Sarg. Dunbar's Hawthorn. Lucas, Brown. 

1076. Crataegus pruinosa (Wendl.) Koch. Pruinose Hawthorn. Gen- 


1077. Crataegus pringlei Sarg. Pringle's Hawthorn. Williams County. 

1078. Crataegus coccinea L. Scarlet Hawthorn. General, but no spec- 

imens from the northern counties. 

1079. Crataegus albicans Ashe. Tatnall's Hawthorn. Brown, Ross, 

Jefferson, Ashtabula, Lake, Lucas. 

1080. Crataegus mollis (T. & G.) Scheele. Do^^^ly Hawthorn. Gen- 


1081. Crataegus monogyna Jac(|. May Hawthorn. Williams, Lake, 

Cuyahoga, Medina, Franklin. From Europe. 

1082. Crataegus phaenopyrum (L. f.) Medic. Washington Haw- 

thorn. Jefferson County. 

1083. Cotoneaster pyracantha (L.) Spach. Fire-thorn. Franklin 

County. From Europe. 

Subfamily, amygdalatae. 

1084. Pi-unus virginiana L. Black Cherry. (Padus). General and 


1085. Prunus nana DuRoi. Choke Cherry. (Padus). Rather general. 

1086. Prunus mahaleb L. ]\Iahaleb Cherry. Lake, Franklin. From 


1087. Prunus pennsylvanica L. f. Red Cherry. Cuyahoga County. 

1088. Prunus avium L. Sweet Cherry. Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Erie, 

Ottawa, Summit, Ross. From Europe. 
1081). Prunus cerasus L. Sour Cherry. Cuyahoga, Summit, Jefferson, 

Gallia, Clinton. From Europe. 
10!)0. Piunus euneata Raf. Appalachian Cherry. Xo specimens. 
1001. Prunus pumila L. Sand Cherry. Erie County.] 

1092. Prunus americana Marsh. Wild Plum. General and abundant. 

1093. Amygdalus persica L. Peach. Rather general. Native of Asia. 

Fabaceae. [Jean Family. 
Subfamily, mimosatae. 

1094. Aeuaii illinoensis (Mx.) Ktz. Illinois Acuan. Hamilton, Cler- 

mont, Ashtabula. 


Subfamily, cassIxVTAe. 

1095. Cersis canadensis L. Redbud. Rather general, but no specimen 

from the northeastern counties except Carroll. 

1096. Cassia marylandica L. Wild Senna. General. 

1097. Cassia medsgeri Shaf. Medsger's Senna. Stark, Washington, 

Monroe, Franklin, Ottawa. 

1098. Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench. Sensitive-pea. Adams, 

Butler, Gallia, Scioto, Jackson, Hocking, Fairfield, Licking, 

1099. Chamaecrista fasciculata (Mx.) Greene. Large-flowered Sensi- 

tive-pea. Rather general in western lialf of state; also in 
Lake County. 

1100. Gleditsia triacanthos L. Honey-locust. General. 

1101. Gymnocladus dioica (L.) Koch. Coffee-bean. General. 

Subfamily, fabatae. 

1102. Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br. Blue Wild-indigo. Hamilton, 

Meigs, Monroe, Lake. 

1103. Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. Yellow Wild-indigo. Trumbull, 

Lake, Portage, Cuyahoga, Erie, Lucas, Wood. 

1104. Baptisia leucantha T. & G. Large White Wild-indigo. Franklin, 

Crawford, Erie, Defiance. 

1105. Crotalaria sagittalis L. Rattlebox. Franklin County. A waif. 

1106. Lupinus perennis L. Wild Lupine. Portage, Erie, Sandusky, 

Wood, Fulton. 

1107. Medicago sativa L. Alfalfa. Rather general. From Europe. 

1108. Medicago lupulina L. Hop Medic. General. From Europe. 

1109. Medicago hispida Gaertn. Toothed Medic. Lake County. From 


1110. Melilotus alba Desv. White Sweet-clover. General and abund- 

ant. From Europe. 

1111. Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. Yellow Sweet-clover. Rather 

general. From Europe. 

1112. Trifolium agrarium L. Yellow Hop Clover. Ashtabula, Lake, 

Cuyahoga, Knox, Clermont, From Europe. 

1113. Trifolium procumbens L. Low Hop Clover. Lake, Cuyahoga, 

Ottawa, Franklin, Montgomery, Gallia. From Europe. 

1114. Trifolium dubium Sibth. Least Hop Clover. Rather general. 

From Europ(\ 


1115. Trifoliiini incarnatum L. Crimson Clover. Rather general. 

From Europe. 

1116. Trifolium arvense L. Rabbit-foot Clover. Warren, Stark, Cuy- 

ahoga, Lake. From Europe. 

1117. Trifolium pratense L. Red Clover. General and abundant. 

Naturalized from Europe. 

1118. Trifolium reflexum L. Buffalo Clover. No specimens. 

1119. Trifolium stolniferum Muhl. Running Buffalo Clover. Hamil- 

ton, Clermont, Butler, Clinton, Clark, Franklin. 

1120. Trifolium hybridum L. Alsike Clover. General. Introduced 

from Europe. 

1121. Trifolium repens L. White Clover. General and abuntdant. 

Naturalized from Europe. 

1122. Lotus corniculatus L. Bird's-foot Trefoil. Lake County. From 


1123. Hosackia americana (Nutt.) Piper. Prarie Bird's-foot. Tre- 

foil. Franklin county. A waif from the west. 

1124. Psoralea stipulata T & G. Large-stipuled Psoralea. No speci- 


1125. Psoralea peduncultata (Mill.) Yail. Long-peduncled Psoralea. 

Erie, Scioto, Lawrence. 

1126. Psoralea onobrychis Nutt. Sainfoin Psoralea. In the south- 

western fourth of the state. 

1127. Amorpha fruticosa L. False Indigo. Lucas County. 

1128. Petalostemum purpureum (Vent.) Rydb. Violet Prairie-clover. 

A waif in Franklin County. 

1129. Cracca virginiana I. Goat's-rue. Fulton, Lucas, Erie, Portage, 

Fairfield, Hocking, Washington, Jackson, Lawrence, Adams, 

1130. Robinia pseudoacacia L. Common Locust. General. 

1131. Robinia viscosa Vent. Clammy Locust. Ashtabula, Lake, Cuya- 

hoga, Fairfield. 
3132. Astragalus carolinianus L. Carolina Milk-vetch. Rather general. 

1133. Phaca neglecta T. & G. Cooper's Milk-vetch. Ashtabula, Cuy- 

ahoga, Hamilton. 

1134. Coronilla varia L. CoroniHa. Lake, Brown. From Europe. 

1135. Stylosanthes biflora (L.) B. S. P. Pencil-flower. Adams, Scioto, 

Lawrence, Gallia. Jackson, Hocking. 


1136. Meibomia iiudiflora (L.) Ktz. Naked-flowered Tick-trefoil. Gen- 


1137. Meibomia grandiflora (Walt.) Ktz. Pointed-leaf Tick-trefoil. 


1138. Meibomia paiiciflora (Nutt.) Ktz. Few-flowered Tick-trefoil. 

Clermont, Clinton, Auglaize. 

1139. Meibomia michanxii Vail. Prostrate Tick-trefoil. Rather gen- 


1140. Meibomia sessilifolia Torr.) Ktz. Sessile-leaf. Tick-trefoil. Erie, 


1141. Meibomia canescens (L.) Ktz. Hoary Tick-trefoil. General. 

1142. Meibomia bracteosa (Mx.) Ktz. Large-bracted Tick-trefoil. 

Rather general. 

1143. Meibomia panicnlata (L.) Ktz. Panicled Tick-trefoil. General. 

1144. Meibomia viridiflora (L.) Ktz. Velvet-leaf Tick-trefoil. Gallia, 

Hocking, Cuyahoga. 

1145. Meibomia dillenii (Dark) Ktz. Dillen's Tick-trefoil. General. 

1146. Meibomia illinoensis (Gr.) Ktz. Illinois Tick-trefoil. Erie, Ot- 


1147. Meibomia canadensis (L.) Ktz. Canadian Tick-trefoil. Mont- 

gomery, Clark, Anglaize, Fulton, Wood, Erie, Cuyahoga. 

1148. Meibomia rigida (Ell.) Ktz. Rigid Tick-trefoil. Paulding, Fair- 


1149. Meibomia marylandica (L.) Ktz. Maryland Tick-trefoil. Hock- 

ing, Fairfield. 

1150. Meibomia obtusa (Muhl.) Vail. Ciliate Tick-trefoil. Summit, 

Erie, Licking. 

1151. Lespedeza repens (L.) Bart. Creeping Bush-clover. From 

Hocking, Franklin and Madison Counties southward ; also in 
Cuyahoga County. 

1152. Lespedeza procumbens Mx. Trailing Bush-clover. Fairfield, 

Wayne, Greene. 

1153. Lespedeza nuttallii Darl. Nuttall's Bush-clover. (Moseley her- 

barium — Erie County.) 

1154. Lespedeza violacea (L.) Pers. Violet Bush-clover. Rather gen- 

eral but no specimen from the northeastern counties. 

1155. Lespedeza stuvei Nutt. Stuve's Bush-clover. No specimens. 

(Moseley Herbarium — Erie County). 


1156. Lespedeza frutescens (L.) Britt. Wand-like Bush-clover. Rather 


1157. Lespedeza virginica (L.) Britt. Slender Bush-clover. Scioto, 

Franklin, Erie. 

1158. Lespedeza siniulata Mack & Bush. Intermediate Bush-clover. 

No specimens. 

1159. Lespedeza hirta (L.) Horn. Hairy Bush-clover. Rather general. 

1160. Lespedeza capitata Mx. Round-headed Bush-clover. Defiance, 

Fulton, Wood, Ottawa, Erie, Cuyahoga, Franklin, Madison, 
Highland, Fairfield. 

1161. Vicia cracca L. Cow Vetch. Cuyahoga, Lake, Columbiana, 

Wayne, Huron, Seneca. 

1162. Vicia americana Muhl. American Vetch. Cuyahoga, Geauga, 

Erie, Ottawa, Lucas. 

1163. Vicia caroliniana Walt. Carolina Vetch. In the northern and 

southern counties; also in Darke County. 

1164. Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Moench. Slender Vetch. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

1165. Vicia hirsuta (L.) Koch. Hairy Vetch. Lake, Sandusky, Knox, 

From Europe. 

1166. Vicia sativa L. Common Vetch. Ottawa, Hamilton. From 


1167. Vicia angustifolia L. Narrow-leaf Vetch. Lake County. From 


1168. Lathyrus maritimus (L.) Bigel. Beach Pea. Ashtabula, Lake, 

Cuyahoga, Erie. 

1169. Lathyrus venosus Muhl. Veiny Pea. Erie, Williams. 

1170. Lathyrus palustris L. Marsh Pea. Lake, Cuyahoga, Summit, 

Wayne, Erie, Madison, Greene. 

1171. Lathyrus myrtifolius Muhl. Myrtle-leaf Marsh Pea. Lake, Cuy- 

ahoga, Stark, Erie, Lucas, Defiance, Auglaize. 

1172. Lathyrus ochroleucus Hook. Cream-colored Pea. Lake, 

hoga, Lorain, Ottawa. 

1173. Lathyrus pratensis L. Meadow Pea. Lake County, Prom 


1174. Dolichos lablab L. Hyacinth Bean. Franklin County. Escaped 

from gardens. 

1175. Glycine apios L. Ground-nut. Rather general. 

1176. Falcata comosa (L.) Kt/. Hog-peanut, General. 


1177. Falcata pitcheri (T. & G.) Ktz. Pitcher's Hog-peanut. Rather 


1178. Phaseoliis polystachyus (L.) B. S. P. Wild Bean. No specimens. 

1179. Phaseolus nanus L. Bush Bean. Auglaize County. Introduced. 

1180. Strophostyles helvola (L.) Britt. Trailing Wild Bean. In the 

lake shore counties and from Hocking County southward; 
also in Tuscarawas County. 

Order, Saxifragales. 

Crassulaceae. Orpine Family. 
Subfamily, crassulatae. 

1181. Sedum triphyllum (Haw.) S. F. Gr. Live-forever. Williams, 

Erie, Knox, Coshocton, Franklin. From Europe. 

1182. Sedum telephioides Mx. American Orpine. Adams County. 

1183. Sedum acre L. Wall-pepper. Franklin, Ottawa. From Europe. 

1184. Sedum ternatum Mx. Wild Stonecrop. General. 

Subfamily, penthoratae. 

1185. Penthorum sedoides L. Ditch Stonecrop. General and abundant. 

Podostemaceae. River- weed Family. 

1186. Podostemon cei'atophyllum Mx. River-weed. No specimens. 

Saxifragaceae. Saxifrage Family. 

1187. Micranthes pennsylvanica (L.) Haw. Pennsylvania Saxifrage. 

Fulton, Auglaize, Clark, Richland, Lorain, Geauga, Stark. 

1188. Micranthes virginiensis (Mx.) Small. Early Saxifrage. Eastern 

half of state to Cuyahoga and Ross Counties; also in Ham- 
ilton County. 

1189. Sullivantia sullivantii (T. & G.) Britt. SuUivantia. Adams, 

Highland, Hocking. 

1190. Tiarella cordifolia L. False Mitrewort. Cuyahoga, Lorain, Hu- 

ron, Belmont, Gallia, Highland. 

1191. Heuchera americana L. Alum-root. General and abundant. 

1192. Mitella diphylla L. Two-leaf Bishop 's-cap. General. 

1193. Chrysosplenium americanura Schw. Golden Saxifrage. Cuya- 

hoga, Belmont, Stark, Fairfield. 


Order, TJnjmcIeales. 

Lythraceae. Loosestrife Family. 

1194. Ammaimia coccinea Rottb. Longleaf Ammannia. Erie County. 

1195. Rotala ramosior (L.) Koehne. Rotala. Hamilton, Licking, Ot- 


1196. Decodonverticiilatus (L.) Ell. Swamp Loosestrife. Rather gen- 


1197. Lythrum alatum Pursh. Wing-angled Loosestrife. Rather gen- 

eral ; no specimens from the southeast. 

1198. Lythrum salicaria L. Spiked Loosestrife. Lake, Cuyahoga. 

From Europe. 

1199. Parsonsia petiolata (L.) Rusby. Blue Waxweed. Southern half 

of state; also in Cuyahoga and Wayne Counties. 

Melastomaceae. :\Ieadow-beauty Family. 

1200. Rhexia virginica L. Virginia Meadow-beauty. Erie County. 

Thymeleaceae. Mezereum Family. 

1201. Dirca palustris L. Leatherwood. Rather general. 

Elaeagnaceae. Oleaster Family. 

1202. Lepargyraea canadensis (L.) Greene. Canadian Buffalo-berry. 

Erie, Cuyahoga, Lake. 

Order, Celastrales. 

Rhamnaceae. Buckthorn Family. 

1203. Rhamnus cathartica L. Common Buckthorn. Greene County. 

From Europe. 

1204. Rhamnus lanceolata Pursh. Lanceleaf Buckthorn. From Dehi- 

ware County southward and south west ward. 

1205. Rhamnus alnifolia L'Her. Alderleaf Buckthorn. Lake, Cuya- 

hoga, Stark, Champaign. 

1206. Rhamnus caroliniana Walt. Carolina Buckthorn. Adams 


1207. C('?inothus americanus L. Common New Jersey Tea. Genei-al 

in eastern part of the state westward to Ottawa, Clark, 
Greene, and Adams Counties. 

1208. Ceanothus ovatus Desf. Smaller New Jersey Tea. Ei-ie, Otta- 

\va, Crawford. 


Vitaceae. Grai)e Family. 

1209. Vitis laLiiisca L. Xortiiein Fox Grape. Rather general. 

1210. Vitis aestivalis Mx. Summer Grape. General. 

1211. Vitis bicolor LeC. Winter Grape. General in eastern part of 

state to Knox and Adams Counties ; also in "Williams County. 

1212. Vitis vulpina L. Riverside Grape. General and abundant. 

1213. Vitis cordifolia Mx. Frost Grape. Rather general. 

1214. Ampelopsis cordata Mx. Heartleaf Ampelopsis. Scioto County. 

1215. Parthenoeissus quiuquefolia (L.) Planch. Virginia Creeper. 

General and abundant. 

Celastraceae. Stafftree Family. 

1216. Euonymus atroiuirpureus Jacq. Walioo. General and abun- 


1217. Euonymus europaeus L. Spindletree. Lake County. Escaped. 

1218. Euonymus obovatus Nutt. Running Strawberry-bush. Rather 


1219. Euonymus americanus L. American Strawberry-bush. No 


1220. Celastrus scandens L. Waxwork. General. 

Ilicaceae. Holly Family. 

1221. Nemopanthus mucronata (L.) Trel. Mountain Holly. Stark, 

Summit, Defiance, Williams. 

1222. Ilex verticillata (L.) Gr. Winterberry. General. 

1223. Ilex opaca Ait. American Holly. Lawrence County. 

Staphyleaceae. Bladdernut Family. 

1224. Staphylea trifolia L. American Bladdernut. General and 


Order, Sapindales. 

Sapindaceae. Soap-berry Family. 

1225. Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Balloon-vine. No specimens. 

Native of tropical America. 

Aesculaceae. Buckeye Family. 

1226. Aesculus hippocastanum L. No specimens. Native of Asia. 


1227. Aesculus glabra Willd. Ohio Buckeye. General and abundant. 

1228. Aesculus octandra Marsh. Yellow Buckeye. Southern part of 

the state, north to Monroe and Fairfield Counties, 

Aceraceae. ]\Iaple Famil3^ 

1229. Acer spicatum Lam. Mountain Maple. From Lorain, Wayne, 

and Muskingum Counties eastward; also in Greene County. 

1230. Acer saccharum Marsh. Sugar Maple. General and abundant. 

1231. Acer nigrum Mx. Black Maple. General and abundant. 

1232. Acer rubrum L. Red Maple. General. 

1233. Acer saccharinura L, Silver Maple. General and abundant. 

1234. Acer uegundo L. Boxelder. General and abundant. 

Anacardiaceae. Sumac Family, 

1235. Rhus copallina L. Mountain Sumac. Rather general, but no 

specimens from the west central part of the state. 

1236. Rhus hirta (L.) Sudw. Staghorn Sumac. Rather general. 

1237. Rhus glabra L. Smooth Sumac. General and abundant. 

1238. Schmaltzia crenata (Mill.) Greene. Fragrant Sumac. Western 

two-thirds of the state. 

1239. Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Ktz. Poison Sumac. Geauga, Cuya- 

hoga, Lorain, Wayne, Wyandot, Licking, Fairfield. 

1240. Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Ktz. Poison Ivy. General and 


1241. Cotinus cotinus (L.) Sarg. European Smoketree. Escaped in 

Jefiferson County. 


Order, Platanales. 

Hamamelidaceae. AViteh-hazel Family. 

Subfamily, hamamelidatae. 

1242. Hamamelis virginiana L. Witch-hazel. General, but no speci- 

mens from the west central counties. 

Subfamily, altingiatae, 

1243. Liquidambar styraciflua L. Sweet-gum. Gallia, Lawrence, Sci- 

oto, Adams, Brown, Greene. 


Platanaceae. Plane-tree Family. 

1244. Plataiius occidentalis L. Sycamore. General and abundant. 

Order, Urticales. 

Ulmaceae. Elm Family. 

1245. Ulmus amerieana L. White Elm. General and abundant. 

1246. Ulmus thomasi Sarg. Cork Elm. Cuyahoga, Lorain, Ottawa, 

Huron, Hancock, Hardin, Logan, Franklin, Lawrence, 

1247. Ulmus fulva Mx. Slippery Elm. General and abundant. 

1248. Celtis occidentalis L. Common Hackberry. (Including C. cras- 

sifolia — young plants and vigorous shoots.) General and 
abundant, but no specimens from the extreme northeastern 

Moraceae. IMulberry Family. 
Subfamily, moratae. 

1249. Morus rubra L. Red IMulberry. General. 

1250. Morus alba L. White Mulberry. Introduced. Erie, Lorain, 

]\Iedina, Summit, Carroll, Montgomery, Clermont, Lawrence. 

1251. Toxylon pomiferum Raf. Osage-orange. From the Southwest. 

General except in the northeastern counties. 

Subfamily, cannabinatae. 

1252. Humulus lupulus L. Hop. General. Introduced. 

1253. Humulus japonieus S. & Z. Japanese Hop. A waif in Lucas 


1254. Cannabis sativa L. Hemp. Clermont, Greene, Franklin, Bel- 

mont, Coshocton, Holmes, Lucas. Introduced. 

Urticaceae. Nettle Family. 

1255. Urtica dioica L. Stinging Nettle. From Europe. Jefferson, 

Cuyahoga, Lorain. 

1256. LTrtica gracilis L. Slender Nettle. General. 

1257. Urtica urens L. Small Nettle. From Europe. Lake County. 

1258. Urticastrum divaricatum (L.) Ktz. Wood Nettle. General. 

1259. Pilea pumila (L.) Gr. Clearweed. General. 

1260. Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. False Nettle. General. 

1261. Parietaria pennsylvanica Muhl. Pellitory. General. 


Order, Fagales. 

Fagaceae. Beech Family. 

1262. Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. American Beech. General and abun- 


1263. Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkli. Chestnut. Eastern half of 

state to Lorain, Franklin, and Adams Counties. 

1264. Quercus prinus L. Rock Chestnut Oak. Eastern and southern 

parts of the state to Cuyahoga, Fairfield, and Clermont 

1265. Quercus muhlenbergii Engelm. Chestnut Oak. General, but 

no specimens east of Erie nor north of Muskingum and 
Monroe Counties. 

1266. Quercus prinoides Willd. Scrub Chestnut Oak. Starke County. 

1267. Quercus bicolor Willd. Swamp White Oak. General. 

1268. Quercus alba L. White Oak. General and abundant. 

1260. Quercus stellata Wang. Post Oak. From Madison and Morgan 

Counties southward. 
1270 Quercus macrocarpa Mx. Bur Oak. General in the western 

half of the state to Erie, Franklin, and Fairfield Counties; 

also in Ashtabula and Belmont Counties. 

1271. Quercus imbricaria Mx. Shingle Oak. General. 

1271a. Quercus imbricaria X velutina. A hybrid in Hamilton, Lick- 
ing, Harrison, Erie and Lucas Counties. 

1272. Quercus marilandica Muench. Black-jack (Oak). Adams; Law- 


1273. Quercus ilicifolia Wang. Bear Oak. No specimens. 
1273.1. Ouercus triloba INlx. Spanish Oak. Lawrence County. 

1274. Quercus velutina Lam. Quercitron Oak. General. 

1275. Quercus coccinea Wang. Scarlet Oak. Hamilton, Auglaize, 

Fairfield, Franklin, Richland. 

1276. Quercus rubra L. Red Oak. General and abundant. 

1277. Quercus palustris DuRoi. Pin Oak. General. 

Betulaceae. Birch Family. 

1278. Cai-piiuis caroliniana Wall. Blue-beech. General and abundant. 

1279. Ostyra virginiana (Mill.) Willd. Hop-hornbeam. General and 


1280. Corvlus americana Walt. Common Hazelnut. General. 


1281. Betiila lenta L. Sweet Birch. Fairfield, Hocking, Adams, 


1282. Betula lutea Mx. f. Yellow Bircli. Ashtabula, Stark, Summit, 

Lake, Cuyahoga, Lorain, Wayne, Fairfield, Hocking. 

1283. Betula nigra L. River Birch. From Fairfield and Perry Coun- 

ties southward. 

1284. Betula alba L. European White Birch. Escaped in Lake 


1285. Betula pumila L. Low Birch. Summit, Stark, Wyandot, Cham- 


1286. Alnus incana (L.) Willd. Hoary Alder. Cuyahoga, Lake, 


1287. Alnus rugosa (DuRoi), Spreng. Smooth Alder. Eastern half 

of state, to Lorain, Fairfield and Scioto Counties. 

Juglandaceae. Walnut Family. 

1288. Hicoria cordiformis (Wang.) Britt. Bitternut (Hickory). 

General and abundant. 

1289 Hicoria microcarpa (Nutt.) Britt. Small Pignut (Hickory). 


1290 Hicoria glaba (Mill.) Britt. Pignut (Hickory.) Rather gen- 

eral, but no speicmens from the west central part. 

1291. Hicoria alba (L.) Britt. Mockernut (Hickory). Rather gen- 

eral, but no specimens from the extreme eastern and extreme 
western counties. 

1292. Hicoria laciniosa (Mx. f.) Sarg. Shellbark (Hickory). Huron, 

Wyandot, Licking, Franklin, Pickaway, Scioto, Clermont. 

1293. Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britt. Shagbark (Hickory). General and 


1294. Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut. General and abundant. 

1295. Juglans cinerea L. Butternut. General, but no specimens from 

the northeastern counties. 

Myricaceae. Bayberry Family. 

1296. Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coult. Comptonia. Lake, Erie, Port- 

age, Lucas, Fulton, Wood, Knox. 

Order, Sah'cales. 

Salicaceae. Willow Family. 

1297. Populus alba L. White Poplar. General. Introduced. 


1298. Popiihis heterophyla L. Swamp Poplar. Lake, Huron, Rich- 

land, Williams, Auglaize, Shelby, Logan, Knox, Licking. 

1299. Populus balsamifera L. Balsam Poplar. Huron, Ashtabula, 

Geauga, Carroll. 
1299a. Populus balsamifera candicans (Ait.) Gr. Balm-of-Gilead. 
Preble, Clermont, Franklin, Hocking, Coshocton, Harrison, 
Jefferson, Lorain. Escaped from cultivation. 

1300. Populus dt/^oides Marsh. Cottonwood. General. 

1301. Populus italica Moench. Lombardy Poplar. Rather general; 

probably mostly planted. From Europe. 

1302. Populus grandidentata Mx. Largetooth Aspen. General. 

1303. Populus tremuloides Mx. American Aspen. General in the 

northern part of the state, south to Franklin and Hocking 
Counties, also in Adams County. 

1304. Salix amygdaloides And. Peachleaf Willow. Northwestern half 

of state, from Ashtabula to Franklin Counties westward. 

1305. Salix nigra Marsh. Black Willow. General and abundant. 
1305a. Salix nigra X amygdaloides. Erie, Ashtabula. 

1306. Salix lucida Muhl. Shining Willow. Northern part of state as 

far south as Logan and Knox Counties. 

1307. Salix fragilis L. Crack Willow. General. From Europe. 
1307a. Salix fragilis X alba. Franklin and Ottawa Counties. 

1308. Salix pentandra L. Bayleaf Willow. Escaped in Franklin 


1309. Salix alba L. White Willow. General. Native of Europe. 
1309a. Salix alba X lucida. Ashtabula, Logan. 

1309b. Salix alba X babylonica. Ashtabula County. 

1310. Salix babylonica L. Weeping Willow. Native of Asia. Ashta- 

bula, Wayne. 

1310a. Salix babylonica X fragilis. Erie County. 

1311. Salix interior Rowlee. Sandbar Willow. General and abundant. 
1311a. Salix interior wheeleri Rowlee. Preble, Erie, Lake. 

1312. Salix glaucophylla Bebb. Broadleaf Willow. Erie, Wyandot. 

1313. Salix cordata Muhl. Heartleaf Willow. General. 
1313a. Salix cordata X sericea. Ashtabula County. 

1314. Salix adeiiophylla Hook. Furry Willow. Erie County. 

1315. Salix Candida Fl. Hoary Willow. Wyandot, Erie. 

1316. Salix sericea Marsh. Silkv Willow. General. 


1317. Salix petiolaris Sni. Slender Willow. Erie, Wood, Lucas, 


1318. Salix bebbiana Sarg. Bebb's Willow. Northern counties from 

Ashtabula to Fulton County ; also in Wyandot County. 

1319. Salix discolor Muhl. Pussy Willow. General and abundant. 

1320. Salix humilis Marsh. Prairie Willow. Lake, Wood, Lucas, Ful- 

ton, Fairfield, Hocking. 
1320a. Salix humilis tristis (Ait.) Griggs. Athens Madison. 

1321. Salix purpurea L. Purple Willow. Native of Europe. Rather 


1322. Salix pedicellaris Pursh. Bog Willow. Williams, Portage, 

Wayne, Licking, Perry. 


Order, Caciales. 

Cactaceae. Cactus Family. 

1323. Opuntia humifusa Raf. Western Prickly-pair. Erie, Scioto. 

Order, Myrtales. 

Hydrangeaceae. Hydrangea Family. 
Subfamily, philadelphatae. 

1324. Philadelphus coronarius L. Garden Mock-orange. Erie, Aug- 

laize, Belmont, Jefferson, Monroe. From Eui'ope. 

Subfamily, hydrangeatae. 

1325. Hydrangea arborescens L. Wild Hydrangea. Southern half of 

state to Champaign and Mahoning Counties. 

Grossulariaceae. Gooseberry Family. 

1326. Ribes lacustre (Pei-s.) Poir. Swamp Currant. (Erie County — 

Moseley Herbarium. ) 

1327. Ribes vulgare Lara. Red Currant. Fulton, Lorain, Cuyahoga, 

Ashtabula. Native of Europe. 

1328. Ribes araericanum Mill. Wild Black Currant. General. 

1329. Ribes odoratum Wendl. Buffalo Currant. Belmont, Hocking, 

Franklin, Auglaize, Richland, Lake. From the west. 

1330. Grossularia cynosbati (L.) Mill. Wild Gooseberry. General. 

1331. Grossularia oxyacanthoides (L.) Mill. Northern Gooseberry. 

Stark, Wayne. 


1332. Grossiilaria hirtella (Mx.) Spacli. Low Gooseberry. Geauga, 

Summit, Champaign, 

1333. Grossularia reclinata (L.) Mill. Garden Gooseberry. Law- 

rence, Franklin. From Europe. 

Onagraceae. Evening-primrose Family. 

1334. Ludwigia polycarpa S. & P. Many-fruited Ludwigia. Cuya- 

hoga, Lucas, Auglaize, Hocking. 

1335. Ludwigia alternifolia L. Seed-box. Rather general. 

1336. Isnardia palustris L. Marsh Purslane. General. 

1337. Chamaenerion angustifolium (L.) Scop. Fii'e-weed. Northern 

fourth of the state. 

1338. Epilobium lineare Muhl. Linear-leaf. Willow-herb. Portage, 

Erie, Ottawa, Clark. 

1339. Epilobium strictum Muhl. Downy Willow-herl). Licking 


1340. Epilobium eoloratum Muhl. Purple Willow-herb. General. 

1341. Epilobium adenocaulon Haussk. Northern Willow-herb. North- 

ern Ohio, south to Franklin and Madison Counties. 

1342. Oenothera biennis L. Common Evening-primrose. General. 

1343. Oenothera oakesiana Eobb. Oakes' Evening-primrose. (Erie 

County — Moseley Herbarium. ) 

1344. Raimannia laciniata (Hill.) Rose. Cutleaf Evening-primrose. 

Cuyahoga County. 

1345. Kneiffia pratensis Small. Meadow Sundrops. No specimens. 

1346. KneiiSa pumila (L.) Spach. Small Sundrops. Eastern part of 

Ohio as far west as Cuyahoga and Hocking Counties. 

1347. Kneiffia fruticosa (L.) Raim. Common Sundroi)s. Rather gen- 

eral, but no specimens from the western part of the state. 

1348. Hartmannia speciosa (Nutt.) Small. White Evening-primrose. 

A waif in Franklin County. 

1349. Lavauxia triloba (Nutt.) Spach. Three-lobed Evening-primrose. 

From two localities in Montgomery County. 

1350. Gaura biennis L. Biennial GrUir;). Rather general. 

1351. Circae.i luldiana 1j. Connnon Enchanter 's-nightshade. General 

and abundant. 

1352. Ciicaea intcniicdia Ehrh. IiitfM-mcdiatc Eiicliaiilci-'s-niglitsliade. 

No spcciiiifiis. 


1353. Circaea alpina L. Small Enchanter 's-nightshade. Ashtabula, 

Cuyahoga, Lorain, Summit, Crawford, Clark, Hocking. 

Haloragidaceae. Water-milfoil Family. 

1354. Myrioi^hyllum si^icatum L. Spiked Water-milfoil. Rather gen- 


1355. Myriophyllum verticillatum L. Whorled Water-milfoil. Erie 


1356. Myriophyllum heterophyllum Mx. Variant-leaf Water-milfoil. 

No specimens. 

1357. Proserpinaca palustris L. Mermaid-weed. Ashtabula, Cuya- 

hoga, Portage, Wayne, Erie, Wyandot. 

Order, Loasales. 

Cucurbitaceae. Gourd Family. 

1358. Cucurbita pepo L. Pumpkin. Erie, Wood, Spontaneous. 

1359. Cucurbita maxima Duchesne. Squash. Brown County. Spon- 


1360. Citrullus citrullus (L.) Karst. Watermelon. Athens, Ottaw^a, 


1361. Cucumis sativus L. Cucumber. No specimens. Sometimes spon- 


1362. Cucumis melo L. Muskmelon. Madison, Franklin. Sponta- 


1363. Micrampelis lobata (Mx.) Greene. Wild Balsam-apple. Rather 


1364. Sicyos augulatus L. Star Cucumber. Rather general. 

Order, AristolocJiiales. 

Aristolochiaceae. Birthwort Family. 

1365. Asarum canadense L. Canadian Wild-ginger. General. 

1366. Asarum acuminatum (Ashe.) Bicken. Long-tipped Wild-ginger. 

Rather general. 

1367. Asarum reflexum Bicken. Short-lobed Wild-ginger. Rather 


1368. Aristolochia serpentaria L. Virginia Snakeroot. Rather gen- 



Order, Santalales. 

Santalaceae. Sandalwood Family. 

1369. Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Bastard Toad-flax. Rather 


Loranthaceae. ]\Iistletoe Family. 

1370. Phoradendron flavescens (Pursh) Nutt. American Mistletoe. 

Southern counties, as far north as Ross and Athens. 


Order, Printulales. 

Primulaceae. Primrose Family. 

1371. Lysimachia vulgaris L. Common Yellow Loosestrife. Lake 

County. From Europe. 

1372. Lysimachia quadrifolia L. Whorled Yellow Loosestrife. Gen- 

eral in the eastern half of the state; also in Fulton and 
Adams Counties. 

1373. Lysimachia terrestris (L.) B. S. P. Bulb-bearing Yellow Loose- 

strife. Northeast fourth of state ; also in Lucas and Hardin 

1374. Lysimachia nummularia L. Moneywort. General. Naturalized 

from Europe. 

1375. Steironema ciliatum (L.) Raf. Fringed Yellow Loosestrife. 


1376. Steironema lanceolatum (W;dt.) Gr. Lanceleaf Yellow Loose- 

strife. Southwestern half of state. 
. 1377. Steironema quadriflorum (Sims.) Hitch. Linear-leaf Yellow 
Loosestrife. Rather general. 

1378. Naumburgia thyrsiflora (L.) Duby. Tufted Yellow Loosestrife. 

Rather general. 

1379. Trientalis americana (Pers.) Pursh. Starflower. Cuyahoga, 

Portage, Summit, Champaign. 

1380. Anagallis arvensis L. Scarlet Pimpernel. Lake, Fairfield, Lo- 

gan, Montgomery, Greene, Scioto, Gallia. From Europe. 

1381. Hottonia inflata Ell. Featherfoil. Ashtabula County. 

1382. Samolus floribundus H. B. K. Water Pimpernel. Rather gen- 



1383. Dodecatheon meadia L. Shooting-star. Erie, Clark, Darke, 

Hocking, Hamilton, Clermont. 

Plumbaginaceae. Leadwort Family. 

1384. Ceratostigma pliimbaginoides Bunge. Ceratostigma. A waif in 

Lake County. 

Order, Ericales. 

Pyrolaceae. AVintergreen Family. 

1385. Pyrola americana Sw. Roundleaf Wintergreen. Defiance, Lu- 

cas, Lake, "Wayne, Stark, Trumbull, Fairfield, Hocking. 

1386. Pyrola elliptica Nutt. Shinleaf Wintergreen. Rather general, 

except in the southern part of Ohio. 

1387. Pyrola secunda L. One-sided Wintergreen. Cuyahoga, Geauga, 

Summit, Portage. 

1388. Chimaphila unbellata (L.) Nutt. Pipsissewa, Lucas, Cuyahoga, 


1389. Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh. Spotted Pipsissewa. Rather 

general in eastern half of state. 

Monotropaceae. Indian-pipe Family. 

1390. Monotropa uniflora L. Indian-pipe. General. 

1391. Hypopitys americana (DC.) Small. Smooth Pinesap. Fair- 

field, Hocking. 

1392. Hypopitys lanuginosa (Mx ) Nutt. Hairy Pinesap. Lake, Cuy- 

ahoga, Columbiana, Wayne. 

Ericaceae. Heath Family. 

1393. Ledum groenlandicum Oedr. Labrador Tea. Portage County. 

1394. Azalea nudiflora L. Pink Azalea. Portage, Geauga, Lawrence. 

1395. Azalea lutea L. Flame Azalea. Fairfield County. 

1396. Azalea viscosa L. Swamp Azalea. Ashtabula County. 

1397. Rhododendron maximum L. Great Rhododendron. Fairfield, 


1398. Kalmia latifolia L. Mountain Kalmia. Columbiana, Jefferson, 

Licking, Fairfield, Hocking, Jackson, Lawrence, Scioto. 

1399. Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench. Leather-leaf. Geauga, 

Wayne, Stark, Williams, Defiance. 


1400. Andromeda polifolia L. "Wild Rosemary. Geauga, "Wayne, 


1401. Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. Sorrel-tree. Adams, Fair- 

field, Hocking, Vinton, Jackson, Morgan, Meigs, Lawrence. 

1402. Epigaea repens L. Trailing Arbutus. Cuyahoga, Geauga, Me- 

dina, Columbiana, Knox, Licking, Fairfield, Hocking, Jack- 
son, Gallia, Lawrence. 

1403. Gaultheria procumbens L. Creeping Wintergreen. Lucas, Cuy- 

ahoga, Wayne, Stark, Columbiana, Fairfield, Hocking, Jack- 
son, Lawrence. 

1404. Uva-ursi uva-ursi (L.) Britt. Bearberry. Erie County. 

Vacciniaceae. Huckleberry Family. 

1405. Polycodium stamineum (L.) Greene. Deerberry. Rather gen- 

eral in the eastern half of the state. 

1406. Vaccinium corymbosum L. Tall Blueberry. Eastern half of 

state; also in "Williams County. 

1407. Vaccinium canadense Kalm. Canada Blueberry. Lucas, Stark. 

1408. Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Dwarf Blueberry. Rather gen- 

eral in the eastern two-thirds of the state. 

1409. Vaccinium vacillans Kalm. Low Blueberry. Eastern half of 

state; also in Falton, Lucas and Ottawa Counties. 

1410. Vaccinium atrococcum (Gr.) Heller. Dark Blueberry. Williams 


1411. Chiogenes hispidula (L.) T. & G. Creeping Snowberry, Sum- 

mit, Stark. 

1412. Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Ait.) Pursh. Large Cranberry. "Wil- 

liams, Defiance, Geauga, Ashland, Wayne, Richland, Licking. 

1413. Gaylussacia frondosa (L.) T. & G. Blue Hucklebei-fv. Xo 


1414. Gaylussacia baccata (Wang.) Koch. Black Huckleberry. Gen- 


Order, EhoKiJrs. 

Ebenaceae. Ebony Family. 

1415. Diosi)yi'os virginiana L. Persiiuiuon. SoiitluTii liiill" of the 

state ; also in Lucas County. 


Subclass, TUBIPLORAE. 

Order, Polemoniales. 

Polemoniaceae. Phlox Family. 

1416. Phlox paniculata L. Garden Phlox. General. 

1417. Phlox maculata L. Spotted Phlox. Rather general. 

1418. Phlox ovata L. Mountain Phlox. Fulton County. 

1419. Phlox glaberrima L. Smooth Phlox. No specimens. 

1420. Phlox pilosa L. Downy Phlox. Northern part of the state, as 

far south as Franklin County. 

1421. Phlox divaricata L. Wild P)lue Phlox. General and abundant. 

1422. Phlox stolonifera Sims. Creeping Phlox. Hocking County. 

1423. Pholox subulata L. Ground Phlox. General. 

1424. Gilia rubra (L.) Heller. Standing-cypress. Escaped in Erie 

and Lake Counties. 

1425. Polemonium reptans L. Greek Valerian. General and abundant. 

Convolvulaceae. IVIorning-glory Family, 

1426. Ipomoea purpurea (L. ) Lam. Common Morning-glory. Gen- 

eral. From tropical America. 

1427. Ipomoea hederacea Jaec]. Ivyleaf Morning-glory. Southwest- 

ern Ohio, from Gallia to Auglaize County; also in Lake 
County. From trojiical America. 

1428. Ipomoea lacunosa L. Small-flowered White Morning-glory. 

Hamilton, Clermont, Gallia. 

1429. Ipomoea pandurata (L.) Meyer. Wild Potato-vine. General. 

1430. Quamoclit coccinea (L.) Moench. Small Red Morning-glory. 

No specimens. From tropical America. 

1431. Convolvulus arvensis L. Small Bindweed. General. Natural- 

ized from Europe. 
1342. Convolvulus spithamaeus L. Upright Bindweed. Gallia, Cler- 
mont, Auglaize, Lucas, Portage. 

1433. Convolvulus sepium L. Hedge Bindweed. General. 

1434. C'onvolvulus japonicus Thunb. Japanese Bindweed. Fayette, 

Auglaize, Huron, Erie, Medina. Escaped. 

Cuscutaceae. Dodder Family. 

1435. Cuscuta epilinum Weihe. Flax Dodder. Wayne County. From 



1436. Cnscuta epithymum Murr. Clover Dodder. Mercer County. 

From Europe. 

1437. Cuscuta arvense Beyrich. Field Dodder. Vinton, Tuscarawas, 

Wayne, Erie. 

1438. Cuscuta polygonorum Bngel. Smartweed Dodder. Rather 


1439. Cuscuta indecora Choicy. Pretty Dodder. Montgomery County. 

1440. Cuscuta coryli Engel. Hazel Dodder. Rather general. 

1441. Cuscuta cephalanthi Engel. Buttonbush Dodder. Ottawa. 


1442. Cuscuta gronovii Willd. Gronovius' Dodder. General. 

1443. Cuscuta corapacta Juss. Compact Dodder. No specimens. 

1444. Cuscuta paradoxa Raf. Glomerate Dodder. No specimens. 

From the west. 

Hydrophyllaceae. Water-leaf Family. 

1445. Hydrophyllum virginianum L. Virginia Water-leaf. Genei'al. 

1446. Hydrophyllum macrophyllum Nutt. Large Water-leaf. West- 

ern part of Ohio, as far east as Gallia, Fairfield, Licking, 
and Wj^andot Counties. 

1447. Hydrophyllum appendiculatum ]\Ix. xVppendaged Water-leaf. 


1448. Hydrophyllum canadense L. Broadleaf Water-leaf. Cuyahoga, 

Wayne, Morrow, Hardin, Greene, Belmont. 

1449. Phacelia dubia (L.) Small. Small-flowered Phacelia. Fairfield 


1450. Phacelia bipinnatifida Mx. Loose-flowered Phacelia. Hamilton 


1451. Phacelia purshii Buckl. Pursh's Phacelia. General. 

Order, Gentianales. 

Loganiaceae. Logania Family. 

1452. Spigelia marilandica L. Indian-pink. Lake County. 

Oleaceae. Olive Family. 

1453. Syringa vugaris L. Common Lilac. Lake, Jefferson. Escaped. 

1454. Ligustrum vulgare L. Privet. Rather general. From Europe. 

1455. Chionanthus virginica L. Fringetree. Meigs, Gallia. Pike. 


1456. Fraxiniis nigra Marsh. Black Ash. General in the northern 

part of the state, south to Preble, Green, Franklin and Har- 
rison Counties. 

1457. Fraxinus quadrangulata Mx. Blue Ash. Erie, Ottawa, Han- 

cock, Auglaize, Franklin, Licking, Montgomery, Highland, 
Ross, Brown, Adams. 

1458. Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Red Ash. General. 

1459. Fraxinus lanceolata Borck. Green Ash. General. 

1460. Fraximus biltmoreana Beadle. Biltmore Ash. Erie, Hardin, 

Franklin, MontgoiiKM-y, Morgan, Hamilton, Brown, Law- 
rence, Meigs. 

1461. Fraxinus americana L. White Ash. General and abundant. 

Gentianaceae. Gentian Family. 

1462. Centauriuni centaurium (L.) Wight. European Centaury. Lake 

County. From Europe. 

1463. Sabbatia angularis (L.) Pursh. Square-stemmed Sabl)atia. Gen- 


1464. Gentiana quinquefolia L. Stiff Gentian. Montgomery, Ross., 

Franklin, Wayne, Summit, Clark, Fulton, Cuyahoga. 

1465. Gentiana ci-iiiita Froel. Fringed Gentian. Cuyahoga, Erie, 

Fulton, Auglaize, Champaign, Clark, Madison, Franklin. 

1466. Gentiana puberula Mx. DoAvny Gentian. (Dasystephana). Erie 


1467. Gentiana saponaiia L. Soapwort Gentian. (Dasystephana). 

Cuyahoga, Lucas. 

1468. Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. Closed Gentian. (Dasystephana). 

General, but no specimens southeast of Hamilton, Fair- 
field, and Columbiana Counties. 

1469. Gentiana flavida Gr. Yellowish Gentian. (Dasystephana). Lu- 

cas County. 

1470. Gentiana villosa L. Striped Gentian. (Dasystephana). Gallia 


1471. Frasera carolinensis Walt. American Columbo. From Madison 

County southward and westward ; also in Summit, Geauga 
and Portage Counties. 

1472. Obolaria virginica L. Pennywort. Lake, Cuyahoga, Fairfield, 

Gallia, Lawrence, Clermont, Hamilton. 


1473. Bartonia virginica (L.) B. S. P. Yellow Bartonia. Licking, 


Menyanthaceae. Buckbean Family. 

1474. Menyanthes trifoliata L. Buckbean. Ashtabula, Wayne, Lick- 


Apocynaceae. Dogbane Family. 

1475. Vinca minor L. Periwinkle. Rather general. Native of Europe. 

1476. Apocjaium androsaeniifolium L. Spreading Dogbane. General. 

1477. Apoeynum cannabinum L. Indian Hemp. General and abun- 


1478. Apoeynum sibiricum Jaeq. Clasping-leaf Dogbane. Erie, Ash- 


1479. Apoeynum pubescens R. Br. Velvet Dogbane. Auglaize, Frank- 

lin, Harrison, Adams. 

Asclepiadaceae. IVlilkweed Family. 

1480. Acerates viridiflora (Raf.) Eat. Green Milkweed. Rather gen- 


1481. Acerates floridana (Lam.) Hitch. Florida Milkweed. Erie, 

Jackson, Gallia. 

1482. Asclepias tuberosa L. Pleurisy-root. General. 

1483. Asclepias decumbens L. Decumbent Pleurisy-root. No specimens. 

1484. Asclepias purpurascens L. Purple Milkweed. Madison, Aug- 

laize, Lucas, Summit, Portage, Stark, Carroll. 

1485. Asclepias incarnata L. Swamp ]\Iilkweed. General and abun- 


1486. Asclepias pulchra Ehrh. Hairy Milkweed. Lorain County. 

1487. Asclepias sullivantii Engel. Sullivant's Milkweed. Erie, Fair- 


1488. Asclepias amplexicaulis Sm. Bluntleaf Milkweed. Erie, Fair- 


1489. Asclepias exaltata (L.) Muhl. TmII Milkweed. General. 

1490. Asclepias vai-iegata L. White Milkweed. Summit, Hocking. 

1491. Asclepias quadrifolia L. Fourleaf Milkweed. General. 

1492. Asclepias syriaca L. Common ]\lilkweed. General and abundant. 

1493. Asclepias verticillata L. Whorled Milkweed. Lucas, Ottawa, 

Erie, Cuyahoga, Clark, Greene, Fairfield, Athens. 


1494. Gonolobus laevis Mx. Sandvine. Southern Ohio, as far north as 

Montgomery, Koss, and Washington Counties. 

1495. Cynanchum nigrum (L.) Pers. Black Swallow- wort. Cuyahoga, 

Lake. From Europe. 

1496. Vincetoxicum obliquum (Jacq.) Britt. Large-flowered Yincetoxi- 

cum. Lawrence, Handlton, Greene, Franklin. 

Order, Scropli ulariales. 

Solanaceae. Potato Family. 

1497. Petunia violacea Lindl. Common Petunia. Monroe, Franklin. 

From South America. 

1498. Nicotiana tabacum L. Common Tobacco. Adams, Huron. Es- 

caped from cultivation. 

1499. Datura metel L. Entire-leaf Jimson-weed. Lake County. From 

tropical America. 

1500. Datura stramonium L. Common Jimson-weed. General. Nat- 

uralized. From the tropics. 

1501. Lycium halmifolium Mill. Matrimony-vine. Kather general. 

From Europe. 

1502. Physalodes physalodes (L.) Britt. Apple-of-Peru. Gallia, Ham- 

ilton, Clinton, Montgomery, Clark, Champaign, Franklin, 
Licking. From Peru. 

1503. Physalis lanceolata Mx. Prairie Ground-cherry. General. 

1504. Physalis ixocarpa Brot. Mexican Ground-cherry. Franklin 

County. Spontaneous after cultivation. 

1505. Physalis \arginiana Mill. Virginia Ground-cherry. Cuyahoga 


1506. Physalis alkekengi L. Chinese-lantern (Ground-cherry). Per- 

sistent after cultivation. Franklin, Lake. 

1507. Physalis heterophylla Nees. Clammy Ground-cherry. General 

and abundant. 

1508. Physalis pubescens L. Low Hairy Ground-clierry. Morgan, 

' Shelby. 

1509. Physalis pruinosa L. Tall Hairy Ground-cherry. Franklin 

County. Escaped from cultivation. 

1510. Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. Silver-leaf Nightshade. A waif 

in Lucas County. 

1511. Solanum carolinense L. Horse-nettle. General. 


1512. Solanum tuberosum L. Potato. Monroe, Hocking, Franklin, 

Tuscarawas, Erie, Ottawa. Persistent after cultivation. 

1513. Solanum dulcamara L. Bittersweet. General as far south as 

Clark, Licking, and Jefferson Counties ; also in Meigs County. 
Naturalized from Europe. 

1514. Solanum nigrum L. Black Nightshade. General and abundant. 

1515. Solanum rostratum Dun. Buffalo-bur. Franklin, Marion, Otta- 

wa, Cuyahoga, Summit, Lake. From the West. 

1516. Lycopersicon lycopersicon (L.) Karst. Tomato. Rather general 

as an escape. 

Scrophiilariaceae. Figwort Family. 

1517. Verbascum blattaria L. Moth Mullen. General and abundant. 

Naturalized from Europe. 

1518. Verbascum thapsus L. Common Mullen. General and abundant. 

Naturalized from Europe. 

1519. Scrophularia leporella Bickn. Hare Figwort. Cuyahoga County. 

1521. Chelone glabra L. Smooth Turtle-head. General. 

1522. Pentstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. Hairy Beard-tongue. General. 

1523. Pentstemon pentstemon (L.) Britt. Smooth Beard-tongue. 

Rather general. 

1524. Pentstemon digitalis (Sweet) Nutt. Foxglove Beard-tongue. 

Rather general. 

1525. Pentstemon cobaea Nutt. Cobaea Beard-tongue. Lake County. 

1526. Collinsia verna Nutt. Blue-eyed-Mary. General. 

1527. Mimulus ringens L. Square-stemmed Monkey-flower. General. 

1528. ]\Iimulus alatus Soland. Sharp-winged Monkey-flower. Rather 


1529. Conobea multifida (Mx.) Benth. Conobea. Hamilton, Greene, 

Madison, Ottawa. 
L530. Gratiola virginiana L. Clammy Hedge-hyssop. General. 

1531. Gratiola sphaerocarpa Ell. Round-fruited Hedge-hyssop. Erie 


1532. Ilysanthes dubia (L.) Barnh. Long-stalked False Pimpernel. 

Rather general. 

1533. Ilysanthes attenuata (Muhl.) Small. Short-stalked False Pim- 

pernel. Cuyahoga, Lorain, Huron. Stark, Scioto. 

1534. Synthysis ])ullii (Eat.) Heller. Bull's Synthyris. Montgomery 



1535. Veronica aiiagallis-aqiiatica L. Water Speedwell. Butler, 

Champaigu, Auglaize, Lucas, Erie. 

1536. Veronica aniericana Scliwein. American Speedwell. Rather 


1537. Veronica scutellata L. Skullcap Speedwell. Franklin, Licking, 

Crawford, Perrj^, Lucas, Ottawa, Erie, Cuyahoga. 

1538. Veronica officinalis L. Common Speedwell. General and abun- 


1539. Veronica chamaedris L. Bird's-eye Speedwell. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

1540. Veronica teucrium L. Germander Speedwell. Medina County. 

From Europe. 

1541. Veronica serpyllifolia L. Thyme-leaf Speedwell. General. 

1542. Veronica peregrina L. Purslane Speedwell. General. 

1543. Veronica arvensis L. Field Speedwell. General. From Europe. 

1544. Veronica agrestis L. Garden Speedwell. Montgomery, Frank- 

lin. Fi-om Europe. 

1545. Veronica tournefortii Grael. Tournefort's Speedwell. Madison, 

Franklin, Jefferson, Lorain, Cuyahoga, Lake. From Europe. 

1546. Veronica hederaefolia L. Ivy leaf Speedwell. (Erie County — 

Moseley Herbarium.) From Europe. 

1547. Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt. Culver 's-root. General. 

1548. Digitalis purpurea L. Purple Foxglove. Cuyahoga, Lake. From 


1549. Digitalis lutea L. Yellow Foxglove. A waif in Cuyahoga 


1550. Buchnera americana L. Blue-hearts. Fulton County. 

1551. Afzelia macrophylla (Nutt.) Ktz. Mullen Foxglove. General 

in western Ohio, as far east as Huron, Noble, and Vinton 

1552. Dasystoma pedicularia (L.) Benth. Fernleaf False Foxglove. 

Fulton County. 

1553. Dasystoma flava (L.) Wood. Downy False Foxglove. Eastern 

Ohio, as far west as Cuyahoga, Fairfield, and Adams Coun- 

1554. Dasystoma laevigata Raf. Entire-leaf False Foxglove. Jackson, 

Vinton, Hocking, Fairfield. 

1555. Dasystoma virginica (L.) Britt. Smooth False Foxglove. Ful- 

ton, Wood, Fairfield, Adams. 


1556. Agaliuis purpurea (L.) Britt. Large Purple Gerardia. Mont- 

gomery, Fairfield, Franklin, Fulton, Erie, Wayne. 

1557. xVgalinis paupercula (Gr.) Britt. Small Purple Gerardia. Stark, 

Ottawa, Logan, Champaign, Gallia. 

1558. Agalinis tenuifolia (Yahl.) Raf. Slender Gerardia. General. 

1559. Agalinis skinneriana (Wood) Britt. Skinner's Gerardia. Greene 


1560. Otophylla auriculata (Mx.) Small. Auricled Gerardia. Ottawa 


1561. Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. Scarlet Painted-cuj^. Frank- 

lin, Knox. 

1562. Pedicularis lanceolata Mx. Lanceleaf Lousewort. Rather gen- 

eral, but no specimens from south of ]\Iontgomery and Hock- 
ing Counties. 

1563. Pedicularis canadensis L. Wood Lousewort. General. 

1564. Melampyrum lineare Lam. Narrow-leaf Cow-wheat. Lorain, 

Cuyahoga, Lake, Ashtabula, Geauga, Portage, Hocking. 

1565. Antirrhinum majus L. Great Snapdragon. Madison County. 

From Europe. 

1566. Linaria linaria (L.) Karst. Yellow Toadflax. General, but no 

specimens from the northwestern counties. Naturalized from 
1657. Linaria canadensis (L.) Dum. Blue Toadflax. No specimens. 

1568. Chaenorrhinum minus (L.) Lange. Lesser Toadflax. Portage 

County. From Europe. 

1569. Kickxia spuria (L.) Dum. Roundleaf Toadflax. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

1570. Kickxia elatine (L.) Dum. Sharp-pointed Toadflax. Lake Coun- 

ty. From Europe. 

1571. Cymbalaria cymbalaria (L.) Wettst. Kenilworth Ivy. Mont- 

gomery, Crawford. From Europe. 

Orobanchaceae. Broom-rape Family. 

1572. Thalesia uniflora (L.) Britt. Naked Broom-rape. Rather gen- 

eral, but no specimens from the northwestern counties. 

1573. Orobanche ludoviciana Nutt. Louisiana Broom-rape. Hamilton 

L574. Conopholis americana (L. f.) Wallr. S(iuaw-root. General. 
1575. Leptamnium virginianum (L.) Raf. Beech-drops. General. 


Bignoniaceae. Bignonia Family. 

1576. Bignonia radicans L. Trumpet-creeper. General. 

1577. Anisostichiis eapreolata (L.) Bur. Cross-vine. Lawrence, Adams. 

1578. Catalpa catalpa (L.) Karst. Common Catalpa. Montgomery, 

Champaign, Franklin. From the South. 

1579. Catalpa speciosa Ward. Hardy Catalpa. Ashtabula, Franklin, 

Hocking, Madison, Preble. From the Southwest. 

Martyniaceae. Unicorn-plant Family. 

1580. Martynia louisiana Mill. Unicorn-plant. Lorain, Richland, 

Franklin, Ross. Escaped from cultivation. 

Lentibulariaceae. Bladderwort Family. 

1581. Utricularia macrorhiza Le Conte. Greater Bladderwort. North- 

ern part of state; specimens from as far south as Franklin 
and Licking Counties. 

1582. Utricularia gibba L. Humped Bladderwort. Stark, Franklin, 

Fairfield, Erie, Defiance. 

1583. Utricularia intermedia Hayne. Flatleaf Bladderwort. Lake, 


1584. Utricularia minor L. Lesser Bladderwort. Licking County. 

1585. Stomoisia cornuta (Mx.) Raf. Horned Bladderwort. Summit 


Acanthaceae. Acanthus Family. 

1586. Ruellia strepens L. Smooth Ruellia. Western half of the state ; 

also in Monroe County. 

1587. Ruellia ciliosa Pursli. Hairy Ruellia. From Union County south- 

ward and westward ; also in Cuyahoga County. 

1588. Dianthera americana L. Water-willow. General. 

Order, Lamiales. 

Boraginaceae. Borage Family. 

1589. Heliotropium indicum L. Indian Heliotrope. No specimens. 

From India. 

1590. Cynoglossum officinale L. Hound 's-tongue. General and abun- 

dant. Naturalized from Europe. 

1591. Cynoglossum virginianum L. Wild Comfrey. Southeastern 

Ohio to Cuyahoga, Wyandot, and Warren Counties. 


1592. Lappula lappiila (L.) Karst. European Stickseed. Rather gen- 

eral. From Europe. 

1593. Lappula virginiana (L.) Greene. Virginia Stickseed. General. 

1594. Mertensia virgiuica (L.) DC. Virginia Cowslip. Rather general. 

1595. Asperugo proeumbens L. German JMadwort. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

1596. Myosotis laxa Lehm. Smaller Forget-me-not. Tuscarawas, Stark, 

Summit, Lake, Lucas. 

1597. Myosotis arvensis (L.) Hill, Field Forget-me-not. Gallia, 

Franklin, Lake. 

1598. Myosotis virginica (L.) B. S. P. Virginia Forget-me-not. Fair- 

field, Franklin, Lorain, Erie, Lucas. 

1599. Lithospermum latifolium Mx. American Gromwell. Lawrence, 

Warren, Lucas, Auglaize. 

1600. Lithospermum officinale L. Common Gromwell. No specimens. 

From Europe. 

1601. Lithospermum arvense L. Corn Gromwell. General and abun- 

dant. Naturalized from Europe. 

1602. Lithospermum carolinense (Walt.) MacM. Hairy Puccoon. Erie, 


1603. Lithospermum canescens (Mx.) Lehm. Hoary Puccoon. Rather 

general; no specimens from the eastern counties. 
1601. Onosmodium hispidissimum Mack. Shaggy False Gromwell. Lo- 
rain, Ottawa, Lucas, Greene, Clark, Montgomery, Adams. 

1605. Symphytum officinale L. Common Comfrey. Northern part of 

Ohio ; as far south as Belmont and Champaign Counties. 
From Europe. 

1606. Lycopsis arvensis L. Small Bugloss. Stark County. From 


1607. Echium vulgare L. Blueweed. Montgomery, Clinton, Richland, 

Cuyahoga, Columbiana, Noble, Belmont. From Europe. 

Verbenaceae. Vervain Family. 

1608. Verbena urticifolia L. White Vervain. General and abundant. 

1609. Verbena hastata L. Blue \'ervain. Gen-'ral iiiid abundant. 

1610. Verbena angustifolia Mx. Nan-owh'af W-rvain. Lake, Cuya- 

hoga, Erie, Ottawa, Auglaize, Madison, Montgomery, Cler- 
mont, Adams, Meigs. 


1611. Verbena stricta Veut. Hoary Vervain. Hamilton, Clermont, 

Highland, Warren, Preble, Montgomery, Clark, Franklin, 
Licking, Cuyahoga, Lake. 

1612. Verbena bracteosa Mx. Bracted Vervain. Pike, Hamilton, Mont- 

gomery, Auglaize, Wyandot, Cuyahoga, Ashtabula. 

1613. Verbena canadensis (L.) Britt. Large-flowered Verbena. Ross, 

Franklin, Auglaize. 

1614. Lippia lanceolate Mx. Frog-fruit. General ; no specimens from 

the eastern counties. 

Lamiaceae. Mint Family. 

1615. Isanthus brachiatus (L.) B. S. P. False Pennyroyal. Erie, Ot- 

tawa, Clark, Warren, Franklin, IMuskingum, Hocking, Mor- 
gan, Gallia. 

1616. Trichostema dichotomum L. Blue-curls. Hamilton, Fairfield, 

Jackson, Monroe, Highland. 

1617. Ajuga reptans L. Bungle-weed. No specimens. From Europe. 

1618. Teucrium canadense L. American Germander. General and 


1619. Teucrium occidentale Gr. Hairy Germander. Lake, Wayne, 

Erie, Ottawa, Auglaize, Clark, Greene, Perry, Monroe. 

1620. Teucrium scorodonia L. Wood Germander. Lake County. From 


1621. Teucrium botrys L. Cutleaf Germander. No specimens. From 


1622. Scutellaria lateriflora L. Mad-dog Skullcap. General. 

1623. Scutellaria serrata Andr. Showy Skullcap. Gallia County. 

1624. Scutellaria incana Muhl. Downy Skullcap. Eastern and south- 

ei-n Ohio ; from ('uyahoga and Wayne Counties eastward and 
from Perry and Miami Counties southward. 

1625. Scutellaria cordifolia Muhl. Heartleaf Skullcap. Rather general. 

1626. Scutellaria pilosa Mx. Hairy Skullcap. No specimens. 

1627. Scutellaria integrifolia L. Hyssop Skullcap. Jackson County. 

1628. Scutellaria parvula Mx. Small Skullcap. Ottawa, Madison, 

Clark, Hamilton, Gallia, Franklin, Greene, Montgomery, 

1629. Scutellaria saxatilis Ridd. Rock Skullcap. No specimens. 

1630. Scutellaria galericulata L. Marsh Skullcap. Rather general; no 

specimens south of Clark and Perry Counties. 


1631. Scutellaria nervosa Piirsh. Veined Skullcap. Rather general. 

1632. Marrubium vulgare L. Common Hoarhound. General. Nat- 

uralized from Europe. 

1633. Hedeoma pulegioides (L.) Pers. American Pennyroyal. Gen- 

eral and abundant. 

1634. Hedeoma hispida Pursh. Rough Pennyroyal. (Moseley Herba- 

rium — Lorain County. ) 

1635. Melissa officinalis L. Lemon Balm. Rather general; no speci- 

mens from the northwestern counties. From Europe. 

1636. Satureia hortensis L. Summer Savory. Ottawa, Lake. From 


1637. Clinopodium vulgare L. Field Basil. Rather general; no speci- 

mens from southeastern and northwestern counties. 

1638. Clinopodium glabrum (Nutt.) Ktz. Low Calamint. Ottawa, 

Erie, Union, Greene. 

1639. Koellia virginiaua (L.) MacM. Virginia Mountain-mint. Rather 

1610. Koellia flexuosa (Walt.) MacM. Narrowleaf Mountain-mint. 

Rather general. 
164L Koellia i)ilosa (Nutt.) Britt. Hairy Mountain-mint. Cuyahoga, 

Stark, Hocking, Clark, Shelby. 

1642. Koellia ineana (L.) Ktz. Hoary Mountain-mint. Stark, Fair- 

field, Hocking, Jackson, Gallia, Scioto, Adams. 

1643. Koellia mutica (L.) Britt. Short-toothed Mountain-mint. Lick- 

ing, Cuyahoga. 

1644. Origanum vulgare L. Wild Majoram. Hocking County. From 


1645. Thymus serpyllum L. Creeping Thyme. Coshocton, Gallia. 

From Europe. 

1646. Cunila origanoides (L.) Britt. American Dittany. Southeastern 

Ohio to Tuscarawas, Fairfield, Ross, and Adams Counties. 

1647. Lycopus virginicus L. Virginia Water-hoarhound. Rather gen- 


1648. Lycopus uniflorus Mx. Northern AVatcr-lionrhound. Belmont 


1649. Lycopus rubellus ]\loench. Stalked Watei--lioarlu)iin(l. Geauga, 

Wayne, Cuyahoga, Erie, Huron, Paulding, Anglaize, Fair- 
field, Clinton, Montgomery. 
16")0. Ijycopus i'lnei-icanus ^fuhl. Cnllcaf Watei--li():itli()uii(l. (iciicral 


1651. Mentha spicata L. Spearmint. General. Naturalized from 


1652. Mentha piperita L. Peppermint. General. Naturalized from 


1653. Mentha citrata Ehrh. Bergamot Mint. Lake, Franklin. From 


1654. Mentha longifolia (L.) Iluds. European Mint. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

1655. Mentha rotundifolia (L.) Huds. Roundleaf Mint. Franklin 

County — a waif. From Europe. 

1656. Mentha alopecuroides Hull. Woolly Mint. Franklin County. 

From Europe. 

1657. Mentha arvensis L. Field Mint. Lake County. From Europe. 

1658. Mentha cardiaca Gerarde. Small-leaf Mint. Montgomery Coun- 

ty. From Europe. 

1659. Mentha canadensis L. American Wild Mint. General. 

1660. Collinsonia canadensis L. Stone-root. General. 

1661. Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Perilla. Warren County. Native 

of India. 

1662. Agastache nepetoides (L.) Ktz. Catnip Giant-hyssop. General. 

1663. Agastache scrophulariaefolia (Willd.) Ktz. Figwort Giant-hys- 

sop. Medina, Stark, Auglaize, Champaign, Madison, Hock- 

1664. Nepeta cataria L. Catnip. General and abundant. Naturalized 

from Europe. 

1665. Glecoma hederacea L. Ground Ivy. General and abundant. 

Naturalized from Europe. 

1666. Prunella vulgaris L. Common Self-heal. General and abundant. 

Native of Europe. 

1667. Dracocephalum virginianum L. Virginia Dragon-head. Rather 


1668. Synandra hispidula (Mx.) Britt. Synandra. Belmont, Wyan- 

dot, Franklin, Miami, Hamilton, Clermont, Lawrence. 

1669. Galeopsis tetrahit L. Hemp-nettle. Lake County. From Europe. 

1670. Leonurus cardiaca L. Common Motherwort. General and abun- 

dant. Naturalized from Europe. 

1671. Lamium amplexicaule L. Common Henbit. Rather general. 

From Europe. 


1672. Lamium purpureuni L. Red Henbit. Warren, Erie, Lorain. 

From Europe. 

1673. Lamium maculatum L. Spotted Henbit. Washington, Miami, 

Knox, Marion, Auglaize, Lorain. From Europe. 

1674. Lamium album L. White Henbit. Miami, Lorain. From 


1675. Staehys palnstris L. Marsh Hedge-nettle. Rather general. 

1676. Stachvs tenuifolia Willd. Smooth Hedge-nettle. Rather general. 

1677. Stachvs asper Mx. Rough Hedge-nettle. Rather general. 

1678. Staehys cordata Ridd. Cordate Hedge-nettle. Southern Ohio, 

as far north as Noble, Franklin, and Auglaize Counties. 

1679. Blephilia eiliata (L.) Raf. Downy Blephilia. Northern part of 

the state ; as far south as Harrison, Franklin, and Mont- 
gomery Counties. 

1680. Blephilia hirsuta (Brush) Torr. Hairy Blephilia. General. 

1681. Monarda punctata L. Horsemint. No specimens. 

1682. Monarda didyma L. American Beebalm. Truml)ull, Fortage, 

Cuyahoga, Medina, Madison. 

1683. Monarda clinopodia L. Basil Balm. General. 

1684. Monarda fistulosa L. Wild Bergamot. General and abundant. 

1685. Monarda mollis L. Canescent Wild Bergamot. Rather general. 

1686. Salvia lyrata L. Lyreleaf Sage. Bike, Lawrence, Gallia, Meigs. 

1687. Salvia lanceifolia Boir. Lanceleaf Sage. Franklin County. 

From the West. 

1688. Salvia verbenaca L. Wild Sage. No specimens. From Europe. 

1689. Salvia officinalis L. Common Sage. Stark County. Escaped. 

Phrymaceae. Lopseed Family. 

1690. Fhryma leptostachya L. Lopseed. General. 

Order, PUniiafiinalcs. 

Plantaginaceae. Blaintain Family. 
169L Flantago cordata Lam. Heartleaf Blantain. Lucas, Auglaize, 
Madison, Franklin. 

1692. Flantago rugellii Dec. Rugel's Blantain. General and abundant. 

1693. Flantago major L. Common Blantain. Rather general. 

1694. Blantago laneeolata L. Ribgrass Plantain. General and abun- 

dant. Naturalized from Eui'ope. 

1695. Blantago aristata Mx. Large-bracted Blantain. Rather gcmial. 


1696. Plantago virginica L. Dwarf Plantain. Gallia, Jackson, Pike, 

Eoss, Stark, Cuyahoga, Lake. 

1697. Plantago arenaria W. & K. Sand Plantain. Montgomery Coun- 

ty. From Europe. 

Subclass, INFERAE. 

Order, TJmbellales. 

Araliaceae. Ginseng Family. 

1698. Aralia spinosa L. Angelica-tree. Clermont, Hocking. 

1699. Aralia racemosa L. American Spikenard. General. 

1700. Aralia nudicaulis L. Wild Sarsaparilla. Northern part of 

state, as far south as Licking County. 

1701. Aralia hispida Vent. Bristly Sarsaparilla. Lake, Cuyahoga. 

1702. Panax quinquefolium L. Common Ginseng. General. 

1703. Panax trifolium L. Dwarf Ginseng. Columbiana, Cuyahoga, 

Lorain, Medina, Seneca, Richland. 

Ammiaceae. Carrot Family. 

1704. Eryngium aquaticum L. Rattlesnake-master. Wyandot, Erie. 

1705. Sanicula marylandica L. Black Snakeroot. Rather general. 

1706. Sanicula gregaria Bickn. Clustered Snakeroot. Rather general 

1707. Sanicula canadensis L. Short-styled Snakeroot. General and 


1708. Sanicula trifoliata Bickn. Large-fruited Snakeroot. Southern 

and eastern part of state to Geauga, Morrow, and Preble 

1709. Deringa canadensis (L.) Ktz. Honewort. General. 

1710. Chaerophyllum procumbens (L.) Crantz. Spreading Chervil. 


1711. Washingtonia elaytoni (Mx.) Britt. Woolly Sweet-cicely. Gen- 


1712. Washingtonia longistylis (Torr.) Britt. Long-styled Sweet- 

cicely. General. 

1713. Seandix pecten-veneris L. Venus '-comb. Lake County, From 


1714. Pastinaca sativa L. Wild Parsnip. General and abundant. Nat- 

uralized from Europe. 

1715. Heracleum lanatum Mx. Cow-parsnip. Rather general. 


1716. Conioselium cliinense (L.) B. S. P. Hemlock-parsley. Lake, 


1717. Angelica atropurpurea L. Purple-stemmed Angelica. Rather 


1718. Angelica villosa (Walt.) B. S. P. Pubescent Angelica. Eastern 

half of state, west to Adams, Fairfield and Richland Coun- 

1719. Oxypolis rigidus (L.) Raf. Co\vl)ane. Hamilton, Clark, Frank- 

lin, Erie, Fulton, Champaign, Huron, iMontgomery, Madison. 

1720. Bupleurum rotund if oliuni L. Hare's-ear. Warren County. From 


1721. Thaspium trifoliatum (L.) Britt. Purple Meadow-parsnip. 


1722. Thaspium barbinode (Mx.) Nutt. Hairy-jointed Meadow-pars- 

nip. General. 

1723. Taenidia integerrima (L.) Drude. Yellow Pimpernel. General. 

1724. Zizia aurea (L.) Koch. Early Meadow-parsnip. Rather general. 

1725. Zizia cordata (Walt.) DC. Heartleaf Meadow-parsnip. Lorain, 

Richland, Wyandot, ^Madison, Franklin, Warren, Gallia, 

1726. Apium petroseliniuu L. Parsley. Madison County. Escaped 

from cultivation. 

1727. Foeniculum foeniculum (L.) Karst. Fennel. Hocking, Scioto. 

From Europe. 

1728. Aethusa cynapium L. Fool's Parsley. Lake County. From 


1729. Hydrocotyle umbellata L. Umbellate Marsh-pennywort. Por- 

tage, Stark. 

1730. Hydrocotyle americana L. American Marsh-pennywort. Cuya- 

hoga, Summit, Wayne, Stark. 

1731. Erigenia bulbosa (Mx.) Nutt. Harbenger-of-spring. General. 

1732. Conium maculatum L. Poison-hemlock. Montgomerj^ Knox, 

Lake. From Europe. 

1733. Aegopodium podagraria L. Goutweed. Lake County. From 


1734. Eulophus americanus Nutt. Easlorii Eulophus. No specimens. 

1735. Pimpinclla s.ixifraga L. PimixM-iu'l. Xo specimens. From 



1736. Sium cicutaefoliuni Schrank. Water-parsnip. General, but no 

specimens from the southern counties. 

1737. Cicuta macnlata I.. Spotted Water-hemlock. General. 

1738. Cicuta hulbifera L. Bulb-bearing Water-hemlock. Northern 

part of state south to Perry and Clark Counties. 

1739. Caru)n carui L. Caraway. Columbiana, Ashland, Lorain, Ful- 

ton. From Europe. 

1740. Daucus carota L. Wild Carrot. General and abundant. Nat- 

uralized from Europe. 

1741. Torilis anthriscus (L.) Gmel. Erect Hedge-parsley. Hamilton 

County. From Europe. 

Cornaceae. Dogwood Family. 

1742. Cornus alternifolia L. f. Blue Dogwood. General. 

1743. Cornus femina ^Mill. Panicled Dogwood. General in the north- 

ern half of tlie state. 

1744. Cornus stolonifera ^Mx. Tied-osier Dogwood. General in the 

northern part of the state, south to Stark, Morrow, and 
Montgomery Counties. 

1745. Cornus asperifolia Mx. Roughleaf Dogwood. General. 

1746. Cornus amoinuin ]\Iill. Silky Dogwood. General and abundant. 

1747. Cornus rugosa Lam. Roundleaf Dogwood. Cuyahoga, Summit. 


1748. Cynoxylon floridum (L.) Raf. Flowering Dogwood. General 

and abundant. 

1749. Cynoxylon canadense (L.^ Dwarf Dogwood. Stark, Licking.' 

1750. Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Tupelo. General. 

Order, RahiaJes. 

R-ubiaceae. IMadder Family. 

1751. Houstonia coerulea L. Bluets. Southeastern two-thirds of the 

state as far northwest as Cuyahoga, Crawford, Clark, and 
Hamilton Counties. 

1752. Houstonia pur]nirea L. Large Houstonia. Clermont, Butler, 

Highland, Warren. 

1753. Houstonia eiliohita Torr. Fringed Houstonia. Lawrence, Lick- 

ing, Franklin, Delaware, Defiance, Lucas, Ottawa, Cuyahoga, 


1754. Houstonia longifolia Gaertii. Longleaf Houstonia. Rather gen- 

eral, but Ottawa the only iiortlirrn county represented in 
the herbarium. 

1755. Houstonia tenuifolia Xutt. Slenderleaf Houstonia. No speci- 


1756. Houstonia angustifolia j\Ix. Narrowleaf Houstonia. Ottawa 


1757. Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Button-bush. General and 


1758. Michella repens L. Partridge-berry. Rather general. 

1759. Spermacoce glabra Mx. Smooth Buttonweed. No specimens. 

1760. Diodia teres Walt. Rough Buttonweed. Lake County. 

1761. Galium pilosum Ait. Hairy Bedstraw. Eastern Ohio; as far 

west as Lorain, Knox, Fairfield, and Adams Counties. 

1762. Galium lanceolatum Torr. Lanceleaf Wild Licorice. Rather 


1763. Galium circaezans Mx. Wild Licorice. General and abundant. 

1764. Galium boreale L. Northern Bedstraw. Ottawa, Lorain. 

1765. Galium triflorum Mx. Fragrant Bedstraw. General. 

1766. Galium mollugo L. White Bedstraw. Lake, Fayette. From 


1767. Galium tinctorium L. Stiff Marsh Bedstraw. Rather general. 

1768. Galium trifidum L. Small Bedstraw. Northern Ohio, as far 

south as Shelby, Madison, Perry, and Harrison Counties. 

1769. Galium claytoni Mx. Clayton's Bedstraw. Erie County. 

1770. Galium concinnum T. & G. Shining Bedstraw. General and 


1771. Galium aspi-ellum Mx. Rough Bedstraw. Rather general; no 

specimens from the southern counties. 

1772. Galium aparine L. Common Cleavers. General and abundant. 

1773. Sherardia arvensis L. Blue Field-madder. Cuyahoga County. 

From Europe. 

Caprifoliaceae. TTonej^suckle Family. 

1774. Saiiibucus canadensis 1;. Common Elderberry. General and 


1775. Sambucus racemosa L. Red Elderberry. Ralber general. 

1776. Viburnum pubescens (Ait.) Pursh. Downy Ari'ow-wood. Lo- 

rain, Erie, Wyandot, Auglaize, Williams. 


1777. Viburnum dentatum L. Toothed xVrrow-wood. Ashtabula, 

Geauga, Lorain, Summit, Stark, Wayne, Ashland, Tusca- 

1778. Viburnum scabrellum (T. & G.) t'liapm. Ivougldeaf Arrow- 

wood. Adams, Brown, Hocking, Madison. 

1779. Viburnum cassinoides L. Withe-rod. Ashtabula, Geauga, Cuy- 

ahoga, Summit, Lorain, Hocking. 

1780. Viburnum lentago L. Sheepberry. Rather general. 

1781. Viburnum prunifolium L. Black Haw. General. 

1782. Viburnum lantana L. Wayfaring-tree. Lake County. From 


1783. Viburnum acerifolium L. Mapleleaf Arrow-wood. General. 

1784. Viburnum opulus L. Cranberry-tree. Lake, Geauga, Cham- 

nS"). Vil)urnuiii alnifolium Marsh. Ilobblebush. Ashtabula, Lake 

1786. Triosteum angustifolium L. Yellow Horse-gentian. Cuyahoga, 

Warren, Clermont. 

1787. Triosteum perfoliatum L. Common Horse-gentian. General. 

1788. Symphoricarpos racemosus Mx. Snowberry. Rather general. 

1789. Symphoricarpos symphoricarpos (L.) MacM. Coralberry. Gen- 


1790. Lonicera canadensis Marsh. American Fly Honeysuckle. Lake, 

Summit, Cuyahoga, Lorain. 

1791. Lonicera oblongifolia (Goldie) Hook. Swamp Fly Honeysuckle. 

Cuyahoga County. 

1792. Lonicera tartarica L. Tartarian Ploneysuckle. Ashtabula. Lake, 

Cuyahoga, Lorain, Licking, Franklin, Auglaize. Escaped 
from cultivation. 

1793. Lonicera xylosteum L. European Fly Honeysuckle. Lake Coun- 

ty. Native of Europe. 

1794. Lonicera japonica Thunb. Japanese Honeysuckle. Adams, 

Brown, Auglaize. Escaped from cultivation. 

1795. Lonicera sempervirens L. Trumpet Honeysuckle. Cuyahoga 


1796. Lonicera caprifoliuni L. Italian Honeysuckle. No specimens. 

From Europe. 

1797. Lonicera hirsuta Eaton. Hairy Honeysuckle. Ottawa, Lorain, 


1798. Lonicera glaucescens Rydl). Glausccnt Honeysuckle. Gencnil. 


1799. Lonicera sullivantii Gr. Sullivant's Honeysuckle. Stark, Mus- 

kingum, Franklin, Madison, Clark, Highland. 

1800. Lonicera dioica L. Smoothleaf Honeysuckle. Champaign, 


1801. Linnaea araericana Forbes. American Twin-flower. Stark 


1802. Diervilla diervilla (L.) MacM. Bush -honeysuckle. Lucas. Lo- 

rain, Summit, Wayne, Stark, Franklin. 

Valerianaceae. Valerian Family. 

1803. Valerianella locusta (L.) Bettke. European Corn-salad. Hamil- 

ton, Ross, Lorain, Cuyahoga. From Europe. 

1804. Valerianella chenopodi folia (Pursh.) DC. Goosefoot Corn-salad. 

Rather general. 

1805. Valerianella radiata (L.) Dufr. Beaked Corn-salad. General. 

1806. Valerianella woodsiana (T. & G.) Walp. Wood's Corn-salad. 

Erie, Richland, Franklin, Clark. 

1807. Valeriana pauciflora Mx. Large-flowered Valerian. Western 

half of Ohio, as far east as Ottawa, Franklin, and Lawrence 

1808. Valeriana edulis Nutt. Edible Valerian. Champaign County. 

1809. Valeriana officinalis L. Garden Valerian. Ashtabula, Lake. 

From Europe. 

Order, Campanulales. 

Campanulaceae. Bellflower Family. 

1810. Campanula rapunculoides L. European Bellflower. Cuyahoga, 

Lorain, Auglaize, Crawford, Carroll, Franklin, Hamilton. 
From Europe. 

1811. Campanula americana L. Tall Bellflower. General and abun- 


1812. Campaiuda rotundifolia L. Harebell. Ottawa County. 

1813. Cami)anuhj aparinoides Pursh. Marsh Bellflower. Rather gen- 

eral ; no specimens from the southeastern and northwestern 

1814. Specularia perfoliata (L.) DC. Venus '-looking-glass. General 

Lobeliaceae. Tjobelia Family. 

1815. Lobelia cardinalis L. Cardinal Lobelia. Gen(M-al. 


1816. Lobelia s.yphalitica L. Blue Lobelia. General and abundant. 

1817. Lobelia puberula Mx. Downy Lobelia. Gallia, Meigs, Hocking. 

1818. Lobelia spicata Lam. Pale Spiked Lobelia. General. 

1819. Lobelia leptostaehys A. DC. Spiked Lobelia. Adams, Gallia, 

Meigs, Hocking, Fairfield, Clark. 

1820. Lobelia inflata L. Indian-tobacco. General. 
Lobelia kalmii L. Kalm's Lobelia. General. 

Order, Compositales. 

Dipsacaceae. Teazel Family. 

1822. Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. Wild Teazel. General and abundant. 

Naturalized from Europe. 

Ambrosiaceae. Ragweed Family. 

1823. Xanthium pennsylvanicum Wallr. Pennsylvania Cocklebur. 


1824. Xanthium americaniuu Walt. American Cocklebur. Athens, 

Vinton, Washington. 

1825. Xanthium spinosum L. Spiny Cocklebur. Montgomery County. 


1826. Ambrosia trifida L. Giant Ragweed. General. 

1827. Ambrosia psilostachya DC. Western Ragweed. Franklin, Lake. 

Introduced from the West. 

1828. Ambrosia elatior L. Roman Ragweed. General and abundant. 

Helianthaceae. Sunflower Family. 

1829. Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) Sw. Smooth Oxeye. General and 


1830. Heliopsis scabi-a Dunal. Rough Oxeye. Erie, Wyandot, Wayne. 

Madison, Ross. 

1831. Verbesina alba L. Verbesina. Rather general. 

1832. Rudbeckia triloba L. Thinleaf Cone-flower. Rather general; 

ro specimens from the east'^rn counties. 

1833. Rudbeckia hirta L. Black-eyed-Susan. General and abundant. 

1834. Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. Orange Cone-flower. Franklin, Union. 

1835. Rudbeckia speciosa Wend. Showy Cone-flower. Montgomery, 

Champaign, Madison, Franklin. 
1835a. Rudbeckia speciosa sullivanti (Boy. & Bead.^i Rob. No spec- 


1836. lUulbeckia laciniata L. Tall Cone-flower. General. 

1837. Ratibida i)innata (Vent.) Bai-nh. Tall Nigger-head. Rather 


1838. Ratibida cohimnaris (Sims.) D. Don. Prairie Nigger-head. A 

waif in Franklin County. 

1839. Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. Purple Cone-flower. Clark, 

Madison, Franklin, Holmes, Lucas. 

1840. Helianthus occidentalis Ridd. Fewlcaf Sunflower. Fulton. Erie, 


1841. Helianthus microcephalus T. & G. Small Wood Sunflower. 

Rather general. 

1842. Helianthus giganteus L. Giant Sunflower. From Erie, Rich- 

land, and Fairfield Counties westward. 

1843. Helianthus maximiliani Schrad. Maximilian's Sunflower. Lake, 

Franklin. From the West. 

1844. Helianthus grosse-serratus Mart. Sawtooth Sunflower. Cuya- 

hoga, Erie, Huron, Wood, Auglaize, Clark, Madison. 

1845. Helianthus kellermani Britt. Kellerman's Sunflower. Frank- 

lin County. 

1846. Helianthus divaricatus L. Woodland Sunflower. Rather gen- 


1847. Helianthus mollis. Laui. Hairy Sunflower. Erie, Frankhn. 

1848. Helianthus doi'onieoides Lam. Oblong-leaf Sunflower. Rather 

general; no specimens from the eastern and southeastern 

1849. Helianthus decapetalus L. Thinleaf Sunflower. Rather general. 

1850. Helianthus tracheliifolius Mill. Throatwort Sunflower. Rather 

general : no specimens from the southeastern third of Ohio. 

1851. Helianthus strumosus L. Paleleaf Wood Sunflower. Rather 

general; no specimens from the southeastern third of the 


1852. Helianthus hiisutus Raf. Hirsute Sunflower. General. 

1853^ Helianthus laetiflorus Pers. Showy Sunflower. Franklin, 

1854. Helianthus tuberosus L. Jerusalem Artichoke. General. 
1855^ Helianthus nnnuus L. Common Sunflower. Rather general. 

From 1lie West. 
1856. Helianthus petiolaris Nutt. Prairie Sunflower. Lake County. 

From the West. 


1857. Pliaelliusa heliaiithoides (Mx.) Britt. Sunflower Crownbeard. 

Madison, Clark, Adams. 

1858. Ridan alternifolius (L.) Britt. Ridan. General. 

1859. Coreopsis lanceolata L. Lance-leaf Tickseed. Franklin County. 

1860. Coreopsis tripteris L. Tall Tickseed. Rather general. 

1861. Coreopsis major Walt. Greater Tickseed. Gallia, Lawrence, 


1862. Coreopsis verticillata L. Whorled Tickseed. No specimens. 

1863. Coreopsis tinctoria Xutt. Garden Tickseed. Montgomery, 

Franklin, Cuyahoga. From the West. 

1864. Bidens laevis (L.) B. S. P. Smootli Bur-marigold. Columbiana, 

Erie, Logan, Hamilton. 

1865. Bidens cernua L. Nodding Bur-marigold. General. 

1866. Bidens connata Muhl. Swamp Bur-marigold. Rather general. 

1867. Bidens comosa (Gr.) Wieg. Leafy -bracted Bur-marigold. Aug- 

laize, Delaware, Franklin, Vinton, Belmont. 

1868. Bidens discoidea (T. & G.) Britt. Small Beggar-ticks. Erie 


1869. Bidens frondosa L. Black Beggar-ticks. Meigs, Vinton, Holmes. 

1870. Bidens vulgata Greene. Tall Beggar-ticks. General. 

1871. Bidens bipinnata L. Spanish-needles. Rather general ; no speci- 

mens from the northwestern counties. 

1872. Bidens trichosperma (Mx.) Britt. Tall Tickseed. GeneraL 

1873. Bidens aristosa (Mx.) Britt. Western Tickseed. Wyandot, 

Champaign, Clark, Madison. 

1874. Megalodonta beckii (Torr.) Greene. Water-marigold. Erie, 


1875. Galinsoga parviflora Cav. Galinsoga. Lake, Cuyahoga, Licking, 

Belmont, Columbiana, Jetferson, Monroe, Franklin, Mont- 
gomery. From tropical America. 

1876. Polymnia uvedalia L. Yellow Leaf -cup. Cuyahoga, Noble, Gal- 

lia, Lawrence, Clermont, Clark. 

1877. Polymnia canadensis L. Small-flowered Leaf-cup. General. 

1878. Silphium integrifolium Mx. Entire-leaf Rosin-weed. No speci- 


1879. Silphium trifoliatum L. Whorled Rosin-weed. Rather general; 

no specimens from the northwestern counties. 

1880. Silphium laciniatum L. Compass-plant. Summit County. 

1881. Silphium perfoliatum L. Indian-cup. General. 


1882. Silpliium terebinthinaceum Jacq. Prairie Dock (Rosin-weed). 

Cuyahoga, Wayne, Erie, Ottawa, Lucas, Fulton, Defiance, 
Hancock, Champaign, Clark, Madison. 

1883. Parthenium hysterophorus L. Parthenium. A waif in Franklin 


1884. Tetraneuris herbacea Greene. Eastern Tetraneuris. Ottawa 


1885. Helenium autuinnale L. Common Sneezeweed. Rather general; 

no specimens from the southeastern counties. 

1886. Helenium nudiflorum Nutt. Purple-headed Sneezeweed. Lake, 


1887. Helenium tenuifolium Nutt. Slender-leaf Sneezeweed. Frank- 

lin, Lake. 

1888. Boebera papposa (Vent.) Rydl). Fetid Marigold. Franklin, 

Delaware, Logan, Madison, Hamilton. From the West. 

1889. Inula helenium L. Elecampane. General, but no specimens from 

the southernmost counties. From Europe. 

1890. Gifola germanica (L.) Dum. Herb Impius. Guernsey County. 

From Europe. 

1891. Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. Fragrant Cudweed. General. 

1892. Gnaphalium decurrens Ives. Clammy Cudweed. Cuyahoga 


1893. Gnai)halium uliginosum L. :\Iarsh Cudweed. General. 

1894. Gnaphalium purpureum L. Purplish Cudweed. Rather general. 

1895. Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. Pearly Everlast- 

ing. Cuyahoga Count}'. 

1896. Antennaria parlinii Fern. Parlin's Everlasting. General. 

1897. Antennaria solitaria Rydb. Single-headed Everlasting. Law- 

rence County. 

1898. Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Rich. Plantain-leaf Everlast- 

ing. General. 

1899. Antennaria neodioica Greene. Smaller Everlasting. Lake, Aug- 


1900. Antennaria neglecta Greene. Field Everlasting. Rather general. 

1901. Grindelia squarrosa (Pursh) Dun. Broadleaf Gum-plant. Ham- 

ilton County. From the West. 

1902. Chrysopsis graminifolia (Mx.) Ell. Grassleaf Golden-aster. No 



1908. Chiysoi)sis mariana (L.) Xutt. ^ilaryland Golden-aster. Hock- 
ing, Jackson. 

1904. Solidago sijnarrosa Mulil. Stout Goldenrod. Ashtabula, Lake, 


1905. Solidago caesia L. Wreath Goldenrod. General. 

1906. Solidago fiexicaulis L. Zig-zag Goldenrod. Eastern Ohio, as far 

west as Cuyahoga, Fairfield, Jackson, and Lawrence Coun- 
ties: also in Ottawa County. 

1907. Solidago bicolor L. White Goldenrod. Columbiana, Geauga, 

Cuyahoga, Summit, Wayne, Erie, Fairtield, Vinton, Jackson, 

1908. Solidago hispida Muhl. Hairy Goldenrod. Ottawa, Lake. 

1909. Solidago erecta Pursh. Slender Goldein-od. Fairfield, Hocking, 


1910. Solidago uliginosa Xutt. Bog Goldenrod. Lucas, Portage, 

Stark, Wayne, Licking, Franklin. 

1911. Solidago speciosa Nutt. Showy Goldenrod. Lucas, Franklin, 

Fairfield, Lawrence. 

1912. Solidago rigidiuscula (T. & G.) Port. Slender Showy Golden- 

rod. Erie, Wyandot, Wood. Lucas, Fulton. 

1913. Solidago rugosa Mill. Wrinkle-leaf Goldenrod. Rather general. 

1914. Solidago patula Muhl. Iioughleaf Goldenrod. Rather general. 

1915. Solidago ulmnifolia Muhl. Elmleaf Goldenrod. Rather general. 

1916. Solidago neglecta T. & G. Swamp Goldenrod. Wood, Madison, 


1917. Solidago juncea Ail. IMuuie Goldenrod. Rather general. 

1918. Solidago arguta Ait. Cutleaf Goldenrod. Erie County. 

1919. Solidago canadensis L. Canada Goldenrod. General and abun- 


1920. Solidago serotina Ait. Late Goldenrod. General. 

1921. Solidago nemoralis Ait. Gray Goldenrod. General. 

1922. Solidago rigida L. Stiff Goldenrod. Erie, Ottawa, Lucas, De- 

fiance, Auglaize. Madison, Franklin, Lawrence. 

1923. Solidago ohioensis Ridd. Ohio Goldenicd. Stark, Erie, Wyan- 

dot, Franklin, Champaign, Clark, Montgomery. 

1924. Solidago riddcllii Frank. Riddell's Goldenrod. Lucas, Fulton, 

Wyandot, Franklin, Madison, Clark. 

1925. Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. P.ushy Fragrant Goldenrod. 



1926. Euthamia tenuifolia (Piirsh.) Greene. Slender Fragrant Golden- 

rod. Erie, Lueas, Cuyahoga, Lake. 

1927. Bellis ])erennis L. European Daisy. Lake, Cuyahoga. From 


1928. Boltouia asteroides (L.) L'Her. BoHonia. Erie, Oflawa, Lucas, 

Auglaize, Paulding, Defiance. 

1929. Sericocarpus linifolius (L.) B. S. P. Nan-owlcaf Whitetop 

Aster. No specimens. 

1930. Sericocarphus asteroides (L.) B. S. P. Toothed Whitetop Aster. 

Cuyahoga, Summit, Wayn(% Hohnes, Fairfield, ITocking, 
Jackson, Gallia, Lawrence. 

1931. Aster divaricatus L. White Wood Aster. Meigs, Franklin. Fair- 

field, Lorain, Erie. 

1932. Aster macrophyllus L. Largeleaf Aster. Rather general; no 

specimens from the southwestern counties. 

1933. Aster shoitii Hook. Short's Aster. From Franklin and Mont- 

gomery Counties southward; also in Lake and Ottawa 

1934. Aster azureus Lindl. Azure Aster. Franklin, Wood, Fulton, 


1935. Aster cordifolius L. Common Blue Wood Aster. Rather general. 

1936. Astei' lowrieanus Port. Lowrie's Aster. Lake, Cuyahoga, Aug- 

laize, Fairfield, Hamilton. 

1937. Aster lindleyanus T. & G. Lindley's Aster. Wayne, Franklin. 

1938. Aster drummondii Lindl. Drummond's Aster. Madison County. 

1939. Aster safittifolium Willd. Arrowleaf Aster. Rather general. 

1940. Aster undulatus L. Wavy-leaf Aster. Wayne County. 

1941. Aster patens Ait. Late Purple Aster. Wayne County. 

1942. Aster phlcgifolius Muhl. Thinleaf Purple Aster. Wayne, Por- 


1943. Astei- novae-angliae L. Xew England Aster. General. 

1944. Aster oblongifolius Nutt. Aronuitie Aster. No specimens. 

1945. Aster punicens L. Pni'ple-stem Aster. Rather general. 

1946. Aster pienanthoides JMuhl. Crooked-stem Astei". Kalher general. 

1947. Aster laevis L. Smooth Aster. Rather general. 

1948. Aster junceus Ait. Rush Aster. Licking, Wayne. 

1949. Aster laterifiorus (L.) Brill. Starved Astei-. Hal her geiiei-al. 

1950. Astei- liirsuticjMilis Lindj. Rouglislem .\ster. Warren, Auglaize. 

1951. Aster viiniiieiis Lam. Siiwill While .\s1ei-. Wa\iie Count \-. 


1952. Aster multiflorus Ait. Deiise-Howered Aster. Lucas, Erie, 


1953. Aster dumosus L. Bushy Aster. Erie County. 

1954. Aster salicifolius Lam. Willow Aster. Wayne County. 

1955. Aster paniculatus Lam. Panicled Aster. General. 

1956. Aster tradescanti L. Tradescant's Aster. Rather general. 

1957. Aster faxoni Porter. Faxon's Aster. Vinton County. 

1958. Aster ericoides L. White Heath Aster. General. 

1958a. Aster ericoides platyphyllus T. & G. Western half of state, east 
to Erie, Franklin, and Meigs Counties. 

1959. Aster ptarmicoides (Nees.) T. & G. Upland White Aster. (Ot- 

tawa County — Moseley Herbarium.) 

1960. Erigeron pulchellus Mx. Showy Fleabane. General. 

1961. Erigeron philadelphicus L. Philadelphia Fleabane. General. 

1962. Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. White-top Fleabane. General. 

1963. Erigeron raniosus (Walt.) B. S. P. Daisy Fleabane. General. 

1964. Leptilon canadense (L.) Britt. Common Horseweed. General. 

1965. Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) Nees. Tall White-top Aster. 

Rather general. 

1966. Doelliugeria infirma (Mx.) Greene. Infirm Aster. Portage 


1967. lonactis linariifolius (L.) Greene. Stiff leaf Aster. Adams, 


1968. Eupatorium maculatum L. Spooled Joe-Pye-weed. General. 

1969. Eupatorium purpureum L. Joe-Pye-weed. General. 

1970. Eupatorium serotinuin Mx. Late-flowering Thorough wort. Ham- 

ilton County. 

1971. Eupatorium altissimum L. Tall Thoroughwort. Hamilton, 

Montgomery, Franklin, Erie, Lucas. 

1972. Eupatorium sessilifolium L. Upland Boneset. Southeastern 

half of state, to Montgomery, Franklin, Wayne, Portage and 
Hamilton Counties. 

1973. Eupatorium rotundifolium L. Roundleaf Thoroughwort. Hock- 

ing County. 

1974. Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Common Boneset. General. 

1975. Eupatorium urticaefolium Reich. White Snake-root. General. 

1976. Eupatorium aromaticum L. Smaller White Snake-root. Hock- 

ing County. 


1977. Eupatorium coelestiimni L. Mist-flower. Southern Ohio ; north 

to Hamilton, Fairfield, and Washington Counties; also in 
Ashtabula County. 

1978. Kuhnia eupatorioides L. False Boneset. Lucas, Erie, Clark, 

Franklin, Gallia, Lawrence. 

1979. Lacinaria squarrosa (L.) Hill. Scaly Blazing-star. Lucas, Erie. 

1980. Lacinaria cylindrica (Mx.) Ktz. Cylindric Blazing-star. Frank- 

lin County. 

1981. Lacinaria punctata (Hook.) Ktz. Dotted Blazing-star. A waif 

in Franklin County. 

1982. Lacinaria scariosa (L.) Hill. Large Blazing-star. Erie, Lucas, 


1983. Lacinaria spicata (L.) Ktz. Dense Blazing-star. Paulding, 

Lucas, Wood, Erie, Wyandot, Champaign, Clark, Hocking. 

1984. Vernonia noveboracensis (L.) Willd. New York Ironweed. Gal- 

lia County. 

1985. Vernonia altissima Nutt. (V. maxima Small). Tall Ironweed. 

General and abundant. 

1986. Vernonia fasciculata Mx. Western Ironweed. Erie County. 

1987. Vernonia missurica Raf. Missouri Ironweed. Erie County. 

1988. Elephantopus carolinianus Willd. Carolina Eilephant's-foot. 

Scioto, Jackson. 

1989. Achillea millefolium L. Common Milfoil. General and abundant. 

1990. Anthemis cotula L. Connnon Dog-fennel. General and abun- 

dant. Naturalized from Europt\ 

1991. Anthemis arvensis L. Field Dog-fennel. Lorain, Lake. From 


1992. Anthemis tinctoria L. Yellow Dog-fennel. Guernsey County. 

From Europe. 

1993. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Oxeye Daisy. General and 

abundant. Xaturalized from Europe. 

1994. Clirysantheiiium pai-tlicniuiii (L.) Pers. Common Feverfew. 

Lake, Erie, Montgomei-y. Fi-om Europe. 

1995. Chrysanthemum balsamita L. Sweet-Mary. Cuyahoga. Ottawa, 

Franklin, a\radisoii. Escaped from gardens. 

1996. Chrysanlheiiium indieiim L. Chrysanlhemum. Escaped in 

Adams ( 'ounty. 

1997. Matricaria iiiodora L. Scentless Camoiuile. Lake, Lawrence. 

Fioiii Kui'()|)e. 


1998. Matricaria chamoiuilla L. German Camomile. Ottawa County. 

From Europe. 

1999. Matricaria matricarioides (Lees.) Port. Rayless Camomile. 

Stark County. From the Pacific coast. 

2000. Tanacetum vulgare L. Common Tansy. General. Naturalized 

from Europe. 

2001. Artemisia caudata Mx. Wild Wormwood. Erie County. 

2002. Artemisia annua L. Annual Wormwood. Rather general. In- 


2003. Artemisia biennis Willd. Biennial Wormwood. Ashtabula, Cuy- 

ahoga, Lucas, Auglaize, Shelby, Wyandot, Franklin. 

2004. Artemisia vulgaris L. Connnon Mugwort. Escaped in Lake and 

( 'Uyahoga Counties. 

2005. Artemisia ])ontica L. Roman Wormwood. Champaign, Portage. 

From Europe. 

2006. Artemisia gnaphalodes Nutt. Prairie Cudweed. Lake County. 

From the West. 

2007. Ereehtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf. Fireweed. General. 

2008. Mesadenia reniformis (Muhl.) Raf. Great Indian-plantain. 

Clermont, Greene. 

2009. Mesadenia atriplicifolia (L.) Raf. Pale Indian-plantain. Gen- 


2010. Mesadenia tuberosa (Xutt.) Britt. Tuberous Indian-plantain. 

INlontgomery, Champaign, Logan. 

2011. Synosma suaveolens (L.) Raf. Sweet-scented Indian-plantain. 

Cuyahoga, Lorain, Stark, Clark, Jackson. 

2012. Senecio aureus L. Golden Squaw-weed. General. 

2013. Senecio obvatus Muhl. Roundleaf S(|uaw-weed. Rather general. 

2014. Senecio panperculus Mx. Balsam S(|uaw-weed. Ottawa County. 

2015. Senecio vulgaris L. Connnon Groundsel. Lake, Lorain, Aug- 

laize. From Europe. 

2016. Tussilago fai-fara L. Coltsfoot. Lake, Cuyahoga. From Europe. 

2017. Arctium tomentosum (Lam.) Schk. Woolly Burdock. Erie 

County. From Europe. 

2018. Arctium lai^pa L. Great Burdock. Lorain, Cuyahoga. From 


2019. Arctium minus Schk. Common Burdock. General and abun- 

dant. Naturalized from Europe. 


:!020. Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) ITill. Spear Thistle. Rather general. 
From Europe. 

2021. Cirsium altissinmin (L.) Spreng. Tall Thistle. Rather general. 

2022. Cirsiiim discolor ( ]\Inhl. ) Spreng. Field Thistle. Western Ohio, 

as far east as Pirie, Huron, Fairfield, and Clermont Counties. 

2023. Cirsium virginianuin (L.) Mx. Virginia Thistle. Madison 


2025. Cirsium muticum Mx. Swam]) Thistle. Genei'al. 

2026. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Caiuuhi Thistle. General. From 


2027. Onopordon acanthium L. Scotch Thistle. Hamilton, Wayne. 

From Europe. 

2028. Centaurea scabiosa L. Scabious Star-thistle. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

2029. Centaurea jacea L. Brown Star-thistle. Richland County. 

From Europe. 

2030. Centaurea cyanus L. Bachelor 's-Button. Montgomery, Frank- 

lin, Sandusky. Escaped from gardens. 

Cichoriaceae. Chicory Family. 

2031. Cichoi'iuiu intybus L. Chicory. Rather general. Introduced 

from Europe. 

2032. C>ntliia virginica (L.) Don. Virginia Cynthia. General. 

2033. Lapsana communis L. Nipplewort. Franklin. Lake. From 


2034. Ai-noseris minima (L.) Dum. Lamb Succory. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

2035. Hypochaeris i-adicata L. Long-rooted Cat"s-ear. Lake, Ashta- 

biUa. From Europe. 

2036. Apargia nudicaulis (L.) Britt. Rough Hawkbit. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

2037. Tragopogon pratensis L. Yellow Goat 's-beard. Lake, Erie, Ful- 

ton, Auglaize, Franklin, ^Miaiiii. From Europe. 

2038. Tragopogon poiriFoliiis L. Salsify. Rather general: no speci- 

mens Cfoiii the soutlieastei 11 tiiiid of llie state. Fi-oin Europe. 

2039. Sonclius aiveiisis I., l-'ield Sow lliislle. Lake. Franklin. From 

2040 Sonchus oleraceus L. Coinnion Sow-tliislle. General. Nat- 
uralized from Europe. 


2041. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. Spiny Sow-thistle. General. Nat- 

uralized from Europe. 

2042. Lactuca virosa L. Prickly Lettuce. General and abundant. 

Naturalized from Europe. 

2043. Lactuca saligna L. Willow Lettuce. Franklin, Greene, Mont- 

gomery. From Europe. 

2044. Lactuca hirsuta Muhl. Hairy Lettuce. Tuscarawas, Ross, 


2045. Lactuca canadensis L. Tall Lettuce. General. 

2046. Lactuca sagittifolia Ell. Arrowleaf Lettuce. Fairfield County. 

2047. Lactuca villosa Jacq. Hairy-veined Blue Lettuce. Miami, 


2048. Lactuca floridana (L.) Gaertn. Florida Lettuce. From Erie, 

Franklin, and Ross Counties westward. 

2049. Lactuca spicata (Lam.) Hitch. Tall Blue Lettuce. Rather 

2049a. Lactuca spicata aurea Jennings. Holmes, Defiance, Cuyahoga, 
Franklin, Athens. 

2050. Nabalus altissiraus (L.) Hook. Tall Rattlesnake-root. General. 

2051. Nabalus albus (L.) Hook. White Rattlesnake-root. General. 

2052. Nabalus asper (Mx.) T. & G. Rough Rattlesnake-root. Erie 


2053. Nabalus racemosus (Mx.) DC. Glaucous Rattlesnake-root. Ful- 

ton, Lucas, Ottawa, Erie, Huron, Wyandot, Champaign, 

2054. Nabalus crepidineus (Mx.) DC. Corymbed Rattlesnake-root. 

Cuyahoga, Champaign, Warren. 

2055. Hieracium canadense Mx. Canada Hawkweed. Erie, Cuyahoga. 

2056. Hieracium paniculatum L. Panicled Hawkweed. Cuyahoga, 

Wayne, Richland, Fairfield, Monroe. 

2057. Hieracium scabrum Mx. Rough Hawkweed. General. 

2058. Hieracium gronovii L. Gronovius' Hawkweed. Fulton, Ei-ie, 

Franklin, Gallia. 

2059. Hieracium marianum Willd. Maryland Hawkweed. No speci- 


2060. Hieracium venosum L. Veined Hawkweed. Eastern Ohio ; west 

to Cuyahoga, Knox, Fairfield, Jackson, and Lawrence 


2061. Hieracium greenii Port. & Britt. Green's Hawkweed. No 


2062. Hieracium pilosella L. Mouse-ear Hawkweed. Lake County. 

From Europe. 

2063. Hieracium aurantiacum L. Orange Hawkweed. Ashtabula, 

Geauga. From Europe. 

2064. Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr. Smooth Hawksbeard. Lake 

County. From Europe. 

2065. Leontodon taraxacum L. Dandelion. General and very abun- 

dant. Naturalized from Europe. 


The numbers refer to the list numbers at the left of the species 
names. A few familiar synonyms have been included. 

Abutiiun, 828 
Acalypha, 793 
Acer, 1229 
Acerates, 1480 
Achillea, 1989 
Acnida, 946 
Aconitum, 630 
Acorus, 122 
Actaea, 645 
Acuan, 1094 
Adiantum, 16 
Adlumia, 676 
Aegopodiiim, 1733 
Aeseulus, 1226 
Aethiisa, 1728 
Afzelia, 1551 
Agalinis, 1556 
Agastache, 1662 
Agave, 555 
Agrimonia, 1046 
Agropyron, 363 
Agrostemma, 905 
Agrostis, 390 
Ailanthus, 782 
Ajuga, 1617 
Aletris, 490 
Alisma, 82 
Alliaria, 705 
Allionia, 933 
Allium, 482 
Alnus, 1286 
Alopecnrus, 396 
Alsine, 894 
Althaea, 823 
Alyssum, 684 
Amaranthus, 941 
Ambrosia, 1826 
Amelanchier, 1061 
Ammannia, 1194 
,\ nnii()]ihila, 395 

Amorpha, 1127 
Ampelopsis, 1214 
Amygdalus, 1093 
Anagallis, 1380 
Anaphalis, 1895 
Anchistea, 19 
Andromeda, 1400 
Andropogon, 469 
Anemone, 634 
Angelica, 1717 
Anisostichus, 1577 
Antennaria, 1896 
Anthemis, 1990 
Anthoxanthum, 417 
Anticlea, 497 
Antirrhinum, 1565 
Anychia, 938 
Apargia, 2036 
Apera, 393 
Apios, 1175 
Apium, 1726 
Aplectrum, 598 
Apocynum, 1476 
Aqiiilegia, 628 
Arabidopsis, 716 
Arabis, 721 
Aralia, 1698 
Arctium, 2017 
Arctostaphylos, 1404 
Arenaria, 889 
Arethusa, 584 
Argemone, 669 
Argentina, 1014 
Arisaema, 126 
Aristida, 410 
Aristolochia, 1368 
Armoriea, 691 
.^ rnoseris, 2034 
Aronia, 1058 
Arrenatherum, 352 




Artemisia, 2001 
Aruncus, 1038 
Asarum, 1365 
Aseleijias, 1482 
Ascyrum, 851 
Asiniina, 606 
Asparagus, 521 
Asperugo, 1595 
Asplenium, 20 
Aspris, 358 
Aster, 1932 
Astragalus, 1132 
Atheropogon, 380 
Athyrium, 27 
Atriplex, 965 
Avena, 354 
Azalea, 1394 
Azolla, 47 

Baptisia, 1102 
Barbarea, 717 
Bartonia, 1473 
Batrachium, 622 
Backmannia, 377 
Bellis, 1927 
Benzoin, 661 
TBerberis, 657 
Berteroa, 682 
:Betula, 1281 
Bicuculla, 674 
"Ridens, 1864 
Bignonia, 1576 
Blephariglottis, 575 
Blppliilia, 1679 
Blitum, 960 
Bcebera, 1888 
Poehmeria, 1260 
Boltonia, 1928 
Botrychium, 2 
Bouteloua, 381 
Braehyelytrum, 406 
T3rasenia, 108 
Brassica, 745 
BrHiineria. 1839 
Pronius, 296 
Puehnera, 1550 
Pnpleurum, 1720 
Bursa, 689 

Cakile, 753 
Calamagrostis, 388 
Calla, 123 
Callirrhoe, 822 
Callitriche, 814 
Caltha, 612 
Camelina • 67 
Campanula, 1810' 
Camptosorus, 29 
Cannabis, 1254 
Capnoides, 677 
Capriola, 378 
Carara, 702 
Cardamine, 731 
Cardiospermum, 1225 
Carduus, 2020 
Carex, 182 
Carpinus, 1278 
Carum, 1739 
Cassia, 1096 
Castalia, 111 
Castanea, 1263 
Castilleja, 1561 
Catalpa, 1578 
Caulophyllum, 656 
Cepnothus, 1217 
Celastrus, 1220 
Celosia, 940 
Celtis, 1248 
Cenehrus, 461 
Centaurea, 2028 
Centaurium, 1462 
Cephalanthus, 1757 
Cerastium, 899 
Ceratophyllum, 653 
Ceratostigma, 1384 
Cercis, 1095 
Chaenorrhiuum, 1568 
Chaerophyllum, 1710 
Cbaeloehloa, 457 
Chamaecrista, 1098 
Ghamaedaphne, 1399 
Unamaelirium, 499 
Cliamaenerion, 1337 
Chamaeperielymenum, 1749 
Chamaesyee, 808 
Cheirinia, 708 
Chelidonium, 673 



Chelone, 1521 
Chenopodium, 950 
Chiiiiaphila, 1388 
Cliiogenes, 1411 
Chionanthus, 1455 
Chrysanthemum, 1993 
Chrysopsis, 1902 
Chrysospleuium, 1193 
Cichorium, 2031 
Ciciita, 1737 
Cimicifuga, 646 
Ciuua, 394 
Circaea, 1351 
Cirsium, 2020 
Citrulus, 1360 
Claytonia, 929 
Clematis, 640 
Cleome, 755 
Clinopodium, 1637 
Clintonia, 518 
Coeloglossum, 570 
Coix, 472 
Collinsia, 1526 
Collinsonia, 1660 
Comandra, 1369 
Comarum, 1015 
Commelina, 533 
Comjitonia, 1296 
Conioselium, 1716 
Conium, 1732 
Conobea, 1529 
Conopholis, 1574 
Conringia, 714 
Convallaria, 520 
Convolvulus, 1431 
Coptis, 627 
Corallorrhiza, 600 
Coreopsis, 1859 
Cornus, 1742 
Coronilla, 1134 
Cory his, 1280 
Coritinus, 1241 
Cotoneaster, 1083 
Cracea, 1129 
Crataegus, 1063 
Crepis, 2064 
Cropanthemum, 852 
Crocus, 560 

Crotolaria, 1105 
Croton, 7 91 
Cubeluim, 860 
CueumJs, 1361 
Cucurbita, 1358 
Cunila, 1646 
Cuscuta, 1435 
Cyclolonia, 962 
Cymbalaria, 1571 
Cynanchum, 1495 
Cynoglossum, 1590 
Cynosurus, 348 
Cynoxylon, 1748 
Cynthia, 2032 
Cyperus, 135 
Cypripedium, 564 

Dactylis, 333 
Dalibarda, 1039 
Danthonia, 350 
Casiphora, 1006 
Dasystoma, 1552 
Datura, 1499 
Caucus, 1740 
Decodon, 1196 
Delphinium, 631 
Dennstaedtia, 42 
Dentaria, 739 
Deringa, 1709 
Deschampsia, 357 
Diathera, 1588 
Dianthus, 924 
DichroiihylJuni, 807 
Diervilla, 1802 
Digitalis, 1548 
Diodia, 1760 
Dioscorea, 563 
Diospyros, 1415 
Diplotaxis, 750 
Dipsaeus, 1822 
Dirca. 1201 
Disporum, 511 
IHxlecatheon, 1383 
Doellingeria, 1966 
Doliehos, 1174 
Dra])a, 685 
Dracocephalum, 1667 
Drosera, 664 



Drymocallis, 1016 
Dryopteris, 30 
Dulichium, 147 

Echinacea, 1839 
Echinochloa, 454 
Echium, 1607 
Eleocharis, 148 
Elephantopus, 1988 
Eleusine, 379 
Elyraus, 367 
Epigaea, 1402 
Epilobiiim, 1338 
Equisetum, 50 
Eragrostis, 334 
Erechtites, 2007 
Erigenia, 1731 
Erigeron, 1960 
Eriocaulon, 554 
Eriophornm, 171 
Erodium, 764 
Eryngiiim, 1704 
Erysimum, 711 
Erythronium, 479 
Eiilopluis, 1734 
Euonymus, 1216 
Enpatorinm, 1968 
Euphorbia, 798 
Euthamia, 1925 

Fagopyrum, 982 
Fagiis, ]262 
Falcata, 1176 
Festuca, 309 
Ficaria, 621 
Filipendula, 1034 
Filix, 40 
Fimbristylis, 159 
Fissipes, 567 
Floerkea, 772 
Foeniculum, 1727 
Fragaria, 1018 
Frasera, 1471 
Fraxiniis, 1456 
Fnmaria, 680 

Galeopsis, 1669 
Galeorchis, 568 

Galinsoga, 1875 

Galium, 1761 

Gaultheria, 1403 

Gaura, 1350 

Gaylussacia, 1413 

Gemmingia, 559 

Gentiana, 1464 

Geranium, 758 

Gerardia, 1556 

Geum, 1000 

Gifola, 1890 

Gilia, 1424 

Glecoma, 1665 

Gleditsia, 1100 

Glycine, 1175 

Gomphrena, 949 

Gonolobus, 1494 

Gratiola, 1530 

Grindelia, 1901 

Grosularia, 1330 
Gymnadeniopsis, 571 
Gymnocladus, 1101 
Gnaphalium, 1891 
Gyrostachys, 586 
Hamamelis, 1242 
Hartmannia, 1348 
TTedeoma, 1633 
Helenium, 1885 
Heleochloa, 398 
Helianthemum, 852 
Helianthus, 1840 
Heliopsis, 1829 
Heliotropium, 1589 
Helleborus, 625 
Hemerocallis, 481 
Hepatiea, 638 
Heracleum, 1715 
Hesperis, 715 
Heteranthera. 529 
Heuchera, 1191 
Hil)iseus, 829 
Hicoria, 1288 
Hieracium, 2055 
Holeus, 465 
Holosteum, 893 
Homalocenehrus, 462 
Hordeum, 372 



Hosackia, 1123 
Hottonia, 1381 
Houstonia, 1751 
Ilumulus, 1252 
Hydrangea, 1325 
Hydrastis, 643 
Hydrocotyle, 1729 
Hydrophylliim, 1445 
Hypericum, 835 
Hypochaeris, 2035 
Hypopytis, 1391 
Hypoxis, 556 
Hystrix, 371 

Ibidiiim, 586 
Ilex, 1222 
Ilysanthes, 1532 
Tmpatiens, 778 
Inula, 1889 
Todantlius, 720 
lonaetis, 1967 
Ipomoea, 1426 
Tresine, 948 
Iris, 557 
Isanthus, 1615 
Isnardia, 1336 
Isoetes, 48. 
Tsopyrum, 648 
Isotria, 582 

Jeffersonia, 655 
Juglans, 1294 
Juncoides, 551 
Juncus, 534 
Juniperus, 73 

Kalmia, 1398 
Kickxia, 1569 
Kneiffia, 1345 
Koehia, 963 
Koeleria, 344 
Koellia, 1369 
Koniga, 683 
Korvcarpus, 345 
Kuhnia, 1978 
Kyllinga, 146 

Lacinaria, 1979 

Lactuca, 2U42 

LamiuHi, 1071 

Lajjpula, 1592 

Lapsana, 2033 

Larix, 67 

Lathyrus, 1168 

Lavauxia, 1349 

Lechea, 854 

Ledum, 1393 

Lemna, 129 

Leontodon, 2065 

Leonurus, 1670 

Lepargyraea, 1202 

Lepidium, 697 

Leptaninium, 1575 

Leptandra, 1547 

Leptilon, 1964 

Leptoloma, 450 

Lespedeza, 1151 

I.igustrum, 1454 
Lilium, 475 

Limnia, 930 
Limnorc'his, 572 
Limodorum, 585 
Linaria, 1566 
Linnaea, 1801 
Linum, 773 
Liparis, 595 
Lippia, 1614 
Liquidambar, 1243 
Liriodendron, 605 
Lithospermum, 1599 
Lobelia, 1815 
Lolium, 360 
Lonicera, 1790 
Lophotoearpus, 77 
Lotus, 1122 
Ludwigia, 1334 
Lupinus, 1106 
Lychnis, 906 
Lyciiiin, 1501 
Lycopodium, 58 
Lycoporsicon, 1516 
Lyeopsis, 1606 
Lye opus, 1647 
Lysins, 574 
Lysiniacliia, 1371 
Lvthrum, 1197 



Macleya, 672 
Magnolia, 603 
Malaxis, 594 
Mains, 1055 
Malva, 817 
Manlreda, 555 
Mariscus, 178 
Marrubium, 1632 
Marsilea, 46 
Martynia, 1580 
Matricaria, 1997 
Matteuccia, 44 
Medeola, 509 
Medicago, 1107 
iViegalodouta, 1874 
Meibomia, 1136 
Melanipyrnm, 1564 
Malanthium, 494 
ivxelica, 308 
Melilotus, 1110 
Melissa, 1635 
Menispermnni, 659 
Mentha, 1652 
Menyanthes, 1474 
Mertensia, 1594 
Merciirialis, 796 
Mesadenia, 2009 
Michella, 1758 
Mieranipelis, 1363 
Micranthes, 1187 
Milium, 407 
Mimulus, 1527 
Mirabilis, 935 
Miseauthus, 468 
Mitella, 1192 
Moehringia, 892 
Mollugo, 928 
Monarda, 1681 
Monotropa, 1390 
Morns, 1245 
Muhlenbergia, 400 
Musearia, 489 
Myagrnni, 704 
Myosotis, 1596 
IMyriopliyllum, 1354 

Nabalus, 2050 
Naias, 106 

Napaea, 827 
Naum]:)ergia, 1378 
Kelumbo, 109 
Nemopauthus, 1221 
Neobeekia, 692 
Nepeta, 1664 
Neslia, 690 
Nicotiana, 1498 
Nigella, 626 
Norta, 713 
^^othoholcus, 359 
Nymphaea, 110 
Nyssa, 1750 

Obolaria, 1472 
Odostemon, 658 
Oenothera, 1342 
Onoelea, 45 
Onopordou, 2027 
Onosmodium, 1604 
Ophioglossum, 1 
Opulaster, 1035 
Opiuitia, 1323 
Origanum, 1644 
Ornithogalum, 488 
Orobanche, 1573 
Oryzopsis, 408 
Osmiiiida, 8 
Ostrya, 1279 
Otophylla, 1560 
Oxalis, 765 
Oxycoccus, 1412 
Oxydendrum, 1401 
Oxypolis, 1719 

Panax, 1702 
Panieularia, 315 
Panicum, 419 
Papaver, 665 
Paspalum, 456 
Parietria, 1261 
Parnassia, 652 
Parsonnia, 1199 
Partlienium, 1883 
Parthenocissus, 1215 
Passiflora, 886 
Pastinaea, 1714 
Pedicularis, 1562 



Pellaea, 18 
ralteudra, 125 
i'enthorum, 1185 
Pentstemon, 1522 
Peramium, 593 
Perilla, 1661 
Persicaria, 983 
Perularia, 569 
Petalostemon, 1128 
Petunia, 1497 
Phaea, 1133 
Phacelia, 1149 
Phaethusa, 1857 
Phalaris, 415 
Phaseolus, 1178 
Ph'^gopteris, 13 
Philadelphus, 1324 
Philotria, 113 
Phleum, 399 
Phlox, 1416 
Plioradendron, 1370 
Phragmites, 349 
Phryma, 1690 
Physalis, 1503 
Physalodes, 1502 
Phyllanthus, 790 
Phytolacca, 936 
rilea, 1259 
Pimpinella, 1735 
Piiuis, 68 
Plantago, 1691 
Platanus, 1244 
Pleuropterus, 976 
Poa, 322 

Podophyllum, 654 
Podostenion, 1186 
Pogonia, 581 
Poiusettia, 798 
Polanisia, 754 
Polemoiiiuni, 1425 
Polycodium, ]405 
Polygala, 783 
Polygonatum, 512 
Polygonum, 994 
Pnlymnia, 1876 
Polypodiuiu, 11 
Polystif'liuin, 39 
T'oiitpdoria, 528 

Populus, 1297 
Porteranthus, 1031 
Povtulaca, 931 
Potamogeton, 86 
Poteutilla, 1007 
Poterium, 1052 
Piosperpiuaea, 1357 
Prunella, 1666 
Prunus, 1084 
Psoralea, 1124 
Ptelea, 781 
Pteridium, 17 
Pyrola, 1385 
Pyrus, 1054 

Quamasia, 487 
Quamoelit, 1430 
Querc'us, 1264 

Radicula, 694 
Eaimannia, 1344 
Ranunculus, 607 
Raphanus, 751 
Ratibida, 1837 
Reseda, 756 
Rhamnus, 1203 
Rhexia, 1200 
Rhododendron, 1397 
Rhus, 1235 
Ribes, 1326 
Ricinus, 797 
Ridan, 1858 
Robertiella, 763 
Robinia, 1130 
Rosa, 1040 
Rotala, 1195 
Rubus, 1021 
Rudbeckia, 1832 
Ruellia, 1586 
Rumex, 967 
Rynehospora, 173 

Sabbatia, 1463 
Sagina, 887 
Sagittaria, 78 
Salix, 1304 
Salomon ia. 512 
Salsola, 966 



Salvia, 1686 
Sambucus, 1774 
Samoliis, 1382 
Sanguinaria, 670 
Sanguisorbia, 1051 
Sanicula, 1705 
Sapouaria, 922 
Sarothra, 849 
Sarracenia, 662 
Sassafras, 660 
Satiireia, 1636 
Saururus, 999 
Savastana, 414 
Saxifraga, 1187 
Scandix, 1713 
Scheuehzeria, 85 
Schizonotns, 1033 
Sehmaltzia, 1238 
Scirpus, 160 
Sclerantluis, 939 
Scleria, 179 
Scrophularia, 1520 
Scutellaria, 1622 
Seeale, 366 
Sedum, 1181 
Selaginella, 64 
Seneeio, 2012 
Sericocarpiis, 1929 
Sherardia, 1773 
Sicyos, 1364 
Sida, 825 
Silene, 911 
Silphium, 1878 
Sinapis, 743 
Sisj'mbrium, 693 
Sisyrinehiiim, 561 
Sium, 1736 
Smilax, 522 
Solanum, 1510 
Solidago, 1904 
Sonelms, 2039 
Sophia, 706 
Sorbns, 1053 
Sorghastrnm, 467 
Sparganium, 116 
opartina, 376 
Spathyema, 124 
Specularia, 1814 

Spergula, 903 
fcspermaeoee, 1759 
Sphenopholis, 341 
Spigelia, 1452 
Spinaeia, 961 
Spiraea, 1036 
Spirodela, 128 
Sporobolus, 383 
Stachys, 1675 
Staphylea, 1224 
Steironema, 1375 
Stenanthium, 498 
Stenophyllus, 158 
Stipa, 409 
Stomoisia, 1585 
strtptopus, 510 
Strophostyles, 1180 
t'tylophorum, 671 
Stylosanthes, 1135 
Sullivantia, 1189 
Symphoricarpos, 1788 
Symphytum, 1605 
Synaudra, 1668 
Synanthyris, 1534 
Synosma, 2011 
Syndesmon, 647 
Syntherisma, 451 
Syringa, 1453 

Taenidia, 1723 
Tanacetum, 2000 
Taraxacum, 2065 
Taxus, 76 
Tecoma, 1576 
Tetraneuris, 1884 
Teuerium, 1618 
Thalesia, 1572 
Thalictrum, 649 
Thaspium, 1721 
Thlaspi, 703 
Thuja, 72 
Thvmus. 1645 
Tiarella, 1190 
Tilia. 832 
Tiniaria, 977 
Tipularia, 597 
Ti'--sa, 904 
Tit'iyiialopsis, 806 



Tithymalus, 799 
Torilis, 1741 
Tovara, 993 
Toxicodendron, 1239 
Toxylon, 1251 
Tracaulou, 980 
Tradescantia, 530 
Tragopogon, 2037 
Triadenum, 850 
Triantha, 500 
Triehostema, 1616 
Tridens, 346 
Trientalis, 1379 
Trifolium, 1112 
Triglochin, 83 
Trillium, 50] 
Triosteum, 1786 
Triphora, 583 
Triplasis, 347 
• Trisetum, 353 
Tritievim, 365 
Trollius, 624 
Tsiiga, 66 
Tussilago, 2016 
Typha, 120 

I'Inius, 1245 
Unifolium, 517 
Urtica, 1255 
Urticastrum, 1258 
Utrieularia, 1581 

Uva-nrsi, 1404 
Uvularia, 491 
Vaccaria, 923 
Vaecinium, 1406 

\ agnera, 514 
Valeriana, 1807 
Valerianella, 1803 
Vallisneria, 115 
Veratrum, 495 
Verbascum, 1517 
Verbena, 1608 
Verbesina, 1831 
Vernonia, 1984 
Veronica, 1535 
Viburnum, 1776 
Vicia, 1161 
Vinca, 1475 
V incetoxicum, 1496 
Viola, 861 
Viorna, 641 
Vitis, 1209 

Waldsteinia, 1017 
Washingtonia, 1711 
Wolffia, 133 
Wolffiella, 132 
Woodsia, 43 
Woodwardia, 19 

Xanthium, 1823 
Xyris, 553 

Yucca, 474 

Zannicliellia, 105 
Zanthoxylum, 780 
Zea, 473 
Zizania, 464 
Zizia, 1724 
Zvgadenus, 497 

Bulletins Ohio Biological Survey 

I. Outline of Biological Survey Plan. 

Syrphidae of Ohio by C. L. Metcalf - - - $ .50 

II. Catalog of Ohio Vascular Plants 

by John H. Schaffner .50 


Volume " XVIII Number 25 



A Botanical Survey 

of the 

Sugar Grove Region 



APRIL, 1914 


Entered as second-class matter November 17, 1905, at the postoffice 
Columbus, Ohio, under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894. 


Herbert Osborn, Director 


Administrative Board consisting of Representatives from co- 

operating institutions. 

E. L. Fullmer, 

E. R. Gregory, 
M. E. Stickney, 
W. N. Speckman, 
L. B. Walton, . 
Miss M. Getman, 
Bruce Fink, 

F. 0. Grover, 
E. L. Rice, 

H. M. Benedict, 
W. E. Sullivan, 
C. G. Shatzer, 

Baldwin University, 
University of Akron, 
Denison University, 
German Wallace College, 
Kenyon College, 
Lake Erie College, 
Miami University, 
Oberlin College, 
Ohio Wesleyan University, 
University of Cincinnati, 
Western Reserve University, 
Wittenberg College, 

Berea, 0. 

Akron, 0. 

Granville, 0. 

Berea, 0. 

Gambler, 0. 

Painesville, 0. 

Oxford, 0: 

Oberlin, 0. 

Delaware, 0. 

Cincinnati, 0. 

Cleveland, 0. 

Springfield, 0. 


The Bulletins of thje Ohio Biological Survey will be issued as 
work on any special subject is completed, and will form volumes of 
about 500 pages each.. 

They will be sent to co-operating institutions and individuals, 
libraries and colleges in Ohio and to such surveys, societies and other 
organizations as may offer suitable exchange material. 

Additional copies of each bulletin and of completed volumes 
will be sold at such price as may cover the cost of publication. 
Special rates on quantities to schools for classes. 

Subscription for entire volumes, $2.00 

Price of this number, .50 

All orders should be accompanied by remittance which should 
be made payable to Ohio Biological Survey and sent to the Director. 
Correspondence concerning the Survey, applications for ex- 
changes and purchase of copies of Bulletins should be addressed to 
the Director— Professor Herbert Osborn, Columbus, Ohio. 

Volume 1 Bulletin 3 




Published by 




Contribution from the Botanical Laboratory of the Ohio State University, No. 84. 

A Liriodendron Cove 
(The figure gives the scale.) 

—Photo B. B. Fulton. 


Introduction 248 

Geology and I'liysiooiMphy 249 

Climatology 255 

Part I — Ecology 259 

The Bottom-lands 259 

The Bottom-land .Swamp 263 

The Bircli Bottom-land 265 

The Kixer-liank Association 267 

The Forests 269 

•The Lo^vland Forest 269 

The Hemlock Forest 269 

The Liri; (lendron Forest .^. 272 

The rjdand Forest '. 276 

The Cliff-top 276 

The Pine Forest 279 

The 0;ik Forest 280 

The Kock Dwelling Plants 281 

The Fni folium Society 287 

The Caves 288 

Dry Caves 288 

Wet Caves 289 

The (iuild of Shade-kning Evergreen Herbs 290 

The I']. hind Thicdvets 293 

The Sumac Thicket 293 

The <Md Field Association 294 

Economic Aspects 296 

Part II — Flora 303 

Introductory 303 

Higehiw's List 304 

AnnotMted Fhira 306 

Synopsis-Summary 339 


By Robert F. Griggs 


The Sugar Grove region is a narrow strip of country extending 
from a few miles north of the town of Sugar Grove in Fairfield County, 
Ohio, in a southerly direction about twenty miles to the valley of 
Queer Creek near the southern boundary of Hocking County, thus 
occupying parts of the Lancaster and Laurelville quadrangles as 
mapped by the U. S. Geological Survey. It has been denominated 
the Sugar Grove region in this paper not because the various plant 
societies which distinguish the area reach their climax at Sugar Grove 
but because that is the only railroad station lying immediately in the 
region. The country in the vicinity of this village has long been known 
among the botanists of Ohio as the richest collecting ground in the 
state with the exception, perhaps, of the region around Sandusky. 

In its general relations the flora may be described as an outlier 
of the great Allegheny mountain flora from w^hich it derives a consider- 
able number of Appalachian plants, like the great Rhododendron, which 
do not occur elsewhere in Ohio. Besides these plants there are a num- 
ber of others, like the Lycopodiums, which belong in the Canadian 
area and come into Ohio from the north, reaching their southern limits, 
so far as Ohio is concerned, in the present area. In addition to these 
there is a third element of southern plants such as Aralia spmosa which 
stretch up from Kentucky and Tennessee and reach their northern- 
most limits in this region. These elements conspire to make the 
region interesting and to give a very large proportion of the flora that 
quality of "rarity" which is so dear to the heart of a collector.* 

While the Sugar Grove area is rather definitely delimited by the 
physiographic features about to be described, its principal plant asso- 
ciations are not at all limited to its confines. With slight modification 
they cover much of the hill country in southeastern Ohio and parts 

*These relations have been discussed in detail by the writer in two papers, as follows: 
Observations on the Geographical Composition of the Sugar Grove Flora. Bull. Torr. 
Club. 40: 487-499, 1913. 

On the Behavior of Some Species on the Edges of their Ranges, ibid 41: 25-49. 1914. 



of Pennsylvania and West Virginia as well. The descriptions here 
given may be applied, therefore, in a general way to the whole of this 
country, gradually becoming less and less applicable as the distance 
from Sugar Grove increases and new elements com^ in to affect the 
plant covering. This j^articular area is, however, better adapted to 
serve as a type of the whole hill country than any other which could 
be selected within the state of Oliio. The reason for this lies in the 
greater ruggedness of the country which operates in two ways : first, 
it is only in a country with high cliffs and deep ravines that the climax 
associations, both mesophytic and xerophytic, which characterize this 
territory can develop ; and second, the very roughness prevents the agri- 
cultural utilization of the country and retards clearing so that here 
one finds a much larger proportion of unspoiled forest than in any 
of the country round about. 

The causes which led the writer to undertake the present work 
were : first, interest in collecting over the region itself ; second, a belief 
that an account of the flora would be of service to those who are study- 
ing the geographical ranges of the plants of North America ; third, 
a desire to present some account of its ecology which might be useful 
to phytogeographers in general, such studies of the Alleghenian region 
being at present rather few and far between ; and finally, a recognition 
of the fact that the portable sawmill is devastating the forest so rap- 
idly that only a few years hence it will be impossible to reconstruct 
for the service of posterity a picture of the aboriginal condition of the 
country. Indeed, some of the associations which are here described 
have been already obliterated and it would be impossible now to dupli- 
cate this account. 

Geology and Physiography. The physiography of the country re- 
sembles in a general way that of tht^ hill country found over all of 
southeastern Ohio and much of West Virginia. It is a rolling upland 
cut up with numerous deep ravines giving a total relief of fi-om three 
to four hundred feet. 

The shape and boundaries of the Sugar Grove region are deter- 
mined, except on the north, by the ai-ea of maximum outcrop of a 
heavy sandstone of carboniferous age, llic IJhicklumd conglomerate, 
which weathers out in high cliff's ai'onnd cvci-n- lilllc ra\iii('. Tliat the 
greatest exposnres of sandstone should Im' Iiniilc<l to so siuiill an area is 
due principally to Ww s1ratigrai)hi(' peculiarities of llie siindstoiie wliieh 
in turn are hound up with the history of its disposition. The vai-ious 



Fig. 1. A Waterfall in the Hemlock Forest. 

Queer Creek. 
The (near the top) gives the scale. 


factors are too complex for detailed presentation here, and indeed have 
not been at all understood by geologists until recently when they have 
been worked out by Dr. J. E. Hyde for the Geological Survey of Ohio. 
The writer had the good fortune to have the company of Mr. Hyde 
on several field trips dui'ing which he obtained a considerable amount 
of information as yet unpublished which has helped him greatly toward 
an understanding of the geology of the country. Suffice it to say that 
the heavy sandstone is an old delta with all the peculiarities of cross 
bedding and local cut and till usually found in such deposits. Condi- 
tions of deposition have also been such as to accentuate and apparently 
increase the easterly dip of the strata which is general over all of 
central Ohio. On the eastern edge of the area the sandstone thins out 
and is carried under cover so rapidly that the character of the country 
changes greatly within short distances, as for example between Little 
Rocky Branch (Laui-el Township) where the cliffs are so high as to 
prevent lumbering, and Rocky Branch only a mile away where they 
are low enough to permit clearing and pasturing. On the opposite 
edge of the area about four miles to the westward on the otluM' hand, 
the conglomerate becomes simply a capstone on the lops of the hills, 
which are further and further apart until the bottom-lands between 
them are large enough to have made tillage profitable with the conse- 
quent destruction of the natural vegetation. The highest cliffs occur 
in the canyon of Queer Creek near the southern edge of the area where 
in one place nearly 190 feet of rock are exposed, (fig. 1) South of this 
point the sandstone thins out rapidly so that the character of the vegeta- 
tion undergoes a distinct change within a mile or two. On the north oc- 
casional outcrops of the sandstone occur far beyond our area but the 
physiognomy and plant covering of the country are decidedly modified 
by the presence of a sheet of glacial drift of Wisconsin age, the ter- 
minal moraine of which marks the northci'ii boundary of the i-egion. 

The area lies therefore wholly below the boundai-\- of Hie glacial 
drift, and its soils, except the botloni hinds of the largest streams, are 
entirely I'esidual dei-ivt'd from the decay of the scvci-al rocks under- 
lying the land. 

The order of succession and approximale tliickness of the forma- 
tions wliich are exposed within the area arc shown in the subjoined 
tahh' for which T am iii(h'l)1cil to i'rof. \V. (". .Morse who has kindly 
loaiietl me his field notes containing numerous sections taken from 
exposures in and adjoining our area, from which I have constructed 


the generalized table given. The rocks are all derived from shallow 
water deposits and like most other such strata vary greatly in thickness 
and lithogical character within short distances. No single section cor- 
responding to the table could therefore be found, but the data given 
are sufficiently accurate for the purposes of tliis paper. 


10' Blue arenaceous shale. 

3"-18" Coal (Probably the Quakertown Coal, No. 2). Formerly worked at 
the head of Laurel Run for local consumption. 
85' / 20' Argillaceous shales and sandstones \\ith some fire clay. 

30' Massive coarse-grained sandstone (the Sharon), but cemented so 

loosely as seldom to form surface rock. 
20-.S0' Thin-bedded sandstpnes ^vith some impure fire clay and coal blossom. 

Logan formation. 

45' Thin-bedded sandstones with argillaceous or arenaceous shale partings, 

some strata of impure nodular limestone. 

BlacTc Sand Conglomerate. (Upper portion of Ciiyahoga formation), 

200' A single conglomeritic sandstone or several, usually two, heavy sand- 

stones separated Iry intervals of argillaceous shale. 

Cuyahoga formation (proper) 

500' Sandstones, mostly thin-bedded, and shales. The top of the formation 

is exposed in a few places in our area. 

Except for the Black Hand the rocks are seldom exposed except in 
the bottoms of the ravines and in artificial excavations such as road- 
side ditches. Their physiographic features therefore recpiire no spe- 
cial mention, but the peculiarities of the weathering of the Black Hand 
have a large effect on the physiography and the vegetation of the 
country. When first (juarried this stone is very friable, but on ex- 
posure it becomes hard and durable. Thus it often happens that the ex- 
posed top of a cliff becomes much harder than the protected portion 
which weathers away more rapidly, forming an overhang. The 
"caves," as they are popularly called, so formed are very numerous 
and some of them are very extensive, when the method of their forma 
tion is considered. The most interesting are favorite places for picnics 
and a few of them have ac(|uired more than a local reputation. Ash 
Cave is the largest, being nearly 700 feet long with an overhang 
of about 60 feet and a height at Ihe waterfall of 84 feet. Old Man's 



Cave (fig. 22) is not so large but is higher, more beautiful, and more in- 
teresting to a botanist, in Cantwell Cliff's the cave is almost hemi- 
spherical with a nari-ow ledge half way up where one finds acoustic 
properties that are litth' short of marvelous. More celebrated than 
any of the otheis and more remarkable from a pliysiographic point of 

rig. 2. The Interior of tlie ''liock House.'' 

view is the Rock House (fig. 2). 'I'his was formed l)y llie accentua- 
tion of processes often seen in h'ssci' dcgi'iM' llirougliont tht^ region. 
In this case tlie rock crumbh-d hack aUmu' Ihc moist nrr-hnlrii joint 
planes till the soft intci'ior was exposed ami in tniii cMnnblfd along a 
joint plane pai-aHel lo llie face of the cliff nnlil there lias been formed 
a corridor aliont I'OO feet loiiii' wlii<-li luiis along lieliind a sei'ies of six 


columns, thr remains of the original face of the clitf, which support 
the vaulted roof. 

Some of these caves afford exceedingly moist habitats with water 
dripping from the rock in abundance and an atmosphere laden vith 
moisture to near the i^oint of saturation. Others exposed to the sun 
are extremely dry, being sheltered from all rainfall and kept thor- 
oly dried out by daily insolation. 

Soil. No detailed study of the soils of the region has ever been 
undertaken, but it may be desirable to indicate briefly the general char- 
acter of the principal soils met with in the area. Except for the rich 
,bottom land of the Hocking River, all of the soils, bottoms as well as 
uplands, are derived from the disintegration of the sandstone rocks 
of the area, and are therefore deficient in basic materials. There is 
much variation in the physical character of the various soils depend 
ing on the relative amounts of arenacious and argillaceous constituents 
present. In the deep ravines under the cliffs the soil often consists of 
almost pure sand. Such soils are so loose and porous that the abun- 
dant organic remains they contain do not humify but are rapidly and 
completely oxidized without enriching the soil to any great extent. 
The soils derived from the formations above the Black Hand, on the 
contrary, have a considerable amount of clayey material which gives 
them a decidedly sticky consistency Avhen wet, but they dry easily, and 
except when very wet would be classed as light rather than heavy. 
Between these two extremes there is naturally every intergradation, 
depending on the degree to which constituents from the two principal 
rocks have entered into the soil of any given situation. While there 
are other soils more or less widely distributed over the area these two 
types with their intergradations cover so large a proportion of it that 
they may properly be said to constitute its soil. 

The soil nuist be classed as poor from an agricultural point of view. 
The bottom lands, except for the rich Hocking bottom, are not very 
generally utilized. They are mostly too narrow for successful cultiva- 
tion and their soils are generally so light and sandy as to be difficult to 
manage profitably. On the uplands wheat is the staple crop but it is dif- 
ficult to secure a proper rotation since corn and clover do not thrive on 
account of the prevalence of soil acidity. The greater part of the land is 
so subject to wash, either from floods or from surface run-off, as to be con- 
tinually menaced whenever the sod is broken up for cultivation. 



Climatolog!/. Those features of the nieteorology which go to make 
up the climate have beeu compiled and })ublished ny J. Warren Smith' 
in a report covering the state of Ohio as a whole and earlier as Section 
71, South-central Ohio (1910) in the general sunnuary of climatological 
data for the United States. It is from the introductoiy matter of the 
latter report, as more specifically describing conditions in our area 
than the general bulh^iu, that the direct <|uotations given below were 

No records have been taken within the area itself but the data 
given for surrounding towns, since they are reasonably concordant, 
give, it is believed, an accurate idea of th(^ larger climatic features affect- 
ing vegetation. The stations selected are: Lancaster, about five mih^s 
north of the area with a record twelve years in length, from 1896 to 
1908; Logan, about 10 miles east of the area, with records for sixteen 
years, from 1884 to 1900: Circleville, about 15 miles west of the area, 
with records of twenty years, from 1888 to 1908 ; McArthur. about 
twenty miles to the south, with records for tlie five years from 1894 
to 1899, and parts of three additional years ; while the observations 
of the regular Weather Bureau station at Columbus, thirty-five miles 
northwest, with records extending back to 1878, liave been used for 

The monthly mean temperatures in degrees Farenheit of those 
stations whose records are available are as follows : 






























Lancaster . . . |13|30.2|28.2|42.0|50.5|62.3|69.1|74.0|71.7|66.5|54.0|42.2|32.3| 51.9 
Circleville . . . [ 14|30.2|28.1 143 3|5].8|63.2!70.7|7o.3|73.3|68.0|o4.9|42.4|32.7| 52.7 
Columbus . .,|31[28.9I30.1[39.6|51.1|62.5|71.0|75.2|72.7|66.9|54.7|41.8|32.7| 52.2 


The highest and lowest tem])ei-;itures evei- i-eeoi'ded are 102" and 
■21° at Circleville, 99° and -21° at Lancaster, 104^ sind -20° at Colniii- 
])us. Tlie highest teiiipnnlnri' is usn;dl\' i-caclifil in .July, l)nt Angnst 
is nearly as hot. The lowest temi)ei';it nres ai'e sometimes reached ii; 

1. Smith. J. Warren. The Climate of Ohio. Bull. O. Ag. Ex. Sta. 235:185- 

2(19. I'.M2. 


January and sometimes in February. The data do not include, how- 
ever, the extremely hot summer of 1911, nor the exceptionally cold 
winter of 1911-12. The extreme temperatures recorded for the middle 
section of the state, 108°aud -34°, will perhaps give a better idea of 
what may be expected for the absolute extremes in our area. These 
are of course important because of their destructive effect on vege- 
tation which would tend to control the southern limits of certain 
species and the northern limits of others and so react on the compo 
sition of the flora. 

The average date of the last killing frost in spring is April 30. 
of the first killing frost in the autumn October 2. The average growing 
season is therefore about 155 days in length. But the latest killing 
frost reported was on May 30, and the earliest in autumn about Sep- 
tember 15, giving a minimum growing season, if both late and early 
frosts should occur in the same year, of only 110 days. But the frost 
data have not been taken for a long enough period at any of the sta- 
tions under consideration to give reliable data as to possibilities in this 
direction. "On June 5, 1859, a killing frost occurred in the central 
and northern part of this section [i. e. Sec. 71] that is still known as 
the great June frost." 

'' Precipitation is quite uniform over the whole of the section [in 
which our area is located] and averages about 38 inches (95 cm.) per 
year. At North Lewisburg in Champaign County the smallest annual 
rainfall in a period covering 56 years was 23 inches (57.5 cm.) in 1872, 
and the greatest 58 inches (145 cm.) in 1852," while at Cincinnati in a 
record from 1835 to 1908 inclusive, the least was 17.99 inches (42.5 
em.) in 1901 and the greatest 65.18 inches (163 cm.) in 1847. "The dis- 
tribution of the rainfall is fairly uniform, as ^vill be seen from the table 
given herewith." "In general there is the greatest average rainfall in 
June and July, and the least in October. There are very few months 
with less than an appreciable amount of precipitation in all parts of 
the section, and monthly falls of over 10 inches (25 cm.) are not very 
frequent. The greatest monthly fall reported at any of the stations 
under consideration is 15.90 inches (40 cm.) at North Lewisburg in 
September, 1866," while at Carthegena, Mercer County, 17.33 inches 
(43 cm.) fell in June, 1877. Although these stations are at consider- 
able distances fi-oni tlie area under consideration, their records will give 
a fair idea of the maximum precipitation to which its vegetation would 
be subjected in a long series of years. This extreme maximum is of 



importance because of the destructive effects of the floods, which would 
fix the boundaries of the flood-plain associations subject to inundation 
and prevent permanent encroachment upon these associations by the 
plants of higher ground which could not endure the flood. 


Logan . . . 


















































































































The average snowfall is very close to 25 inches (62.5 cm.). The 
configuration of the land is such that the snow is generally blown or 
melted off the uplands, leaving them bare and exposed for the most 
of the winter. The depth of the annual snowfall is an insignificant 
factor in such situations, but in the deep ravines the drifts accumulate 
and keep them cold and wet well into the spring, affording thereby 
suitable habitats for the many northern plants, which here reach their 
southern limits. Single snowfalls exceeding 8 inches (20 cm.) are not 
common, l)ut there is a record of 30 inches (76 cm.) at Lancaster 
during April, 1901. At Columbus 13.5 inches (39 cm.) is the greatest 
amount of snow ever reported upon the ground at one time. The 
greatest annual snowfall of record is 67.8 inches (170 cm.) in the 
winter of 1909-10, while the smallest is 8.5 inches (21 cm.) in the 
winter of 1896-7. Snowfall is usually confined 1o the months from 
November to Aj)!-]], hut "appreciable (lr|)ths of snow sometimes occur 
in May and October." 

"The (ivcriigc iiuiiihci' of fainy days is 106. The average iiumbei" 
of clear days is from 125 to 150, and the average number of cloudy days 
is about the s;nne. At ('oluml)us the avei"age aiituuil sunshine is 54% 
of the possible aniounl ; the average nuiiibei- of eleai- (hiys is 103, partly 



cloudy 131, and cloudy 131. The average numlier of days with thunder- 
storms at Columbus is 33." 

The prevailing winds at Columbus are southwest and the average 
movement of air is eight miles per hour. Tornadoes are rare, but 
storms violent enough to destroy many trees are of periodical occur- 
rence. The records of the Weather Bureau show that during the years 
1892-1901, when the observing station was located in a comparatively 
low building, there averaged 3.4 days per annum with winds reaching 


Um'I- tlie Upland Between Big Pine Creek inul (^m ei CJittk. 
Timber remains only in tile ravines. 

or exceeding 40 miles per hour. 15ut from 1903 to 1911, after the 
observatory was moved into a "skyscraper," the average number of 
days with gales rose to 26.5. The absolute maximum is 70 miles per 
hour on March 15, 1908. 

The mean relative humidity at Columbus is as follows: 





































7 a. m 













7 p 111 










62 1 

64 j 



On the longest days of the year there are about 15 hours of sun- 
shine from sunrise to sunset. 




As ill all dissected countries the area is to be divided pi-imarily 
into lowland and upland (figs. 3, 4 and 5). These two divisions form the 
basis of the human society which occupies the territory. There are low- 
land farmers and upland farmers; each community has its own set of 
roads and travel tends to stay down if following a valley road and to 


I'ig. 4. ■ ■ Jvuiiklf's Hollow.'' 

Upland and Lowhnul Forests. 

Oak forest on the more sheltered west hillside (left) and pine forest on the more exposed 

east clififtop (right), Liriodendron forest in the ravine. 

keep up if on a I'idge road. The plant covering likewise is to be divided 
primarily into lowland and upland forests, each of which is naturally 
sub-divided into its component associations. In the case of both lowhmd 
and upland forests, it will be most convenient to begin the description 
with the extreme types and proceed to tlu^ less extreme, finally describ- 
ing the intermediate associations which mark tlie transition from lowland 
to upland. 


Of all llic problems Ihal confront one who is attemjiting to find 
out the aboriginal condition of this country, none is so difficult as the 
reconstruction of the vegetalion of the bottom-lands along the lai-ge 
streams. There is not a vestige left to suggest the original condition 



of the Hocking bottom between Lancaster and Logan except the swamps 
described below and a few large trees standing in the fields into which 
it has been converted (fig. 6). Many of these, however, have either come 
up from seed since the forest was cut off or were very young at tliat time, 
for they show no traces of ever having been crowded by near neighbors. 
One of them, a sugar maple {Acer, sacchanon), known as "The Queen 
of the Valley (figs. 6 and 7), is the most perfect specimen of a round- 
topped shade tree known to the writer. Whether this bottom-land was 
originally covered with associations similar to those of rivers in other 
parts of the state or whether it partook of the features of the mixed 
forest of the "coves" cannot now be determined. Farmers who with 
their parents before them liave always lived in the valley know nothing 
of the time when the land was generally clothed with forest. The last 

Fig. 5. The Hocking Valley at Sugar Grove. 

The hillsides still forested and largely in their natural condition, lowland and upland both 

cleared and cultivated. 

vestige of the forest, a little patch of only a few acres, was cleared away, 
so the writer is informed, about fifteen years ago. It is said to have 
contained some very large sycamore trees, with an admixture of some 
other species. 



■^ '> 






'm-^^&r yg. 











"■ •.'4- ■.-;. '-^ ■•■*-' "■■'-■• 


^^^^BiiiT" /i-. .>«.^'' 


Kifis. (i ami 7. 'I'lir '(^uccn of tlif Valley.'' 
A Sugar Maple in tlie Hi)cl<iiifr Bottoniland. 
^l>h(il<i liv .1. K. llvde. 



Fig. 8. Blephariglottis iJaramoena Growing; in a Weedy Bottomland with Mixed Vegetation in 

which Agrimonia is Prominent. 

Even when themselves undisturbed, no other associations show so 
quickly the effects of the changes in the land around them as the 
bottom-lands. The periodical freshets are very et^icient carriers of seeds 
from place to place. It is obvious that any change in the vegetation 
at one place will change the character of the seeds carried down stream 
into other unchanged societies. In the original condition of the coun- 
try the seeds thus brought in by the freshets would represent largely 


species already present, and the ensning strnggle between the seedlings, 
whatever might be its resnlt, would not affect the composition of the 
association. If the new plants which appear on clearing had to struggle 
simply against the established association, they might not be able to 
gain a foothold. But with the very changes which supply different 
kinds of seeds there comes an unsettlement of the societies already in 
possession. The floods become much more destructive and uproot large 
patches of the original vegetation. Tn this way a place is prepared 
already cleared for the invaders and they are no longer handicapped, 
but compete at an advantage over the original inhabitants of the soil. 
This condition is noticeable in the brooks as well as the rivers in an 
area like the present, where the uplands are cleared down to the fall line 
and used for agricultural purposes, while the ravines are left in timber. 


Perhaps the clearest indication of the original condition of the 
Hocking bottom land, except for the very bank of the stream, is (or was, 
prior to 1912, when it was lumbered) given by a small swamp in the 
N. E. 14 of section 4, Berne Twp., on the west side of the river. This 
was originally covered with very large trees, six feet or more in diam- 
eter, the stumps of which are not yet entirely decayed. The second 
growth which has replaced this forest seems, fortunately for the purpose 
in hand, to be a fairly natural association, altho the herbage in all 
but the wettest parts is so modified hy pasturing that it can give no 
idea of the original association. 

The larger part of the area may be described as a maple swamp 
in which Acer rubrum covers the ground in places to the exclusion 
of all other species, both herbaceous and woody. Beneath the maples 
the ground is bare and muddy or covered with shallow puddles. In 
places where the maples are not so tliick, a more varied flora appears, the 
principal components of ^^•hich are : 

Ahius rugosa Benzoin benzoin 

TJlmus americana Gleditsia tricanfhos 

CepJialanthus occidentalis Salix nir/ra 

Where llie bind is a little di'vcr, iiuinci-ous other trees appear; 
among these the following are al)uii(huit enough to deserve mention: 

Quercns palnstris Quercus imhricaria 

Malus glaucescens Carpinus caroliniana 

Juglans nigra JiijiJana einerea 

Fraxinus pennsylvanica Fraxinn.i americana 

Quercus bicolor I'mmiK rirrii'iitniti (sn-tAina) 



In other places, pernianentl.y covered by the water coining from 
several springs at the base of the hillside, the ground is Imi'e of trees 
and a very interesting association of shade-enduring sAvamp herbs has 

Fig. 9. Lizard's Tail (Saururus) in tlie Bottoinlancl Swamp. 

developed. In the spring this association is dominated by Caltha 
PALUSTRis and Spathema foetida with, as secondary species: 
Seneeio aureus Cdrdamine rhomhoidnt 

Sannnriihis septentrionalis Ildiiujtcnhts sceleratus 

During the summer, 8auri-rus cernuus (fig. 9) dominates the 
association, whih^ in tlie autumn its place is taken by Polygonum ari- 
FOLiUM, with which are a large numl)er of species in greater or less 
abundance, including the following: 

Chry^ospU-n'iuii\ americanuin Alisina stihcordatitm 

Carex ."p. Penthorurn sedoides 

Isiuirdid jKiJiislris Bidens connata 

Bidciis aristatd Bidens ceniiia 

T.obelin cardiiialis Lobelia sjiphijitica 

Lillium eanadense Solidago painla 

Phlox maculata Bleph(iri(/lottis laccra 

On one side this swamp is contiguous with a wooded hillside bear- 
ing the usual forest of the coves. At the meeting place the two associa- 
tions are sharply demarked by the character of the soil. There is no 
sign of the encroachment of one association on the other and no tension 
zone between them. 




One often reads accounts of the settlement of the country by the 
pioneers of bottom-lands covered with birch instead of willow, but so 

Fi^. 10. 'I'lic liin-li Rdttmi. -..:■; :; (i>iir>T Cr.M- 
Bctula lutcii in iilniost pure staiul. 

far as Ohio is coiicfi-ticd, these liave almost comiiletely vanished, iiirc!) 
bottoms, however, must originally have al)ounded along the streams in 


this region. But now all of the flood-plains not under cultivation are 
occupied by the usual mixed association of deciduous trees, dominates.! 
by the willows (principally Salix nigra) and the sycamore, together 
with coarse weeds, such as Ambrosia trifida, and various composites. 
Although birches are common along the streams from Laurel Kun south- 
ward, it is only in the canyon of Queer Creek that anything like an 
unspoiled birch bottom can be found, and even here the undisturbecL 
association remains in only a very limited area — less than an acre all 
told — and there is a considerable admixture of species which were not 
present in the association in primeval times. 

The land is flat, with numerous shallow pools furnishing breeding 
places for salamanders, etc. The soil is almost pure sand, with little 
humus, most of the organic matter being in the form of undecayed 
particles of wood. 

The two birches, Betula uttea and B. Icnta, are both abundant, 
the former occupying nearly one-half of the area (fig. 10), while the 
river birch, B. nigra, occurs on the edge overhanging the stream. To- 
gether with these are scattered individuals of hemlock (Tsuga) and 
beech, (Fagus). Along the water's edge, where the light is stronger, 
are some other trees which are probably intruders since the days of 
floods. These are: Ash {Fraxinus americana), sycamore (Flatanus), 
basswood (Tilia), butternut {Juglans cinerea), blue beech (Carpinus), 
and red maple {Acer riihrum). The underbrush is made up of yew 
(Taxus), with some witch hazel (Hammemelis) and spice bush (Ben- 

The real character of the herbage is very difficult to determine, 
for there is an admixture of all sorts of plants from almost all possible 
associations, especially weeds whose seeds are continually brought in by 
the stream. One cannot be sure which to eliminate as intruders, since 
there are no other areas to use for comparison. The following list, 
Jiowever, seems to include most of the characteristic plants : 

Circaea lutetiana Circaea alpina 

Dryopteris spinulosum Dryopteris marginale 

Lycopodium lucidulum CatJirinea sp. 

To these must be added the Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus) 
which is common but so small that it must be classed as an herb, seldom 
rising off the ground. This plant might be described as waiting round 
for an opportunity to assert itself. The weak light that reaches it is 


just enough to support it, but does not permit any but the slowest 
growth. But whenever a break in the forest lets in the light, it is ready- 
to spring up luxuriantly and cover the open places. 

It will be observed that this herbage is very similar to that of the 
hemlock forest (see p. 269) which covers the hillside above the flat, and 
it is clear that the two associations are closely akin. The one passes 
into the other abruptly as the level land gives way to the hillside, the 
place of Bciula lutea being taken by the hemlock, while the yew, the 
ferns and the lycopod become more abundant. 

The one factor which more than any other appears to be responsible 
for the development of this association is the absence of light. This is 
pre-eminently an association of sciophytes. On both sides it is hemmed 
in by lofty cliffs, which greatly reduce the light reaching the bottom. 
The shade is so dense that of the many weeds which one finds starting 
up in the spring all but a few stunted individuals have died off for 
lack of light by mid-summer. A shade-enduring community is, how- 
ever, of necessity slow growing, and when once the shade is removed, 
this association has little chance of reproducing itself against the com- 
petition of the aggressive, sun-loving plants which form the common 
bottom-land association throughout the Central States. 


"While the vegetation on the banks of the larger streams is a 
heterogeneous mixture of all sorts of elements, especially annual weeds, 
the banks of Queer Creek are covered in places with an association of 
geophilous perennial herbs which is close to the natural condition. 
This may be observed, perhaps to greatest advantage, on the banks 
of the basin below The Falls at the head of ''The Gulf." 

It develops on banks which are too fre«iuently overflowed to permit 
the growth of trees or bushes. Consequently it is well illuminated. 
The soil is loose, almost pure sand, which is held in place by the under- 
ground parts of the vegetation. 

The dominant plant is Panicttm latipoliI'M. with Carex prasina 
and Senecio <iiir( its in considerable jibinidance. while Plilo.r inaculaia. 
Rudheckia laciniata and Lobelia sijphiliiica ;ire usually presenl ;md, 
by reason of their flowers, conspicuous. Wliei-c Ihe assoeialion is some- 
what shaded, Lohelia cardi)wJis ap]>ears in nlmndrnc;', becor,iin<>' Ihe 
fascies in August. 



As normally developed this association is always confined to a nar- 
row strip a meter or two wide bordering on the w^ater. But it is one 
of the associations which have become greatly extended since the clear- 
ing of the country. In the cleared lands, however, it does not develop 
in its purity, but becomes a meadow covered with Panicum lati folium, 
together with various sedges, rushes, and other common meadow and 
pasture plants. 

<x ,v- s*tvj- .r i:--^jm'Jrw. 

Fig. 11. The Hemlock Forest on Queer Creek. 


A. The Lowland Forest 

Thf Hemlock Forest. The deepest forest in the region is that 
formed hy the hemlock, which is most luxuriant on the sides and bot- 
toms of the deeper ravines south of ("lear Creek (fig. 11). Tho individual 
hemlock trees are connnon enough all through the area, the pure hem- 
lock forest is not found north of that stream. 

In its extreme form the hendock forest is an unmixed association 
of hemlocks, no other vascular plant but Tsuga canadensis being pres- 
ent. More often, however, BetiiJa J en hi is associated with Tsuga and 
the ground is not bare but occupied by the yew {Ta.riis), and herbage 
consisting of : 

Dryopteris sphnilostim MitchelJa repeiis 

Lycopodium hicichihun Tiar/lla rordifolid 

There are also usually inimerous seedlings of soft maple (Acer 
ri(brum). In almost all the forests, indeed, this species furnishes a 
majority of the ti-ee seedlings, but nowhere except in the bottom-land 
maple swamp do the full gi-own trees become at all abundjint. While 
maple seedlings seem to be better able to endure deep shading than 
those of other forest trees, they do not seem to be able to comDete witli 
them when, by a break in the forest canopy, a place is nuide for a new 
tree. In tlie abundant illumination supplied by the displacement of 
one of the original forest trees, other species are apparently able to 
grow enougVi more rapidly to overcome the lead of the mai)le seedlings 
already present and to succeed to the vacant place. 

Where the associatioi) begins to give way to the nnxed deciduous 
forest which usually adjoins it, a few beeches and maples usually come 
in, and both underbiush and herbage become uiore abundant and varied, 
the former consisting of: 

ParUiom'^issis iptiiKiin folin Ifdiiiiitcniflix rlrfiinltinn 

Vibnrii II 1)1 na ri l'i)Iiinii CoriniK alh niifolia 

Wlii'e iii the li'.M'bage a])])ear: 

I'iold hldiidii Mrdaihi lirf/inica 

Vriinph lis sj)hiiiU)sinn Unifolium canadense 

Pe ra in i u iii p u h escens 

And ill less lypienl porlioiis are found: 
nriioiifcris iiKiriiiiKilis (.'irraea alpiiia 

Hrpdlicd acida Carer phnitaginca 

Actea alba Fainiiicuh(.'< rrt-urvalufi 

Arisaema triphyllum Asdnnu sp. 



The frequent association of the sweet birch (B. lenta) with the 
hemlock seems to be due to the similarities in their root systems. The 
seedlings do not develop a tap root, but form a much-branched system 
of fibrous roots, which spread out freely near the surface, never attain- 
ing any great depth. They are therefore especially suited to rocky 
situations in which penetration is difficult or impossible, and they are 

Fig. 12. A Cascade in the Hemlock Forest. 

limited to substrata furnishing a constant supply of water near the 
surface. Very few soils, however, can maintain such a condition except 
when bathed in a heavily moisture-laden atmosphei-e. In such humid 
habitats both species do well regardless of the substrata, growing almost 
everywhere and shoAving a strong tendency to become epiphytes. But 



in this region almost all of the seedlings that start as epiphytes as, for 
example, in the mossy covering of a fallen log, soon exhaust their 
moisture supply and succumb to drouth; but occasionally one gets a 
root down into the ground and continues to grow. On Queer Creek, 

Fig. 13. TliL' JJuttom ol' Kunkle s liollcw, !■ urnu'vly Oi-c-upicd liy the Hemlock Forest. 

one such birch sapling was noticed, iji tliis case Beiuhi htica, which had 
started on a hemlock stump nearly a meter ffom the ground. It had 
reached a diameter of nearly a decimeter, was supported on "stilts" 


formed by its strong roots, and gave every evidence that it would con- 
tinue to grow and become a large tree. 

On account of the character of the root system of the plant, the 
hemlock forest has small opportunity to reproduce itself when once 
it is cut off. The removal of the trees changes the ravines from the 
coolest to the hottest parts of the country and the shallow-rooted seed- 
lings have small chance of survival. It is fortunate indeed, therefore, 
from a practical point of view, that the conunercial value of hemlock 
timber is less than that of the trees with which reforestation may occur. 

The cause of the non-occurrence of the hemlock forest in the north- 
ern section of our area is apparently due to a slight difference in physi- 
ography. On account of the greater thickness of the sandstone to the 
southward, the valleys are younger in a physiographic sense; the can- 
yon walls are higher and more nearly continuous along the larger 
streams, and in the smaller ravines the waterfalls are higher and more 
numerous than further north. In these deeper ravines conditions are 
more extremely mesophytic, if the term be permitted, than elsewhere. 
That is to say, conditions here more nearly resemble those in the most 
typical of all mesoi^hytie formations, the tropical rain-forest, than any- 
where else in our area. The atmosphere is kept continually near the 
point of saturation, while the shade in the deepest portions of the forest 
is so intense as to absolutely prohibit the growth of plants other than 
the forest trees themselves. 

When the valleys have become somewhat older and developed suf- 
ficiently to have a mantle of soil on the bottom and u]) the sides, the 
hemlock sooner or later gives way to the Liriodendron forest. Under 
natural conditions this may not happen for thousands of years as, for 
instance, in the Queer Creek canyon, where a typical hendock forest 
occupies a deep bottom land soil and probably would continue to do 
so for a long time to come. T>ut even here the bank of the stream is 
occupied by various deciduous trees which would gradually but cer- 
tainly beat back the ancient hemlock forest. In the typical Lirioden- 
dron forest, as seen further north, the hemlocks and birches are limited 
to the locks forming the upper rims of the ravines, while the whole of 
the soil-covered valley is dominated by the deciduous forest about to 
be discussed. 

The Liriodendron Forest. The Liriodendron forest flourishes in 
conditions but little different fiom the hemlock forest which it is gradu- 
ally replacing. Its most typical development occurs in the characteristic 


"Coves" which abound throughout the area. A cove (frontispiece), in 
the lumberman's vernacular, is a short, steep ravine, surrounded by high 
hills or margined witli ciitt's, within which the timber, though brittle, 
is unusually tall, straight, and free from knots and wind checks. The 
reason for this character of the timber is, of course, the struggle for 
sunlight in which the trees on the bottom are placed at a disadvantage 
as compared with their neighbors higher up on the slope. The condi- 
tions for vegetation in these coves are highly favorable in respect to 
both climatic and edaphic faetoi-s. The soil is for thi^ most pai't a 
loose, sandy loam, with considerable humus on the surface, but more 
sandy below, in places becoming nothing but sand, which is dug by 
the farmers and serves very well for domestic uses. 

In these coves there develops a luxuriant forest, richer in species 
than any other association in our area. Like the hemlock foi-est, the 
Liriodendron forest has suffered severely from the lumberman until 
it is now difficult to find a good specimen for study. One of the best 
is the "Crystal Springs" ravine at Sugar Grove, which has been used 
as a summer resort for twenty years, during which time the timber has 
not l)een disturbed, although the underbrush and herbage have been 
more or less modified by the activities of picnickers and botanists. An- 
other good cove is located about a half a mile north of Sugar Grove, 
near the pumping station in section 4, Berne Twp. This one was hnn- 
bered a number of years ago, but has since lain undisturbed, and in its 
herbage probably represents more normal conditions than the other. 
Unfortunately it was swept by a fire during the winter of 1900-10, 
which damaged it so much that it is no longer interesting to an ecologist. 
The picture of the cove forest here drawn is largely a composite of the 
conditions in these two ravines. 

The forest of these "coves" is so diversified that often no one tree 
can be designated as the fascies, but all in all there is little (piestion 
but that the tulip tree (Liriodendron tiujpifera) is most characteristic. 
Following it, loughly, in the order of fibuiidanee. ai-e: 

Castanea (Initata (especially nn the hiijlicr slopes) 

Tsiif/a canadensis (also most almiiilant on the liijiher slopes) 

Juglans cinerea Qucrcus alba 

Fagus grandifolia Qnereus velutina 

Acer rubrum Ihliiln hula (on the sleeper slopes) 

Nyssa sylvatica Monis rubra 

JTicorIa nrata 

The uiidei-hrush in places, especially on densely sluided slojies with 
a noi-thern exi)0sure, consists of thickets of IxJuxhxh iididii iiKintinnn 



(fig. 14), almost without intermixture of other species, either frutes- 
cent or herbaceous. In general, however, a variety of smaller trees 

Fig. 14. The Rhododendron at Sug<ar Grove. 

— Photo by .J. E. Hyde. 

and shrubs grow beneath the forest canopy. These are : 

Hammemelis virginiana Cyiioxi/lon (Cornus) forida 

Cormis alternifolia Azalea lutea 

Hydrangea arborescens Viburnum acerifoUum 


Together with these are }'oiing individuals of the forest trees and 
stragglers from other associations which, though frequently abundant 
here, especially in places where the forest is younger, are gradually 
suppressed by overshading. The most abundant of these are Sassafras, 
Oxydendron, Kalmia, and (}n<fcus pvinus. 

As under-shrubs and semi-lianes are : 

Smilax rotundifolia Smilax echirrata 

Clematis virf/iniana Passiflora lutea 

PartJieiiocirsus quinqucfolia Bhm toxicodendron 

The last two in this forest, as in the birch bottom land, are strictly 
ground trailers, and though always common, are never luxuriant until 
a windfall or othei' accident lets in the light, when they shoot up with 
great rapidity into their well-known full liane form. 

The heibage is composed of a large number of species belonging 
to several guilds. In the most shaded woods, in situations where at 
the same time leaf-fall is not too abundant, herbs with evergreen or 
hibernating leaves are abundant and conspicuous, especially during the 
winter, when other herbs are absent. These include : 

Carex pluntaginea Hepatica acutiloha 

Polysticum achrosticoides Dryopteris marpinale 

Dryopteris spinulosum Botrychium obliqnum 

Pyrola eUiptica Lycopodium lucidulnm 

Tiarella cordifolia (in the south- Jspleniiim phityneuron 

ern section) 

When not too much shaded and especially in younger second 
growth there is a rich development of vernal herbs typically geophilous 
and with showy flowers, such as : 

Trillium (jrandiflorum BicucuUa canadensis 

Bicuccnla cnccnlata Erythronium americanum 

Podophyllum peltatum Arisaema triphyllum 

Juncoides carolinae Viola puhescens 

Viola hlanda Viola rostrata 

Viola palmata Syndesinon thalictroides 

Viola canadensis Botrychium virginianum 

Galeorchis spectahilis Vagnera racemosa 

Aralia nudicaulis Geranium macnlatum 

Thalirtrnm dioicum Doifaria laciniata 

Deittarld h( I ( rojihylht (in sniitlii>rn Fainniculus recurvatus 
section only) 



Later in tlie siumner the places of these are taken by another set 
of plants, including: 

Cimucifufia rcfemosa (fi^. 15) Circaea lutetiana 

Phyrma leptostachya Aster divaricatus 

Adicca pumila Aristolochia serpentaria 

Saiiic'uhi C(rad('iisis Medeola rirf/iiiica 

Fis;. 15. Black Cohosh (Cimut-ifuga in tlie Liriodendron Forest. 

C'lilorophylU-less phanoganis are represented in abundance by the 
parasitic Squaw-root, ConophiiUis America nu, and Beech Drops, Lep- 
tamium Virginia na, and the saprophytic Monotropa uniflora and Hy- 
popytis Americana. 

These Liriodendron "coves" once covered a large proportion of the 
northern section of our area. I^elow Clear Creek they are, and probably 
always were, scarce. Their place is taken almost everywhere by the 
hemlock forest which, as has been stated, does not extend north of that 

B. The Upl.vnd Forest 

The succession of associations in the ui)land forest is seen by 
ascending the point of one of the long, narrow ridges between the 
ravines and walking back from the edge of the clitf through the pine 
woods into the oak forest and around to the head of ilip ravine where 
the upland merges with the lowland. 

TJic Cliff Top. At the tops of tVie cliffs there is a narrow strij) 
of what may be termed a miniature lielu^n tundia (tig. 16), since it 
possesses all of the essential features of the northern tundra. The sub- 
stratum is extremely acid to litmus jiajx-r. It is exposi'd to the extreme 



action of the wind and to the greatest extremes of temperature, together 
with the most sudden changes which are possible within the limits set 
up by the climate of the region. The flora is of the sort that has gen- 
erally passed as xerophytic, but in reality it may not be so much xero- 
phytic as oxyphytic. It bears little resemblance to the truly xerophytie 
flora of desert regions. 



Fig. 16. The Miniature Tundra at the Edge of the Pine Forest. 

The vegetation of the cliff tops develops into zones similar to those 
found around ponds, but in this case the zones depend on the depth of 
the soil and the exposure. The front rock is nearly bare, but supports a 
few foliose lichens {Parmelia sp.), a few small mosses seldom found in 
fruit, with occasional stunted stragglers from the next zones. 

The outermost zone of vegetation is the lichen formation. It ex- 
tends from the bare rock back until the soil has reached a deptli of 
about a decimeter, when it gives way to the Vaccinium zone. The 
characteristic plants are: 

Cladonia spp. 
Polytricum sp.p. 
Lechea 'mi7ior 
Panicum sphaerocarpon 

Carex (two or three species, in- 
cluding C. triceps.) 
Hou/ttonia longifoUa 

There are also numerous waifs fi-om other associations. On this 
account the composition of the zone varies greatly from place to place 



and from year to year in the same place. It is indeed the rocky ground 
in which the seeds of many plants fall and spring up quickly but wither 
away for lack of a root when exposed to the scorching sun. None but 
the cryptogams in the above list can be considered as constant inhab- 
itants. But they are never found without the admixture of some seed 
plants, whether of the species listed above or others. 

Most of the waifs here present are stragglers from the nearby 
forest, but two or three are interesting in that they do not occur in the 
forest. Ambrosia elatior found but little place in the primaeval vege- 
tation of the region, since it is dependent on strong illumination, 
which was denied all of the plants on the forest floor. It is interesting 
to find it as a frequent inhabitant of such places, whether as an original 
native or as an introduced weed. Hypericum drummundii, which 

Fig. 17. A Small Plant of Trailing: Arbutus Among the Roots of the Pines at the 

Edge of the Cliff. 

reaches its extreme eastern limits in this area, was found in a single 
station in such a lichen formation. It was abundant in 1909, but very 
scantily represented in 1910. 

Following the Cladonia association is a transitional shrub zone 

composed of : 

Vaccinium vacillans SmiJax rotundi folia 

Polycodium staminium Ealmia latifolia 

Gaylosaccia haccata Lespedezn repens 

Epigaea repens (fig. 17) Lechea minor 

Gaulfheria prorumhens TJypnncrnr sp. (forming tufts) 

Mitrliella repens 



Together with these are numerous individuals from the lichen zone 
on one side and the forest on the other. 

This zone is in realitv merely an extension of the underbrush of the 

Fig. 18. Fi-Hitini,' Oxydi'iulruiii in tlie Oak l-'orcst. At tlie Leit ('iist:nia dciitnta. At the 
Risrlit Acer rubrum. In the Background Quercus sp. 

pine forest behind it on to thinner soil lliaii can support tree growth. 

The Pine Forest. The zonal series is completed hy llie pine forest, 

which occupies the poorest soil capable of suppoi-ting ai-borescent plants. 


It bears a general resemblance to the pine barrens common everywhere 

below the border of the glacial moraines. Its principal component 
species are : 

PiNus RiGiDA Gaultheria procumhens 

Finns virginiana Panicum diclwtomum 

Quercus velutina Cliimapliila macidata 

Castanea dentata Meibomia rotundifolia 

Oxydendrum arioreum Isotria verticillata 

Vaccinium vacilans Solidago nemorom 

Gaylosaccia haccata Houstonia longifoUa 

PolycoUum staminium Eieracium venosum 

Kalmia latifoUa Panicum sphaerocarpon 

Epigaea repens Cunilla originoides 

Smilax rotundifolia Lespedesa hirta 

Smilax glauca ' Lespereza repens 

Amalancier canadensis Lespedeza procum'bens 
Bosa virginiana 

Together with these are numerous seedlings from other associa- 
tions. Saplings of Hicoria ovata are nearly always present and here, 

as everywhere else, Acer ruhriim comes up abundantly but attains no 
great size. 

The Oak Forest. The pine forest occurs throughout the region on 
the more exposed ridges. Where the ridges become wider and the con- 
ditions are less severe, the pines gradually give way to the hard woods 
and a mixed oak forest is developed in which Quercus prinus is some- 
times the dominant tree and occasionally occupies the ground almost 
to the exclusion of other arborescent species. With it are more us^^ally 
present, however: 

Quercus alba Hicoria minima 

Quercus velutina Hicoria ovata 

Oxydendrum arhoreum (fig. 18) Nyssa sylvatica 

Castanea dentata Acer rubrum 

In the underbrush the heaths give way to the grapevine (Vitis 

bicolor), which is quite as typical a representative of the association 
.as the oaks. With it are: 

Cynoxylon (Cornus) florida (an Smilax glauca 

under tree.) Sosa virginiana 

Bmilax rotundifolia Viburnum acerifolium 

The most characteristic plants of the herbage are: 

Meibomia nudifora Linum virginianum 

Meiboma rotundifolia Monotropa unifora 

Basy stoma laevigata Hypopytis americana 

Titythymalopsis (Euphorbia) corollata 


The upland oak forest originally covered a large part of the coun- 
try, but it is very much restricted at present. Its boundaries coincide 
with the limits of arable soil. It has therefore been largely cleared 
away and is now to be found only in remnants around the borders of the 
fields. Its composition has, moreover, been greatly modified by the 
operations of the woodcutter, who has cut out the more valuable timber, 
leaving behind the inferior sorts to replenish the forest. As a result 
of this kind of lumbering the fascies through most of the oak forest 
has become the worthless black oak (Quercus velutina). 

The two types of upland forest which have been described are the 
extremes between which are all intermediates. ]\Iost of the upland 
forest seen in the area, indeed, belongs to neither the one nor the other, 
but varies in composition, now approaching one now the other. For 
this reason and because it meets and intergrades with almost all of 
the other associations of the area, the oak forest is the most difficult 
of them all to characterize satisfactorily. The most noteworthy of these 
transitions, perhaps, is to the Liriodendron forest of the lowlands, with 
which it gradually merges at the heads of the ravines. 

The Talus Association. The plant society covering the talus slopes 
at the bases of cliffs with south exposure is closely similar to the oak 
forest of the uplands. It should be explained, however, that the talus 
slope is very different from an ordinary talus slope. It is not made up 
of fragments of fallen rock, but of sand, which rattles down from the 
cliffs together with considerable amounts of vegetrible debris which, 
on account of the porous character of the soil, are to a large extent 
oxidized directly without humification. The vegetation of these slopes 
differs from the oak forest principally in an admixture of plants from 
the rocks. Quercus piinus is more abundant and is accompanied by 
Castanea deniaia, Betula lenta, Mitcliella repens, and GauWieria pro- 


Beside the forests, the most considerable body of vegetation is that 
which occupies the rocks. For the most part, however, the plants of 
the rocks can be better considered as individuals than as organized into 
definite associations. This is not only because the plants are so far 
apart that they could in any case be understood to form only a very 
open association, but also because many of llie crevice plants are so 
erratic in their occurrence that there is no very definite composition 



to the flora of the rocks. In one place the rock may be occupied by a 
given set of plants, while in the next hollow, under entirely similar 
conditions, different plants appear. This is well illustrated by the 

Fig. 19. The Cliff at the Head of "The Gulf." 
The figure at the top gives the scale. For list of vegetation see page 283. 

distribution of Asplcnium montanum within the region. It was first 
found for a few rods along a cliff at Sugar Grove; it has been found 
at the mouth of Clear Creek, again on Little Rocky branch and at 


Cedar Falls. In each of these stations there are a few dozen clumps, but 
nowhere else lias it been found, though search has been made in hun- 
dreds of likely places. The case of Asplenium mtnifa)iuHi is extreme, 
but the crevice plants in general are sufficiently similar to it in their 
occurrence to make it inadvisable, except in the few instances given 
below, to try to group them into definite associations. 

Moreover, a large proportion of the plants of the rocks really be- 
long in neighboring associations and are merely chance seedlings of 
plants able to endure the conditions of the cliff. This is well illus- 
trated by the flora of a cliff at Old Man's Falls at the head of ''The 
Gulf," which is exposed to the burning sun all day long and presents 
very severe conditions. In this particular cliff the greater part of the 
vegetation is made up of woody plants which alone are considered here 
on account of the difficulty of listing the smaller herbs because of the 
height and inaccessibility of the cliff (fig. 19). They are: 

Betula lenta Piiius virginiana 

Gaylosaccia haccafa KaJmia Jatifolia 

Tsuga canadensis Amalancier canadensis 

As already pointed out (page 270), Betula lenta has a root system 
I'eciuiring a supply of easily available water, such as is furnished in the 
crevices. With this requirement met it grows almost anywhere, from 
such exposed cliffs to densely shaded bottom lands. Pinus virginiana 
and Gaylosaccia haccafa belong in the forest on top of the cliff, but 
are able to grow almost anywhere they can get a foothold. Kalmia 
Jatifolia is pre-eminently a sun-loving plant with large powers of en- 
durance of all sorts of conditions. It is accordingly frequently found 
on exposed cliffs and in the primeval forest may have been confined 
to such places for lack of space elsewhei'e, but it reaches its best develop- 
ment in habitats where soil conditions as well as light exposure are 
more favorable, as, for instance, in pastures. The hendock obviously 
belongs in the forest below, tho its rool system resembles that of the 
birch and its distribution is controlh-d by the same factors. This leaves 
as a cliff plant only tlie Amahtnchier (fig. 20). which seems to show a 
preference foi- stcc]) jihiccs i-cgardless of ollu-r conditions. 

Even of lliose plants wliicli ;ii-f li;iliil luilly Kick dwellers some give 
clear evidt'iicc 1li;it they are so because crowded out of other habitats 
rather than from an_\- preference for the i-oeks. I'oliipixliinii riihian. 
for exam])le, is for the most patt as fastidious iu its clioicc of rocky 
habitats as any phmt in oui- I'egioii. but under sjiccial circumstances it 



may leave the rocks and grow on the ground, or on the bases of the trees, 
as in the hemlock forest in Little Rocky branch, where such habits are 
permitted by the very great humidity, together with the absence of fall- 

Fig. 20. Shad Bush ( Ainalaiuhiei) on the Cliff Overlooking the Canyon of Queer Creek. 

ing leaves and of competition of other plants. Likewise, when removed 
to a garden and competing plants artificially eliminated, it thrives well 
on the ground. Tliis, moreover, seems to be an entirely normal habitat 



in some regions. In Maine, Merrill' reports it as carpeting "the top of 
most of the ledges, or hanging gracefully over their brinks, or nestling 
beneath some evergreen tree, whose branches spread ont their protect- 

- • -, 'V. 

,. ,| 







Fig. 21. Sulliv:iiilia (I i-cjuint;- im tlio Face of the (.'liff. 

ing arms." At Sugar (Jrove the i)!ant is (luitc liinilcd. except in a 
few stations, to tlu^ edges of tlic rocks. iKMlhci- (■;irpc1iiig their tops 

1. Merrill, FI. \V. I'dlypddium viil>;;iri' in Mnitic. Am. I'cni .Icmr. 1 : 7 9, 1910. 


nor running far onto their perpendicular faces. In other regions this 
same species is found in habitats that seem to an American botanist 
almost unbelievable. Warming' mentions it as occurring on gray sand 
dunes in Europe. Such habitats are entirely inexplicable on the hy- 
pothesis of a preference of Polypodium for any one of them, but are 
entirely consistent with the view that this species has been crowded 
out of the more favorable habitats and must grow where it can. 

Doubtless there are crevice plants which have decided preferences 
for their habitats, and indeed some such occur in the present region, 
but the writer has been surprised to find that such other rock-dwelling 
ferns as Camptosorus rhizophyllus, Asplenmm trichomanes, and As- 
plenium montanum grow thriftily in an ordinary garden bed. One 
inay observe the same thing over and. over again if he will read in 
the catalog of such a florist as Edward W. Gillett, who makes a specialty 
of cultivating the native plants, the directions given for managing 
various plants. One finds there that all of the cliff: ferns succeed well 
if grown in a bed with good drainage, including, besides those men- 
tioned above: Pellaea atropurpurea, Cheilanfhes gracilis, Polypodium 
vulgar e '("which will adapt itself to almost any kind of soil not too 
wet") and Woodsia illevensis. Similar directions are also given for 
such chasmophytes as Campanula roiuudifolia. 

Sullivantia Cliffs. Wherever, under a waterfall or elsewhere, water 
trickles slowly down over an overhanging clifit' sufficiently well ilhimi- 
nated, Sullivantia is apt to occur. It seems not to thrive except where 
its roots are kept constantly wet. In such situations it sometimes almost 
covers the face of the rock with its beautiful glossy foliage. Sullivantia 
is one of the plants which must certainly be classed as preferring the 
rock to all other habitats. It is never found far away from the clifPs, 
and though by far tlie larger proportion of its seeds must drop down 
on to the ground below the cliff, it only is rarely that one finds it 
growing there (fig. 21). 

Isolated Boulders. The structure of the sandstone is such that 
along every ravine the cliffs are lined with large boulders which have 
cracked off and gradually slumped away down the slope. For the 
most part these rocks are occupied by societies occurring in other situa- 
tions and already described, such as the shade-loving herbage of the 
forest floor or the huckleberry brush of the cliff top, according to the 
conditions prevailing on the particular rock. But there is at least one 
societv which reaches its best development only on such boulders. 

2. Ecology, p. 267. 



The Unifolium Society. This is tiie Unifolium society, composed 
almost purely of Unifolium canadense, or mixed with the partridge 
berry (MitcJiella repens) (fig. 22). This association occurs on shaded, 
flat-topped boulders, which in the course of time become covered with a 
few inches of almost pure sand (l(M-ived from the decay of the rock 
beneath. Isolated as they are, plants in such habitats have no access 
to a supply of permanent ground water, but are dependent on the 


Fig. 22. "Wild Lily of the Valley" (Unifolium) on a Detached Boulder. 

Betula lenta at Left. 

amounts which can be conserved from rainfall in the scanty sub- 
stratum. Such water is, of course, very meagre, llic more so since the 
habitat is not adapted physically to retain watei-, and at the same time 
drains freely on all sides. Wlicii siicli rocks are exposed to tlic dessica- 
tion of direct sun and wind, none of the seed plants can endure the 
conditions, Init when protected by dense shade of the forest canopy 
above them, Unifolium develops thriftily. Tliis ])l;nit is not. however, 
Jimilcd lo i.solated l)oiil(h'i-s. ])ut occurs all through Ihe jirca in niiiurrous 
situations, varying from this periodically xeropliytic habitat to tlie 
extremely nicsopliylic hemlock forest. It may Ihcrefore \u' inrci-rcd 
that tlie purily of the as.sociation is dui' not to any pi-ffn-cnci' of I'ni- 
folium for Ihe habitat, but to the inabilitv of other i)hints successl'uUv 

• I • 

to invjidc it. 



The Caves. Altho not, strictly speaking, always rocky habitats, 
the flora of the caves is clearly most nearly allied to that of the rocks. 
Altho they have some elements in common, the moisture content of 
these habitats separates them sharply into two classes. 

Dry Caves. Old Man's Cave (fig. 23) is the dryest of the large 
caves. Its roof overhangs sufficiently to protect it from all rainfall. 

Fig. 23. Old Man's Cave. Aralia spinosa in Foreground. 
The ladder gives the scale. 


and it has a southeast exposure, so that it receives sunlight till nearly 
noon. The sand which covers the floor is perfectly air-dry, very fine, 
and dusty enough to be unpleasant. It is totally barren except where 
water drips down from above or oozes out from the crevices of the rock, 
and is really a small patch of desert in the midst of luxuriant meso- 
phytic habitats. Similar conditions are presented by many other caves 
of all sizes, down to mere ledges. In many of them, as in Old Man's 
Cave, the floor is considerably above the general level of the bottoms of 
the ravines in which they occur. In others the floor of the cave is con- 
tinuous with the talus slope at the base of the cliff, in which case, if 
the conditions are not too severe, the flora is nearly allied to that of 
the talus slopes in general. (See p. 281.) 

Verhascum Thapsus is perhaps the most characteristic plant of the 
dry caves, being nearly always found there. By reason of its very long, 
slender roots, which extend far and wide through the loose sand, and 
the protective hairy investment of the leaves, it is able to endure more 
severe conditions than any other plant whose seed reaches these places. 

Muhlenlergia diffusa is another practically constant inhabitant of 
the dry caves, forming circles around the points where water drips 
from the roof, from which it reaches out radially as far as the water 
supply will permit, its development varying therefore from season 
to season. 

The high bush blackberry (Ruhus aUegheniensis) likewise always 
occurs in such caves, thereby exhibiting an amount of endurance of 
xerophytic conditions which was surprising to the writer in view of 
its general habitat. But it is plainly evident that the conditions are 
too severe for its best development, as its canes are frequently killed 
back and never develop as robustly as in ])asture lands. It flow(>rs and 
fruits freely, however. 

In Old Man's Cave a conspicuous place is taken by the angelica 
tree, Aralia spinosa, altho this cannot be said to be a general inhab- 
itant of the caves, since it is rare north of Queer Creek. 

Wet Caves. When the caves are moist and at the same time well 
illuminated, their flora differs but little from that of the forest floor. 
Wluni, however, a cave is dark, all other conditions being favorable, tlu^ 
vegetation becomes arranged in something like a zojial series, according 
to the minimum light requirements of the constitiHiit species, each of 



which follows back into the cave as far as its particular light require- 
ment will permit. A considerable number of species are frequently 
found in such habitats, but most of them must be classed as accidental. 
Among the few which seem to have a somewhat definite place in such 

Fig. 24. .\ Wet Cave Occupied by Fei'ns (Dryopteris margrinale & D. spinulosum) as far back 

as the Illumination Permits. Beyond them a Zone of Lichens. In the Foreground 

a Dead Cane of Sambucus racemosus. 

habitats only three need be mentioned: SmnbHcus racnnosa, the red 
elderberry, is oftentimes to be found only in such habitats, being appar- 
ently crowded out of other habitats. Dryopteris marginalis and D. 
spinulosa are, however, the most conspicuous and constant inhabitants 
of the wet caves. They follow far back into the weak light where, 
undisturbed by other vegetation, they form very beautiful and perfect 
rosettes, conspicuously oriented, of course, toward the source of light 
(fig. 24). Beyond the reach of any vascular plant is a zone of crustose 
lichens which covers the surface of the rock fragments. 


Most abundant on shaded rocks, tho often found in other 
habitats, especially in the upland forest, is a guild of plants which 
requires separate consideration. These are the prostrate or aeaulescent 
herbs with evergreen or hibernating leaves. They share the advantages 



possessed by all evergreen undergrowth in being able to carry on photo- 
synthesis during the months when the trees are bare. But they labor 
under a disadvantage which very strikingly limits tbcni to a peculiar 
class of habitats — namely, those wliich are free fi-oiii a covering of 
fallen leaves. 

The situation Avill 1)(> evident from the consideration of a typical 
case, that of the Rattlesnake plantain, Peramium puhescens (fig. 25). Its 
rosettes of leaves do not appear until late in tlie season. l)ut persist 
through the winter and well into the following season. With its pros- 
trate stem fixed on the ground, and its slow growth, it has no means of 
surmounting a covering of leaves, so that if deeply covered it is 
inevitably smothered. Not only is it deprived of light during the 
winter; it sends up no erect shoots to pierce the leafy blanket in the 
spring. The plant grows in varied hal)itats, such as rocks, hemlock 

Fig. 25. RnttlpsiKike Plantain (Piiatiiiuni i)iil)cscen,s ; on a lloulder in the forest. 

forests, bare soil, and the ])anks of sti-eams. Youtiu' planls may lie roiiiil 
almost anywhere, as would be expected from seeds scattered by the 
wind, but wcll-dcvclopcd clumps arc only to b(> found in silualions 
renuiiiiing ncail\' free I'lom a wiiiliT covering of leaves. Win'ii. per- 


chance, a few leaves fall around it, the petioles bend up nearly to a 
vertical position, raising the leaves to a certain extent above the 

As in every other guild of plants, the members of this one are not 
all typical, but intergrade with various other guilds, from lianes to 
rosette plants, and in so far as they depart from the characters of the 
guild, they escape its limitations. Some of them, like the partridge 
berry, Mitchella repens, have a sufficient power of growth to raise 
themselves above a leafy blanket which may be heaped upon them. 
Thus, though normally prostrate, this plant forms ascending shoots a 
decimeter or two high when it is buried under leaves. Nevertheless, its 
distribution is largely controlled by this one factor. It is perhaps 
most at home on sloping boulders and the edges of banks, but covers 
the ground in the hemlock forest where the falling leaves are so small 
as to pass down between its blades. In one case it was found even 
in the deciduous forest on a pile of stones, only a decimeter or so in 
height, but just sufficient to stand out from among the leaves. Others, 
like Hepatica or Polystichum, send up their new leaves so early in the 
season that even w^hen covered up the handicap is soon thrown off. In 
such cases, covering beneath fallen leaves means simply the loss of 
photosynthetic activity during the winter, which might be supposed 
to be inconsiderable. Nevertheless these plants usually attain their best 
development in places too steep to permit the accumulation of leaves 
upon them. Still others, like the wintergreen, Gaultheria procumhens, 
are not strictly prostrate, but in their aerial parts approach more 
nearly to the upright condition. This plant, together with some others, 
is an Oxyphyte, and this character combines with the one under dis- 
cussion to limit it to situations free from leaf fall. 

Doubtless all of the ordinary biennial rosette plants, such as the 
shepherd's purse, would likewise be sensitive to a covering of leaves, 
but with them this is not an important factor because they are sun- 
loving plants of exposed situations, where leaves would never accumu- 
late in any case. It is only for plants growing beneath the forest canopy 
that this factor can become of importance. 

The plants of the Sugar Grove area which belong to this guild are: 

1. Typical shade-loving evergreens with leaves appearing late in 

the season : 

Peramium pubescens Folypodium vulgare 

Pyrola elliptica Epigaea repens (fig. 17) 

Camptoforus rhizophjiUus (i\g. 26) 



2. Shade-loving herbs with hibernating leaves replaced in spring 

by new ones : 

Hepatica acutiloha Hepatica hcpatica 

Carex plantaginea Dryopteris spinulosum 

Dryopteris marginalis UnifoUum canadense 

Tiarella cordifolia 

Fig. 26. The Walking Fern (Camptosorus rhizophyllus). 

3. Evergreen herbs with leaves or shoots ascending sufficiently 
from the ground partially to surmount a blanket of fallen leaves : 
Mitchella repens Ganltheria procumbens 

Lycopodium lucidulum Lycopodium complanatum var. 



The Sumac Thicket. There are many steep slopes in the area 
where the rock comes so close to the surface ms to prevent the growth 
of trees, but yet is not jji-ccipitous and retains a thin covering of soil. 
Here a thicket develops which is dominated by Rhus cop.m.t.txa and 
Andropogon scoparh-s. Avith the roHowing secondary species: 
Mains glaucescens Spccitlaria pcrfoliata 

Rubus procumhrna (Dewberry) Meibomia caiieseens 

Smilax gJauca roloiliJht cmadensh 

Eubus alleghieiifiis (Highbush P.. B.) 

This association origiiudly occupied n very sni;dl amount of terri- 
torv in this area, bnl sinct" llic hiiul lias hrcii cli'arrd and ciillivalrd a 


very large and ever-increasing proportion of the area is growing up 
into thickets very similar to the natural Sumac Thicket which, like the 
Riverbank association, may be said therefore to have greatly extended 
its boundaries since the advent of man. These Old Field associations 
are not, however, altogether similar to the natural societies, but show 
a considerable admixture of species not found in them. 

The Old Field Associations. It has already been remarked that 
the uplands require very careful handling to prevent washing and 
wasting of the scanty sofl. Thousands of acres throughout the region 
have thus gotten away from their owners and become worthless for 
agricultural purposes. In these lands and other worn-out fields there 
has developed a somewhat definite association which covers a larger 
portion of area than any of the natural associations. In many respects 
it resembles markedly the Sumac Thicket just described, but its soil, 
though very poor, is not so closely underlain with hard rock, and so 
permits the growth of numerous species which do not find a place in 
the natural thicket. 

The first plants that come into such fields, often appearing in 
numbers before abandonment, are Andropogon scoparius and A. vir- 
GiNicus, which sometimes occupy the ground almost to the exclusion of 
other species. 

After them, or in pastured land instead of them, appear various 
weedy plants, among which are : 

Ascyron hypericoides Roustonia loufiifolia 

Gnaphalium dectirrens Hedeoma pulegreoides 

Meibomia canescens Meibomia obtusa 

Potentilla canadensis 

Next come in the mountain sumac, Rhus copallina, together with 
the following plants completing the association: 

Rubus procumbens (Dewberry) Solidago nemoralis 

Lespedesa hirta Bubus aUeghiensis (Highbnsh B.B.) 

Corylus americana Hypericum prolificum 

Mains glaucescens Titythmalopsis conilhita 

Smilax glauca Solidago juncea 

Ibidium gracilis 

After these plants have fully occupied the territory, reforestation 
begins by the appearance of some of the arborescent species, among 
which the first comers are often the Sassafras and the Persimmon 
(Diospyros), together with the pines, P. rigida and P. virginiana; 
which finally take possession to the exclusion of other trees. 


The Sycamore (Plata nus) often appears at this stage and grows 
vigorously even on land entirely denuded of its soil and exposed to 
extreme drouth. At the same time its absence from the undisturbed 
bottom land associations, such as the swamp and the birch bottom land, 
is not less noteworthy than its presence here. The explanation is to be 
found in the fact that the sycamore is not, as commonly supposed, a 
water-loving tree, but rather requires a large amount of light. In the 
primeval forest sufficient light was to be obtained only along the larger 
water courses, and for this reason, rather than because of a need of a 
large amount of water, the sycamore was found only along the streams. 
In many places, especially where washing has been severe, the oUl 
field association develops only fragmentarily and the i>ines, which take 
some time to get started, are the first woody plants to occupy the land, 
so that reforestation begins without the intermediate steps more usually 
found. But in any ease the pine forest comes to occupy most of the 
old fields, while on the ground, in more or less profusion, depending 
on the density of the shade, are most of the plants of the preceding 
thicket formation, together with Chimaphihi macuJata and the sapro- 
phytic Coralorhiza odontorrliiza. 

Although the soil of such forests would appear to be very poor, 
it is interesting to note that occasional specimens of Liriodendron are 
often found among the pines and appear to thrive. None of the tulip 
trees observed in such situations had reached a very great age, and 
most were broad topped, not slender like the trees of the coves. But 
their thrifty appearance would suggest the feasibility of seeding down 
such land with Liriodendron, which is at once a more rapid grower 
and a more valuable timber tree than the pines which it w^ould replace. 
While one would not care to recommend this practice widely on the 
basis of such fragmentary observations, it would appear to be clearlj 
worth while to experiment in such situations with Liriodendron on a 
small scale with a view of determining its feasibility for general use. 
The normal succession, however, would never be a forest of Lirio- 
dendron, but rather that already described in the upland forest. Al- 
though none of the second growth pine forests observed had attained 
any great age, it is altogether probable that they would come to resemble 
closely the virgin pine forest already described and that they would 
finally give way to the oak foi-cst. 



No scientific study is necessary to demonstrate that the land of 
this area is becoming poorer and poorer as its resources are dissipated 
under the present wasteful system of management. Everywhere one 
sees abandoned houses; in some parts of the area hardly half the houses 
are now occupied. Old "worn-out" fields are numerous and the num- 
ber is increasing rapidly year by j^ear. 

The causes which have led to this condition are several : First, the 
greatest natural resource of the area was its timber. This has been 
cut off to such a large extent that it is difficult to find even small patches 
of undisturbed forest for botanical study. Lumbering is usually carried 
on in one of two ways, depending on whether the timber is to be made 
into railroad ties or sawed into lumber. Railroad ties, consisting 
especially of Chestnut and Rock Oak, are usually cut and worked by 
the owner of the land during the winter season. The large timber 
having long since been removed, those trees of sufficient size to make 
ties are felled and worked up in situ with but little disturbance of the 
young growth around them. Except from the danger of fires from the 
unused refuse and the fact that by this means the undesirable species 
are left to grow and multiply while the valuable woods which are cut out 
become scarcer and scarcer, this method of lumbering when conserva- 
tively practised has much to recommend it. When, on the other hand, 
a portable sawmill is brought into the country, its crew usually buys the 
standing timber from the owner of the land. The lumberers having no 
interest in the land, proceed to skin it, cutting every stick capable of 
being made in a piece 2 by 4 inches or larger, with no regard for the 
future. This method of lumbering is the most important cause of the 
increasing poverty of the country. While the land-owner usually 
secures a price sufficient to compensate him for the loss of the land, as 
well as the timber, the community is permanently impoverished by the 
loss of a forest w^hich, if conservatively handled, would have been a 
permanent asset. 

Second, with the removal of the timber soil acidity* becomes very 
prevalent and more and more land becomes utterly unfit for cultivation. 

I apply the word acidity here, for want of a better term, to soils which when moist 
promptly redden blue litmus paper. In using the term I would not be understood as stating 
that the reddening of litmus paper is a criterion of acidity, or of taking any position in the 
controversies which are waging regarding this puzzling problem. I have merely noticed a 
very marked and definite correlation between the wild vegetation and the reaction of the 
soil to litmus paper. 


Thus many exposed fields are discarded as worn out, wlien the worst 
trouble apparently is excessive acidity. 

Third, the slope of most of the land is so great tiuit it is in danger 
of washing whenever cultivated. Hundreds of acres throughout the 
area which might have continued as fairly good upland pastures have 
become hopelessly gullied "bad lands" (fig. 27) because the owner 
attempted to cultivate them. 

This state of affairs is generally accepted as irremediable on the 
supposition that the land is so poor that early exhaustion is inevitable. 
Long observation of the deterioration of this land, however, has con- 

PSi " ^ 

Fig. 27. A Badly Washed Upland. Little but Dewberries (Rubiis procumbens) Can Survive 

the Erosion. 

vinced the writer that the case is by no means hopeless. While he would 
not pretend to recommend a remedy on the basis of present knowledge, 
there is abundant prospect that an experimental study of the situation 
would develop a system of management which would be i)rofitabh' in 
the long run to both the land-owner and the community. 

Tf the conditions described were confined to the Sugar Gfrove area 
alone there would be little justification for the expenditure of the time 
and money necessary to determine the best means of meeting the situa- 
tion. But while such conditions may reach their climax in llic pi-csciil 
area, they are more or less general over all of llic uiighieialcd i)ortioiis 



of southern and southeastern Ohio. On this account the determination 
of the most profitable method of managing these hill lands is a matter 
of very great importance to the welfare of the whole state and ought 
on that account by all means to be taken up without delay. 

The progress of the deterioration of the land in this section is 
difficult to follow in the fields where the vegetation is made up of 
annuals and cultivation introduces many complications. But in the 
woods, where the plants are perennial, the gradual change in the vege- 
tation as the land deteriorates and the factors which are at work are 
comparatively easy to observe. 

I'ig. LIS. West Bank of Ravine. Note Leaves and Young Growth. 

The cause may be sununed up in the one word exposure. Wherever 
through thinning of the forest the wind is allowed to get in to the floor 
of the forest, the vegetation quickly changes. In the underbrush, 
plants characteristic of rich humus give place to others characteristic 
of barren hillsides, and the seedlings which are to replace the forest 
trees are of species of the same type. Thus the rich lowland forest is 
rapidly giving way to the poor upland forest. The most characteristic 
result of clearing the land is thus a descent of the upland vegetation 
into the lowlands. 

The most striking examples of this descent of upland vegetation 
occur in north and south ravines, where the best timber has been culled 
out but the forest has not been cleared away. On the west slope of 
such ravines the lowland forest usually maintains its ground, but on 



the opposite east bank there develops an association resembling closely 
the upland forest, especially in the character of its undergrowth. Typi- 
cal examples are to be found in a branch of Brushy Fork, located in the 
southwest 1/4 of section 9, Berne Twp., and in the hollow below Cant- 
well Cliffs, at the head of Buck Run. 

On the west bank of such ravines the ground is covered with a 
deep layer of leaf mold in which there is a rich development of 
spring flowers, such as Trillium grandiflorum and Gahorchis spectahilis, 
unless, as in the Brushy Fork ravine (fig. 28), the ground is too lieavily 

On the opposite slope, however (fig. 29), the undergrowth comes 
to be made up largely of plants characteristic of the extreme upland 
forest, such as: 

Kalmia latifolia Nieracium venosum 

Vacciniiim vacilans Viola hirsntula 

Gaultherin procumbens Polytricuni sp. 

Epigaea repens Cladonia sp. 

Gaylosaccin haccata Tuft-forming Hypnums 


Fig. 29. Ka.-,! IJaiik of R.-ivinr Shown in Vig. 28. Note Absence of Leaves and Saplings. 

It is clear at a glance that the more commonly considered ecological 
factors must be closely similar on the opposite sides of such ravines. 
Since the axis is north and south the light received on the two sides 
must be equivalent and there can be but slight ditference in the amount 
of rainfall. The soil being residual derived from the weathering of the 


same rocks cannot have differed, in the beginning at least, in any im- 
portant respect on the two sides. The only obvious difference between 
the two slopes is the condition of the surface of the ground. The west 
slope is covered with a deep carpet of fallen leaves and leaf mold while 
the opposite slope is swept bare of leaves by the wind so that there is 
little or no humus formed and the ground is somewhat more exposed 
to erosion from surface runoff. The soil of the west bank gives a neu- 
tral or faintly acid reaction to litmus paper. That of the east bank, 
on the other hand, gives a very strong and almost instantaneous red 
reaction. This is remarkable in view of the abundance of organic 
remains which must liberate various acids in course of humification 
in the neutral soil while the opposite acid bank is free from any such 
source of acidity. Repeated tests throughout the area have uniformally 
shown that wherever the characteristic upland forest develops, there 
the soil gives a strongly acid reaction to litmus paper. The soil of the 
lowland forest, on the other hand, always gives a faintly acid or neutral 
reaction to the same test. 

Although such conditions have often been ignored in American 
ecological papers, they are clearly recognized in Europe. "Warming in 
his "Ecology," for example, speaks of the importance of sour humus 
again and again. On page 62 he describes conditions practically iden- 
tical with those found in the Sugar Grove region as follows: "Raw 
(sour) humus appears in forests, especially in places exposed to wind, 
while ordinary humus, with its earthworms and other animals, reigns 
in places sheltered from dessication; when ordinary humus in the 
beech forest has given way to raw humus because of timber falls and 
such like, then the beech, being no longer capable of regenerating, 
disappears, and is often replaced by calluna heath." 

While the situation is more complicated in the case of cultivated 
fields, it seems not unlikely tliat exposure is an important factor in 
increasing their sterility just as with the forests. This prol^ability 
together with the fact that exposure and danger from Avash in large 
measure go band in hand would seem to lay down very clearly the 
lines along which experimentation should proceed. 

The only practicable method of reducing exposure is, of course, 
reforestation. Reforestation of ail washed slopes and of all in danger 
of washing, would not only save the soil in many fields where it is cer- 
tain to be washed off sooner or later, but would provide windbreaks 
sufficient to protect the larger part of the more level upland fields. 


The best and most profitable method of accomplishing reforesta- 
tion under the varied conditions presented are of course matters to be 
determined by experiment. But it cannot be doubted that tree plant- 
ing would be profitable on much land that is now going utterly to 
waste. White pine (Piniis strohus) has been recommended as the best 
tree to plant in this sort of country, but in view of the imminent lia- 
bility of the introduction of the pine rust (Peridermium strohi) it is 
doubtful whether this species should be used. The observations re- 
ported above (p. 295) indicate the advisability of giving the tulip-tree 
(Liriodendron tulipifera) a trial even on the steep slopes. The prob- 
ability is that it would not succeed in some of the most difficult situa- 
tions which might be first seeded to some quick-growing cover. But 
where it could be grown it would appear, on account of its rapid 
growth, valuable timber, and freedom from insect and fungus enemies, 
to be the most promising species with which to experiment. 

Map Showing Roads and Localities in the Sugar Grore Area. 
Scale 3 miles per inch. 



The Sugar Grove region has been collected over by all of the Bot- 
anists resident in Central Ohio from the time of Sullivant down. The 
specimens gathered by later collectors have to a large extent been 
deposited in the State Herbarium at Columbus until there has accumu- 
lated a fairly representative, though by no means complete, collection 
of the plants of the region. The list which follows is mainly a compil- 
ation of those species represented in the State Herbarium from either 
Fairfield or Hocking Counties. Some, however, are taken from Bige- 
low's list (see below) or were noted but not collected by the writer. 
An effort has been inade to collect all those species whose occurrence or 
determination any one might wish to verify, but many of the common- 
est plants, such, for example, as Rumux oMusifolius, were simply noted 
as seen but were not pressed. For tlie protection of those who use the 
catalog, however, all species not represented in the State Herbarium 
are specifically noted. 

The wi'itcr lias not attempted to verify the determinations system- 
atically, since they were all made by competent authority and most 
of them were verified by the late Prof. W. A. Kellerman. But when- 
ever a species has aroused suspicion because apparently out of range 
or for any other reason, the specimen has been carefully scrutinized. 

There may be grounds for criticizing the writer for including all 
plants known from the two counties in which the area lies rather than 
confining the list to plants known to occur in the region proper. Since, 
however, the region has no sharp boundaries and its limits have been 
somewhat arbitrarily fixed by the writer it will l)e seen that it would 
be altogether impossible to determine whether a given herbarium 
specimen with a more or less indefinite record of locality was collected 
within its limits or not. The increase in the apparent size of the flora 
from this cause, however, is not believed to be great, because, except 
for the special conditions in Buckeye Lake, the country is of sufficiently 
uniform character to make it probable that any plant reaching either 
of the counties in which the area lies, occurs at least as a straggler with- 
in the area, even though it might not be easy to fliid it there. 

In the preparation of Ibis floi-a T have dei-ivcd very great assist- 
ance from the unpublished manuscript of Ihe Fifth State Catalog of 
Ohio Plants ])y my colleague. Professor John H. Schaffner, 1o whom 
indebtedness is gratefully acknowledged. The arrangement, except in 
minor details, follows SchaffiitM-'s ])liyl('ti(' system which llic wi-itor 


confidently believes ^\ill be found, when once the worker becomes famil- 
iar with it, as far superior to the classification of Engler now generally 
used as was that to DeCandolle's which it superceded. Those un- 
familiar with the new arrangement will doubtless experience some in- 
convenience in using it at first, but that is a ditficulty inherent in any 
nnprovement. At the end, I have added a Synopsis-summary by which 
the location of the families may readily be found. 

The nomenclature, following the Ohio list is that of the second 
edition of Britton & Brown's Illustrated Flora. Recent synonyms have 
been added where they seemed necessary or desirable to make the list 
intelligible to all readers. 

The Sugar Grove region is unique for this part of the country in 
that its flora was worked up by John M. Bigelow*, more than seventy 
years ago. Bigelow was an able botanist, companion and friend of Sul- 
livant, for whose ability one finds an increasing respect as he scrutinizes 
his work. Basing my judgment almost entirely on his remarkable list, 
I have great confidence in his determinations and have unhesitatingly 
included most of them in the present list. He found a very large num- 
ber of very rare plants just on the edges of their ranges or just beyond 
their present range as we know it, but there are few if any ''wild" 
reports of species entirely out of range such as one would find in the 
inaccurate work of a less able man. He lists 871 species and varieties 
all of which with two exceptions he found growing in Fairfield County. 
His list includes a number of plants, specimens of which are not now 
definitely known from Ohio. Most of these have been included on his 
authority marked "Fide Bigelow." Many of them are plants whose 
general range is such as to make their occurrence higlil>' jn-obable and 
others are so distinctive that there could be no question of their proper 
determination. They are : 

Rammciilns reptans L. "Nfd. to Pa. northwanl and westward." 

Delphinium earolinianum "Va. N. C, and Ga., to Ark., Mo., ^linii., and Sask. " 

Polypola incarnata. N. J. to S. Ont., Wise, Neb., and sonthw. 

Trifolinni reflexum. Included on state list but no Ohio specimens knoAvn to us. 

Lithospermum officinale. A European escape not apparently establishing itself. 

Trisetum pahistre. "Mass. to 111. and southw. " 

Panicularia acutitlora "Me. to Del. w. to Ohio." 

Carex vesicaria. ' ' E. Que. to B. C. s. to Pa., Gt. Lake region, etc. ' ' 

*Bis:elow. .John M. Florula Ijancastriensis or a catalog of nearly all the flowering 
and felicoid plants growing naturally within the limits of Fairfield County with notes of 
such as are medicinal. Proc. Med. Convent of Ohio at Columbus. May, 1841, pp. 49-79. 


Some of Bigelow's plants belong to species that were not well 
understood at the time or whose identity the writer is inclined to (lues- 
tion for other reasons. These are not included in the list ; they are : 

Ranunculus pusillus. "Near the coast S. N. Y. to Fla. and Tex., n. in the Miss, basin 

to Mo. and Tenn." 
Viola cucculata. Determination doubtful. 
Viola labradorica. Determination doubtful. 
Viola sagitatta. Determination doubtful. 
Silene regia. Probably S. rotundifolia. 
Oxalis stricta. Determination doubtful. 
Acer spicatum. This is almost certainly absent now, l:ut its habitat is such that 

it could hanlly have become extinct. It is, however, difficult to imagine what 

could have been mistaken for it. 
Lythrum hysopifolium. "Near the coast Me. to N. J. Also on the Paeifie Coast." 
Antennaria dioica. • Evidently a misdetermination. European species included in 

Gray's manual as "found by Geo. Thurber in 1844, but not since collected." 
Hicoria glabra? Queried by Bigelow. 
Scutellaria nervosa? Queried by Bigelow. 
Chenopodium urbicum. No Ohio specimens extant. 
Polygonum hirsutum? Queried by Bigelow. 
Polygonum mite. A European species. 
Rumex aquaticus. Synonomy doubtful. 
Jnncus polycephalus. Synonomy doubtful. 
"Leimanthium virginicum Willd. " Synonomy doubtful. 
Sparganium ramosum. Synonomy doubtful. 
Potomogeton compressum. Synonomy doubtful. 
Potomogeton gramineum. Synonomy doubtful. 
Panicum nitidum. Synonomy doubtful. 
Panicum involutum. Synonomy doubtful. 
Aristida stricta? Queried by Bigelow. 
Elymus villosus. Synonomy doubtful. 
Isolepis capillaris. Synonomy doulitful. 
Carex acuta. Synonomy doubtful. 
Carex ance])s. Synonomy doubtful. 
Carex arida. Synonomy doubtful. 
Carex bullata. "Mass. to Del., local." Formerly iiielude.l in the Ohio list, but no 

Ohio specimens known. 
Carex paniculata. Synonomy doubtful. 
Carex sylvatica? Queried by Bigelow. 
Carex tentaculata. Synonomy dnulitful. 
Carex tetanica? Queried by Bigelow. 
Equisetum limosum? Queried by Bigelow. 

He further rej)orts a very consider!il)le iiumhcr of plants which are not other- 
wise definitely known from the region. Some of these, like Chenopodium hofrns. 
are the commonest of jjlants. which have merely failed of notation by later workers, 
but many are verv rare if. ind I. tlicy are still to l>e found in the area. It does 


not appear safe, however, to assert that any are extinct except a few species like 
Cypripedium reginae and Dasyphora fruticosa, which are so conspicuous that they 
could hardly have been overlooked if they still occurred. These are included in the 
list on Bigelow 's authority. 


Class, FELICES, Ferns. 


Order, Ophioglossales. 
Family, Ophioglossaceae, Adder-tongue Family. 

Ophioglossum vulgatum L. Adder-tongue. A few plants formerly grew in Stukey's 
swamp. (Sec. 4, Berne Twp.) I have lujt been able to find any since the 
station was linnbere<l in 1912. 

Botrychium obliquum Muhl. Obligue Grape-fern. 

Botrychium dissectum Spreng. Cutleaf Grape-fern. 

Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. A^irginia Grape-fern. Common. 

Subclass, Leptosporangiatae. 
Osmundaceae, Royal-fern Family. 

Osmunda regalis L. Royal fern. 
Osmunda claytoniaua L. Clayton fern. 
Osmunda cinnamomea L. Cinnamon fern. 

Polypodiaceae, Polypody Family. 
Polypodium vulgare L. Common polypody. Common on the edges of cliffs. 
Adiantum pedatuni L. Maidenhair fern. Common. 
Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn. Brake. 
Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link. Purple Cliff-brake. Not known in our area and 

generally confined to limestone cliff's, but occurs on Blackhand Cliffs, near the 

village of Hanover, Licking Co. 
Asplenium pinnatifidum Xutt. Pinnatifid Spleenwort. Common. 
Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes. (A. eboneum Ait.). Ebony Spleenwort. 
Asplenium trichonianes L. Maidenhair Spleenwort. 

Asplenium pycnocarpan Spreng. (A. angustifolium Mx.). Narrow-leaf Spleenwort. 
Asplenium montanum Willd. Mountain Spleenwort. In one hollow near Sugar 

Grove, at Pine Grove, on Little Rocky Branch, and at Cedar Falls. 
Athyrium thelypteroides (Mx.) Desv. (Asplenium achrostichoides Sw.). Silvery 

Athyrium filixfoemina (L.) Roth. Lady Fern. No specimen. 
Camptosorus rhizophyllus (L.) Link. Walking Fern. Commonly reputed a plant 

of calcareous regions, but common in our area. Not found, however, in the 

extremely humid hemlock ravines of the southern half of the area. 
Polystichum achrostichoides (Mx.) Schott (Aspidium). Christmas Fern. 
Dryopteris noveboracensis (L.) Gr. (Aspidium). New York Fern. 
Dryopteris cristata (L.) Gr. (Aspidium). Crested Shield- fern. 


Dryopteris goldieana (Hook.) Gr. (Aspidium). Goldie's Shield-fern. Not common. 
Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gr. (Aspidiiun). Marginal Shield-fern. 
Dryopteris spinulosa (Eetz.) Ktz. (Aspidium). Spinulose Shield-fern. 
Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.) Gr. (Aspidium). 
Phegopteris phegopteris (L.) Und. (P. polypodioides Fee, Dryopteris). Long 

Phegopteris hexagonaptera (Mx.) Fee. (Dryopteris). Broad Beech-fern. 
Filix bulbifera (L.) Und. (Cystopteris). Bulbous Bladder-fern. 
Filix fragilis (L.) Und. (Cystopteris). Fragile Bladder-fern. 
Woodsia obtusa (Spreng.) Torr. Obtuse Woodsia. 
Dennstaedtia punctilobula (Mx.) Moore. (Dicksonia). Hay-scented fern. In 

this area never occurs in its customary habitat, but is limited to the faces of the 

Onocloea sensibilis L. Sensitive fern. 


Class, EQUISETEAE, Horsetails and Scouring-rushes. 

Equisetum hyemale L. Common Scouring-rush. 

Equisetum praelitum Eaf (E. robustum A. Br.). Great Scouring-rush. 

Equisetum arvense L. Field Horsetail. 


Class, LYCOPODIEAE, Lycopods. 
Lycopodiaceae, Club-moss Family. 
Lycopodium lucidulum Mx. Shining Cluli-moss. 
Lycopodium porophilum, Lloyd & Underw. Eock Club-moss. Common on the cliffs. 

Easily separated from the last, but probably not distinct from it. 
Lycopodium obscurum L. Ti'ee Club-moss. Only a few widely scattered clumps, 

mostly in the southern half of the area. 
Lycopodium clavatum L. Common Club-moss. A few clumps in the canyon above 

the "Gulf." Not otherwise known for more than a hundred miles to the north- 
Lycopodium eomplanatum L. Trailing ( 'liib-iiuiss. Not common; confined to the 

southern half of the area or at least very rare around Sugar Grove. 

None of the Lycopods are known to extend southwnrd or westward in Ohio 

beyond the present area. 

Class, SELAGINELLEAE, Selaginellas. 
Selaginellaceae, Selaginella Family. 
Selaginella rujjestris (L.) Spring. Eock Selaginella. Found only at Kettle Hills, 
on the northern boundary of the area, and on a higli, bare knob soutli of Clear 
Creek in section 20, Good Hope Twp. 



Class, CONIFERAE, Conifers. 
Pinaceae, Pine Family. 
Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. Hemlock. Common throughout the area, but occurs 

in pure stands only in the southern half. 
Finns rigida Mill. Pitch Pine. On the edge of its range. 
Pinus virginiana Mill. Scrub Pine. On the edge of its range. 

Juniperaceae, Juniper Family. 
Juniperus virginiana L. Red Cedar. Common, but nowhere abundant. 

Taxaceae, Vew Famih-. 
Taxus canadensis Marsh. American Yew. Abundant in the Hemlock forest in the 
southern portion of the area, but absent from the northern portion. 


Class, MONOCOTYLAE, Monocotyls. 
Subclass, Helobiae. 
Alismaceae, Water-plantain Family. 
Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Broad-leaf Arrowhead. Common in a few suitable 

Alisma subcordatum Raf. (A. plantago-aquatica L.). American Water-plantain. 

Scheucherlzaceae, Arrow-grass Family. 
Triglochin maritima L. Fide Bigelow. 

Potomogetonaceae, Pond-weed Family. 
Potomogeton n;itaiis L. Common Floating Pondweed. Swamps along the old canal. 

Nynipheaceae, Water-lily Family. 
Brasenia schreberi Gmel. B. purpurea Mx. Casp.). Water-shield. Fide Bigelow. 
Nymphaea advena Ait. Spatterdoek. 

Subclass, Spadiciflorae. 

Sparganiaceae, Burr-reed Family. 
Sparganium eurycarpum Englm. Broad-fruited Burr-reed. No herbarium specimen, 

noticed at the mouth of the first hollow north of Crystal Springs. 
Sparganium americanum Xutt. Fide Bigelow. 

Typhaceae, Cat-tail Family. 
Typha latifolia L. Common Cat-tail. Along the old canal. Xo herbarium specimen. 



Araceae, Arum Family. 
Acorus calamus L. Sweet-flag. 

Spathema foetida (L.) Raf. (Symplocarpus). Skunk-eabbage. Common in suit- 
able habitats. No specimen. 
Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Torr. Jack-in-the-pulpit. 
Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott. Dragon-root. 

Lemnaceae, Duck-weed Family. 
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleid. Greater Duckweed. 
Lemna trisulea L. Star-duckweed. 
Lemna minor L. Lesser Duckweed. 
WolfHa Columbiana Karst. Wolffia. Known only from Buckeye Lake. 

Subclass, Glumiplorae. 
Cyperaceae, Sedge Family. 

Cyperus flavescens L. Yellow Cyperns. 

Cyperns esculentns L. Fide Bigelow. 

Cyperus speciosus Vahl. Fide Bigelow. 

Cyperus strigosus L. Straw-colored Cyperus. Common. No specimen. 

Cyperus filiculmis Vahl. Slender Cyperus. 

Kyllingia pumila Mx. 

Dulichium arundinaceum (L.) Britt. 

Eleocharis obtusa Sehultes. Fide Bigelow. 

Eleocharis acieularis (L.) R. & S. Needle Spike-rush. 

Eleocharis tenuis Sehultes. Fide Bigelow. 

Fimbristylis autumnalis (L.) R. & S. 

Scirpus validus Vahl. (S. lacustris L.) Only in Buckeye Lake. 

Scirpus atrovirens Muhl. 

Scirpus polyphyllus Vahl. 

Scirpus lineatus Mx. Reddish Bulrush. Fide Bigelow. 

Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth. Wool-grass. 

Rynchospora alba (L.) Vahl. Fide Bigelow. 

Rhynchospora glomerata (L.) Vahl. Clustered Beaked-rush. 

Scleria triglomerata Mx. Tall Nut-rush. Fide Bigelow. 

Scleria panciflora Muhl. Papillose Nut-rush. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex asa-grayii Bailey (C. grayii Carey). 

Carex bromoides Sehkr. Fide Bigelow. 

€arex cephalophora ?*Iuhl. 

Carex conjuneta Boott. 

Carex eareyana Dewey. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex costellata Britt. (('. viresecus Muhl). 

■Carex crinita Lam. 

Carex cristatella Britt. (C. eristata Schwein). 

Carex davisii Schw. & Torr. Fide Bigelow. 


Carex decomposita Mulil. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex digitalis Muhl. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex festucacea Schk. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex frankii Kunth. 

Carex gracillima Schw. 

Carex hitehcoekiana Dewey. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex hysterecina Muhl. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex intiimescens Rudge. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex janiesii Schw. 

Carex lanuginosa Mx. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex laxiflora Lam. 

Carex laxiflora varians Bailey. 

Carex leptalea Wahl. 

Carex hipulina Muhl. 

Carex hipulina var. pedunculata Dewey. 

Carex lurida Wahl. 

Carex oligoearpa Schk. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex pennsylvanica Lam. 

Carex plantaginea Lam. 

Carex platyphylla Carey. 

Carex prasina Wahl. 

Carex pseudo-eyperus L. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex pubescens Muhl. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex retroflexa Muhl. 

Carex riparia Curtis. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex rosea Schkr. 

Carex rosea radiata Dewey. 

Carex shortiana Dew. & Torr. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex sparganioides Muhl. 

Carex squarrosa L. 

Carex stellulata Goodn. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex stipata Goodn. 

Carex straminea Willd. Fide Bigelow. 

Carex tribuloides Schkr. 

Carex triceps Mx. 

Carex tuckermanii Dewey. 

Carex vesiearia L. Fide Bigelow. Not otherwise known in Ohio. 

Carex vulpinoidea Mx. 

Carex willdenovii vSchk. Fide Bigelow. 

Graminaceae, Grass Family. 
Broinus ciliatus L. Wood Chess. 
Brcinuis purgans L. Pubescent Brome-grass. 
Bromus tectorum Tj. Downy Brome-grass. 
Bromus secalinus L. Cheat. Common. No specimens. 
Bromus racemosus L. Upright Chess. 
Festuca octoflora Walt. (F. tenella.) Slender Fescue-grass. 


Paniciilaria aciitifiora (Torr.) Ktze. (Glyceria). Fide Bigelow. Given by the 
manuals from the state as reaching Ohio, but authentic specimens are not 
known to us. ; 

Panicularia fiuitans (L.) Ktz. (G. septentrionalis Hitch.)- Floating Manna-grass. 
Fide Bigelow. 

Panicularia torreyana (Spreng) Merr. Long Manna-grass. Otherwise known only 
from tlie northeastern counties of the state. 

Panicularia nervata (Willd.) Ktz. Nerved Manna-grass. 

Panicularia pallida (Torr.) Ktze. Fide Bigelow. Now known only from Ottawa Co. 

Poa annua L. Low Spear-grass. 

Poa pratensis L. Kentucky Blue-grass. Common. No specimen. 

Poa compressa L. Wire-grass. 

Poa trivialis L. Eoughish Meadow-grass. Fide Bigelow. 

Poa triflora Gilib. (P. flava L.) Fowl Meadow-grass. 

Poa sylvestris Gray. 

Poa brevifolia ^luhl. Short-leaf Spear-grass. 

Dactylis glomerata L. Orchard-grass. Common. No specimen. 

Eragrostis pilosa (L.) Beauv. Fide Bigelow. 

Eragrostis frankii Steud. Frank's Eragrostis. 

Eragrostis major Host. (E. megastachya). Stinking Eragrostis. 

Eragrostis capillaris (L.) Nees. Fide Bigelow. 

Eragrostis pectinaeea (ilx.) Steud. Purple Eragrostis. 

Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B. S. P. Fide Bigelow. 

Sphenopolis obtusata (Mx.) Scribn. (Eatonia). Blunt-seeded Eaton-grass. Fide 
Bigelow. No specimens in State herbarium. 

Sphenopolis pallens (Spreng.) Scribn. Tall Eaton-grass. 

Sphenopolis nitida (Spreng.) Scribn. 

Phragmites phragmites (L.) Karst. (P. communis Trin.) Eeed. Fide Bigelow. 

Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. Wild Oat-grass. 

Trisetum pennsylvanicum (L.) Beauv. Marsh False-oats. Fide Bigelow. No speci- 
mens in State herbarium. 

Deschampsia flexuosa (L.) Trin. Fide Bigelow. Now known only from Portage Co. 

Nothoholeus lanatus (L.) Nash. (Holcus). A^elvet-grass. 

LoUum perenne L. Darnel. 

Hordeum jnliatnm L. Squirrel Tail-grass. Common. No specimen. 

Elymus virginicus L. Virginia Wild-rye. 

Elymus striatus Willd. Fide Bigelow. 

Hystrix hystrix (L.) Millsji. (H. patula). Bottle Brush-grass. Fide Bigelow. 

Eleusine indica Gaertn. Wire-grass. 

Agrostis alba (L.) White. Bent-grass. 

Agrostis schweinitzii Trin. (A. perenaus) Thin-grass. 

Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B. S. P. Hair-grass. 

Cimia aruudinacea L. Wood Eeed-grass. 

.Miipocunis gciiicidatus L. ^farsh Fox-tail. Fide Bigelow. 

Phleuiii pratense L. Timothy. 

Muhlenliergia mcxicana (L.) Triii. Mi'.-idow Muhlcnhcrgia. 

Mehlenbergia tenuiflora (Willd.) B. S. P. Slender Muhlenbergia. 


Muhleiibergia diffusa Schreb. Drop-seed Grass. 

Brachylytriini erectuni Sehreb. 

Aristida dichotoma Mx. Poverty Grass. 

Savastana odorata (L.) Scrib. (Hierachloa borealis R. & S.). Vanilla Grass. Fide 

Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Sweet Vernal-grass. Fide Bigelow. 
Paniciim stipitatnm Nash. 
Panicum virgatum L. Switch Grass. 
Panieum capillare L. Tumble Grass. 
Panicum linearifolium Scrib. 
Panicum dichotomum L. 
Panicum microcarpon Muhl. 

Panic-uni lindheimeri Nash. Known only from Ashtabula and Hocking Counties. 
Panicum huachucae Ashe. 
Panicum sphaerocarpon Ell. 
Panicum polyanthes Schultes. 
Panicum commutatum Schultes. 
Panicum ashei Pear. 
Panicum clandestinum L. 
Panicum latifolium L. 

Syntlier'S'ua sano-uinalis (L.) Dulac (Digitaria Scop.). Crab-grass. 
Syntherisma ischaemum (Schraeb) Nash. (S. linearis, Digitaria liumifusa Pers.). 

S ?"'all Crab-grass. 
Echinoeliia crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Barnyard Grass. 
C'liaetocloa viridis (L.) Scrib. (Setaria L.). Green Foxtail. 
Chaetoeloa glauca (L.) Scrib. Yellow Foxtail is doubtless also common, but there 

is no specimen nor definite record. 
Homnloeenchrus oryzoides (L.) Pool. (Lcersia). Rice Cut-grass. Fide Bigelow. 
Ho-ualocenchrus virginieus (Willd.) Britt. (Leersia). Cut-grass. Fide Bigelow. 
Zizania aquatica L. (Zizan^ia palustris L. of Gr. Man). Wild Rice. Along the old 

canal in a pond about a mile above Logan. 
Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash. Indian-grass. Fide Bigelow. 
Andropogon scoparius Mx. Broom Beard-grass. 
Andropogon virginieus L. Virginia Beard-grass. 
Andropogon fureatus 2vluhl. Forked Beard-grass. 

Subclass, LlIIFLORAE. 

Liliaceae, Lily Family. 

Subfamily, Liliatae. 
Heamerocallis fulva L. Day-lily. 
Allium tricoccum Ait. Wild Leek. No specimen. 
Allium canadense L. ^Teadow Garlic. Fide Bigelow. 
Lilinm canadense L. Yellow Lily. 
Erythronium americanum Ker. Yellow Spring-lily. 
Erythronium alliidum Nutt. White Spriug-lily. 


Quamasia hyacinthina (Raf.) Britt. (Camass^!a esculenta). Wild Hyacinth. Fide 

Aletris farinosa L. Colic Root. Fide Bigelow. 

Subfamily, Melanthatae. 

Chamaelirium liiteum (L.) Gr. Chamaelirium. Fide Bigelow. 

Veratnim woodii Robbins. Wood 's False Hellebore. Fide Bigelow. Now known 

only from Auglaize County. 
Uvularia perfoliata L. Perfoliate Bellwort. 

Subfamily, Trilliatae. 

Medeola virginica L. Indian Cucumber-root. 

Trillium sessile L. Sessile Wake-robin. No specimen. 

Trillium grandiflorum (Mx.) Salisb. Large-flowered Wake-robin. 

Trillium ereetum L. Ill-scented Wake-robin. 

Subfamily, Convallariatae. 

Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus. Fide Bigelow. 

Vagnera racemosa (L.) Morong. (Smilacina). False Spikenard. 

Vagnera stellata (L.) Desf. (Smilacina). Stellate Solomon's Seal. Fide Bigelow. 

Ilnifolium canadense (Desf.) Greene (Miantliemum). Wild Lily-of-tlie-valley. 

Polygonatum biflorum (Walt.) Ell. (Salomonia). Common Solomon's Seal. No 

Polygonatum commutatum (R. & S.) Ell. (Salomonia). Large Solomon's Seal. 

Smilacaceae, Smilax Family. 

Smilax herbacea L. Carrion-flower. 

Smilax ecirrhata (Englm.) Wats. Upright Smilax. 

Smilax glauca Walt. Saw-brier. 

Smilax rotundifolia L. Greenbrier. 

Smilax hispida ^Nfuhl. Hispid Greenbrier. No specimen. 

Pontederiaceae, Pickerel-weed Family. 
Heteranthera dubia (Jacq.) MacM. Water Star-grass. Fide Bigelow. 

Commelinaceae, Spiderwort Family. 
Tradescantia virginica L. Spiderwort. 

Juncaceae, Rush Family. 
Juncus effusus L. Common Rush. 
Juncus tenuis Willd. Slender Rush. 
Juncus acuminatus Mx. Sharp-fruited Rush. 
Juncoides carolinae (Wats.) (Luzula saltucnsis Fernald). Hairy Wood-rush. On 

the edge of its range, known otherwise only in northern Ohio. 
Juncoides campestre (L.) Ktze. (Luzula). Common Wood-rusli. 

Xyridaceae, Yellow-eyed Grass Fiimily. 
Xyris earoliniana Walt. Fide Bigelow. No specimens known from the state. 


Amaryllidaceae, Amaryllis Family. 
Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville. Yellow Star-grass. 

Iridaceae, Iris Family. 

Iris versicolor L. Large Blue Flag. Common iu the marshes aroimd Lancaster. 

No specimen. 
Iris cristata Ait. Crested Dwarf Iris. A few stations, especially at the tops of 

waterfalls, e. g., at the Eock Bridge, in the southern section of the area. 
Sisyrinchium graminoides Bick. Blue-eyed Grass. No specimen. 

Dioscoreaceae, Yam Family. 
Dioscorea villosa L. Wild Yam. No specimen. 

Orchidales. ■ 

Orchidaceae, Orchid Family. 

Fissipes acaulis (Ait.) Siu. (Cypripedium). Stemless Lady-slipper. On the edge 

of its range, common on the uplands, but not nearly so abundant as in other 

parts of its range. 
Cypripedium roginae Walt. (C. speetabile, C. hirsutum). Showy Lady 's-slipper. 

Fide Bigelow. Almost certainly extinct now. 
Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens (Willd.) Knight. (C. hirsutum). Yellow 

Lady 's-slipper. Occasional in the Liriodendron forest. 
Galeorchis spectabilis (L.) Eydb. (Orchis). Showy Orchid. 
Perularia flava (L.) Eydb. (f) Fide Bigelow. Queried by Bigelow. 
Lysias orbieulata (Pursh) Eydb. (Habenaria). Large Eound-leaf Orchid. Fide 

Bigelow. Known only from three other counties. 
Blephariglottis lacera (Mx.) Farw. (Habenaria). Lacerate Orchid. A few indi- 
viduals only in Stukey 's Swamp. T have not been able to find any since the 

lumbering of 1912. 
Blephariglottis peramoena (Gr.) Eydb. Fringeless Purple Orchid. Occasional in 

the Liriodendron forest in the southern portion of the area. Not seen around 

Sugar Grove. 
Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker. Eose Pogonia. Fide Bigelow. Not now known 

south of Buckeye Lake. 
Isotria verticillata (Willd.) Eaf. On the edge of its range. Common in the pine 

woods, but never seen in flower and only once in fruit by the writer. 
Limnodorum tuberosum L. (Calojiogon jnichellus). Only from Buckeye Lake. 
Ibidium cernua (L.) House. (Gynostachys, Spiranthes). Nodding Lady 's-tresses. 

Common. No specimen. 
Ibidium beckii (Lidl.) House. (Spiranthes simplex). Little Tiady 's-tresses. A 

single specimen from near Lancaster, J. E. Hyde. The only Ohio station. 
Ibidium gracilis (Biegl) House. (Spiranthes). Slender Lady 's-tresses. Unlike most 

of the orchids, this plant withstands the clearing of the forest very well and is 

fairly common in pastures and along the road-side. 
Peramium pubescens (Willd.) MacM. (Goodyera, Epipactis). Downy K'attlesnake 

Plantain. Common but restricted to situations not covered witli autumn leaves. 


Malaxus unifolia Mx. (Microstylis, Achroanthus) . Green Adder 's-mouth. Incon- 
spicuous but not uncommon. Known in Ohici only from the present area and 
Wayne County. 

Aplectrum spieatum (Walt.) B. S. P. (A. hyemale). Putty Root. Fide Bigelou. 

Liparis lilifolia (L.) Rich. (Leptoreliis). Large Twayblade. 

Corallorhiza odontorhiza (Willd.) Nutt. Small flowered Coral-root. Rather com- 
mon in the fall. 

Corallorhiza maculata (C. multiflora) Xutt. Large Coral-root. 

Class, DICOTYLAE, Dicotyls. 

Suliclass, Thalamiflorae. 

Magnoliaceae, Magnolia Family. 
Magnolia acuminata L. Cucumber Tree. Fide Bigelow. 
Liriodendron tulipifera L. Tuliptree. 

Annonaceae, Custard-apple Family. 
Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal. Pawpaw. No specimen. 

Eanunculaceae, Crowfoot Family. 
Ranunculus reptans L. (R. flammula var.). Fide Bigelow. Not now known from 

Ranunculus abortivus L. Kidney-leaf Crowfoot. No specimen. 
Ranunculus scelcratns L. Celery-leaf Crowfoot. No specimen. 
Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. 
Ranunculus aeris L. Tall Buttercup. A single plant at the quarry siding, where cars 

are cleaned, Rockbridge. 
Ranunculus pennsylvanicus L. Bristly Buttercup. 
Ranunculus septentrionalis Poir. Swamp Buttercup. 
Ranunculus hispidus Mx. Hispid Buttercup. 
Trollius laxus Salisb. American Globe-flower. Fide Bigelow. Known only from 

(Columbiana and Stark Counties. 
Aquilegia canadensis L. Common Init not so abundant nor so thrifty as on the 

limestone cliffs near Columbus. 
Delphinium tricorne Mx. Dwarf Larkspur. Not seen within the area itself. 
Delphinium carolinianum Walt. (D. azinvum). Given by Bigelow. Not otherwise 

known in Ohio. 
Anemone virginiana L. Virginia Anemone. 
Anemone canadensis L. Canada Anemone. 
Hepatica hepatica (L.) Karst. (H. triloba). Round-lobed Hepatica. Only in the 

less steep ravines. The change from IT. ncuta to IT. lieiKitica is very striking 

as one goes south of our area into Vinton County. 
Hepatica acutiloba D. C. (H. acuta.) Sharp-lobed Hepatica. In the deeper canyons. 

The coiniuiin fdrni. 
Clematis virginiana L. Common Virgin's Bower. 
Viorna viorna (L.) Sm. (Clematis). Leather flower. 
Caltha palustris L. Marsh Marigold. 
Actea alba (L.) :\liii. White Baneberry. 


Cinuieifiiga racemosa (L.) Nutt. Black Cohosh. Often a dominant plant in the 
nnder herbage around Sugar Grove. Seldom abundant further south. 

Isopyrum biternatum (Raf.) T. & G. False Eue anemone. Fide Bigelow. I doubt 
if this can be found in the area proper. It is conspicuous by its absence. 

Syndesemon thalictroides (L.) Hohhm. (Anemonella). Rue Anemone. 

Thalictrum dioicum L. Early Meadow-rue. 

Thalietrum dasycarpum Fiseh. & Lall. (T. purpurascens). Purplish Meadow-rue. 

Thalictrum polygamum Muhl. Tall Meadow-rue. No specimen. 

Pamassiaceae, Grass-of Parnassus Family. 
Parnassia caroliniana Mx. Carolina Grass-of-Parnassus. A specimen from Lan- 
caster, J. E. Hyde. 

Ceratophyllaceae, Hornwort Family. 
Ceratophylhim demersum L. Hornwort. 

Berberidaceae, Barberry Family. 
Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) M.y. Blue Cohosh. No specimen. 
Jeffersonia diphylla (L.) Pers. No specimen. 
Podophyllum peltatum L. May-apple. No specimen. 

Menispermaceae, Moonseed Family. 
Menispermnm canadense L. Moonseed. No specimen. 

Lauraceae, Laurel Family. 
Sassafras sassafras (L.) Karst. (S. officinale). Sassafras. 
Benzoin aestivale (Nees.) Spicebush. 

Papaveraceae, Poppy Family. 
Sanguinaria canadensis L. Bloodroot. Strangely absent from most of the southern 
section, but present in Little Rocky Branch. Common in northern section. No 
Chelidonium majus L. Celendine. No specimen. 

Fumariaceae, Fumitory Family. 
Bicucula cuccularia (L.) Millsp. (Dicentra). Dutchman's Breeches. No specimen. 
Bieuceulla canadensis (Goldie) Millsp. (Dicentra). Squirrel Corn. No specimen. 
Capnoides sempervirens (L.) Borck. (Corydalis). Pink Corydalis. 

Brassicaceae, Mustard Family. 
Draba verna L. Vernal Whitlaw-grass. No specimen. 
Camelina sativa (L.) Krantz. Common Toad-flax. Fide Bigelow. 
Bursa bursa-pastoris (L.) Britt. (Capsella). Shepherd's Purse. No specimen. 
Armoracia armoracia (L.) Britt. (Roripa). Horseradish. 
Radicula palustris (L.) Moench. Marsh Yellow Cress. 
Lepidium virginicnm L. Pepper-grass. 

Cheirinia cheiranthoides (L.) Link. Worm-seed Mustard. Fide Bigelow. 
Erysimum officinale L. (Sisybrium). Hedge Mustard. No specimen. 


Barbarea barbarea (L.) MacM. (B. vulgaris). Winter Cress. No specimeu. 

Arabis hirsnta (L.) Scop. Hairy Eock-eress. 

Arabis laevigata (Muhl.) Torr. Smooth Eock-cress. 

Arabis canadensis L. Sickle Pod. Fide Bigelow. 

Arabis glabra (L.) Bernh. Towner Mustard. Fide Bigelow. 

Cardamine hirsuta L. Hairy Bitter-cress. 

Cardamine pennsylvanica Muhl. Pennsylvania Bitter-cress. 

Cardamine parviflora L. Small-flowered Bitter-cress. 

Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb.) B. S. P. Bulbous Bitter-cress. 

Cardamine rotundifolia Mx. Eound-leaf Bitter-cress. Fide Bigelow. Now known 

only from Belmont and Noble counties. 
Dentaria laciniata Muhl. Cut-leaf Toothwort. 
Dentaria diphylla Mx. Two-leaf Toothwort. At the head of Laurel Eun and in one 

or two other stations. 
Dentaria heterophylla Nutt. Common in the deep canyons of the southern half of 

the area. Not around Sugar Grove. 
Brassica nigra (L.) Koch. Black Mustard. 

Geraniaceae, Geranium Family. 
Geranium maculatum L. Wild Geranium. 
Geranium earolinianum L. Carolina Crane's-bill. Fide Bigelow. 

Oxalidaceae, Wood-sorrel Family. 
Oxalis eornieulata L. No specimen. 
Oxalis cymosa Small. 
Oxalis grandis Small. 
Oxalis violacea L. No specimen. 

Limnanthaceae, False-!Mermaid Family. 
Floerkia proserpinaeoides Willd. False-Mermaid. Fide Bigelow. 

Linaceae, Flax Family. 
Linum virginianum L. Yellow Flax. 

Balsamiaceae, .Tewelweed Family. 
Impatiens biflora Walt. Spotted .Tewelweed. No specimen. 
Impatiens pallida Nutt. (I. aurea). l^ellow Jewelweed. No specimen. 

Rutaceae, Rue Family. 
Xanthoxylum americanum Mill. Prickly Ash. Fide Bigelow. 

Simarubaceae, Ailanthus Family. 
Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. Trce-of-Hoavcn. No specimen. 

Polygalaceae, Milkwort Family. 
Polygala verticiliata L. Whoried .Milkwort. 
Polygala ambigua Nutt. Loose-sjtike Milkwort. 
Polygala viridescoiis L. Purple Milkwort. 


Polygala senega L. Seneca Snakeroot. Fide Bigelow. 

Polygala incarnata L. Pink Milkwort. Fide Bigelow. Xo authentic specimens are 
now known from Ohio. 

Euphorbiaceae, Spurge Family. 

Aealypha virginica L. Virginia Three-seeded Mercury. 
Acalypha graeiliens Gr. Slender Three-seeded Mercury. 

Titythynialus lathrus (L.) Hill. (Euphorbia). Caper Spurge. Known from Hock- 
ing County only. 
Titythynialus obtusatus (Pursh) K. & G. Blunt-leaf Spurge. Fide Bigelow. 
Titythymalopsis corallata (L.) K. & G. (Euphorbia). Flowering S]mrge. 
Chamaesyce preslii (Guss) Arth. (Euphorbia nutans). Nodding Spurge. 
Chamaesyce maculata (L.) Small. (Euphorbia). Milk Spurge. 

Callitrichaceae, Water Starwort Family. 
Callitriche sp. Fide Bigelow. 

Malvaceae, Mallow Family. 
Abutilon abutilon (L.) Eusby (A. theophrasti Medic). Velvet Leaf. Common. 

No specimen. 
Malva rotundifolia L. Low Mallow. Xo specimen. 
Xapaea dioica L. Glade Mallow. 
Sida spinosa L. Prickly Sida. Xo specimen. 
Hibiscus militaris Cav. Fide Bigelow. 

Tiliaceae, Linden Family. 
Tilia americana L. Basswood. 

Hypericaceae, St. .Tohn"s-wort Family. 

Ascron hypericoides L. St. Andrew 's Cross. 

Hypericum ascyron L. Fide Bigelow. 

Hypericum prolificum L. Shrubby St. John 's-wort. 

Hypericum {tunctatum Lorn. (IL umculatum). Spotted St. John 's-wort. Fide 

Hypericum mutilum I,. Dwarf S. .Tohn 's-wort. 
Hypericum drummundii (Grev. & Hook.) T. & G. Drummond's St. John 's-wort. 

A single statiiui mi the to|> of the cliff overlooking the junction of "The Gulf' 

with the Canyon of Clear Creek, fairly numerous in 19(19, less so in 1910 and 

1911. The extreme eastern edge of its range. 
Sarothra gentianoides L. Orange Grass. Fide Bigelow. 

Cistaceae, Rock-rose Family. 
Crocanthemum niajus (L.) Britt. (Helianthemum). Hoary Frost-weed. 
Lechea minor L. Thyme-leaf Pinweed. 
Lechea racemubosa Mx. Oblong-fruited Pinweed. 

Violaceae, A'iolet Family. 
Cubelium concolor (Forst.) Raf. (Hybanthus). Green Violet. 


Viola canadensis L. Canada Violet. 

V^iola pubescens Ait. Hairy Yellow Violet. 

Viola striata Ait. Striped White Violet. 

Viola rostrata Pursli. Long-spurred Violet. Common. No specimen. 

Viola rotundifolia Mx. Round-leaf Yellow Violet. Collected by Kellerman near 

the Rock House, but seen by the writer only in Little Rocky Branch. 
Viola pallens (Banks) Brain. (V. leeontiana). Woodland White Violet. 
Viola blanda Willd. Sweet White ^'iolet. 
Viola lanceolata L. Lance-leaf Violet. A single plant, collected at Sugar Grove 

by Miss Lied. 
Viola affinis Le C. (V. ohliqua). Thin-leaf Violet. 
Viola papilionacea Pursh. Common Blue A'iolet. 
Viola hirsutula Brainerd. Southern Wood A'iolet. Not collected from any other 

area of the state. 
Viola palmata L. Early Blue Violet. 

Passifloraceae, Passion-flower Family. 

Passiflora lutea L. Yellow Passion-flower. Fairly common, but does not Hower 
freely; on the northern edge of its range. 

Subclass, Centrospermae. 
Caryophyllaceae, Pink Family. 
Subfamily, Alsinatae. 
Alsine media L. (Stellaria). Common Chickweed. No specimen. 
Alsine pubera (Mx.) Britt. (Stellaria). Great Chickweed. 

Alsine longiflora (:\luh].) Britt. (Stellaria). Long-leaf Stichwort. No specimen. 
Cerastium viscnsum L. Mouse-ear Chickweed. Fide Bigelow. 
Cerastium vulgatum L. Larger Mouse-ear Chickweed. 
Cerastium longipedunculatum Muhl. (C. nutans). Nodding Chickweed. Fide 

Arenaria seppyllifo]=:i L. Thyme-leaf Sandwort. 

Spergula arvensis L. (?) Fide Bigelow. (Queried by Bigelow.) Now known only 
from Lake County. 

Subfamily, Carycpiiyli.atae. 

Agrostema githago L. Corn Cockle. 

Silene stellata (L.) Ait. Starry Campion. 

Silene virginica L. Fire Pink. 

Silene rotundifolia Nutt. Round-Ion f Catchfly. Known only from Hocking and 
Jackson T'ounties. CormiKiii on the cliffs in the southern portion of the area 
u\> to Cantwrll Cliffs, which is. so far as i liavi' found, the norl hcnimost limit 
of its range; entirely lacking around Sugar Grove. 

Silene antirrhina L. Sleepy Catchfly. 

Silene noctiflora L. Fide Bigelow. 

Lychnis coroiin ri;i (L.) Desv. Midlriii Pink. 

Saponaria oliicinalis L. Hounciiig liet. 


Aizoaceae, Carpetweed Family. 
Mnllngo verticillata L. Carpetweed. 

Portulacaceae, Portulaea Family. 
Claytonia virginica L. Spring Beauty. No specimen. 
Portnlaca oleracea L. Purslane. No specimen. 

Phjrtolaccaceae, Pokeweed Family. 
PJiytolacca americana L. (P. decandra). Pokeweed. Common. No specimen. 

Corrigiolaceae, Whitlow-wort Family. 
Anyehia canadensis (L.) B. S. P. No specimen. 

Amaranthaceae, Amaranth Family. 
Amaranthus retroflexus L. Rough Pigweed. 
Amaranthus hybridus L. Fide Bigelow. 

Chenopodiaceae, Goosefoot Family. 
Chenopodium album L. Lamb 's-quarters. No specimen. 
Chenopodium hybridum L. Maple-leaf Goosefoot. 
Chenopodium ambrosoides L. Mexican Tea. 
Chenopodium botrys L. Fide Bigelow. 

Polygonaceae, Buckwheat Family. 
Rumex acetosella L. Sheep Sorrel. Common. No specimen. 
Rumex verticillatus L. Swamp Dock. Fide Bigelow. 
Rumex altissimus Wood. Tall Dock. 

Rumex britannica L. Great Water Dock. Old canal, about a mile above Logan. 
Rumex crispus L. Curly Dock. 

Rumex obtusifolius L. Broad-leaf Dock. Common. No specimen. 
Tiniaria convolvulus (L.) W. & M. Black Bindweed. Fide Bigelow. 
Tiniaria scandens (L.) Sm. Climbing False Buckwheat. No specimen. 
Tracaulon sagitatum (L.) Sm. Arrow-leaf Tear-thumb. 
Tracaulon arifolium (L.) Raf. Halberd-leaf Tear-thumb. In a few stations around 

Sugar Grove, the edge of its range. 
Fagopyrum fagapyrum (L.) Karst. (F. eseuleutum). Buckwheat. Commonly 

escaped. No specimens. 
Persicaria amphibia (L.) S. F. G. (Polygonum). Water Knotweed. 
Persicaria pennsylvanica (L.) Sm. Pennsylvania Knotweed. Abundant. No 

Persicaria persicaria (L.) Sm. Lady's Thumb. 
Persicaria hydropiperoides (Mx.) Sm. Mild Smartweed. 
Persicaria punctata (Ell.) Sm. (P. acre). Water Smartweed. 
Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spaeh. Prince's Feather. 
Tovaria virginiana CL.) Raf. (Polygonum). Virginia Knotweed. 
Polygonum aviculare L. Doorweed. No specimen. 


Polygonnin erectuiu L. Erect Knotweed. 

Polygoiuiin tenue .Mx. Slender Knotweed. Fide Bigelow. 

Saururaceae, Lizard "s-tail Family. 
Saururii8 cermuis L. Lizard's Tail. 

Subclass, Calyciflorae. 
Rosaceae, Rose Family. 

Subfamily, Rosatae. 

Geum vermim (Raf.) T. & G. Spring Avens. No specimen. 

Geum cana dense Jacq. White Avens. No specimen. 

Geum strictum Ait. Yellow Avens. 

Dasypliora fruiteosa (L.) Rydb. Shruliby Cinquefoil. Fide Bigelow. Almost cer- 
tainly extinct at present. 

Potentilla canadensis L. Common Five-finger. No specimen. 

Potentilla monspelieusis L. Rough Cinquefoil. 

Potentilla recta Ij. Upright Cinquefoil. 

Waldsteinia fragarioides (INIx.) Tratt. Barren Strawberry. Fide Bigelow. Cer- 
tainly very rare. 

Fragaria virginiana Duchesne. Virginia Strawberry. 

Fragaria vesca americana Porter. American Wood Strawlierry. No specimen. 

Fragaria vesca L. (White-fruited variety.) In the lower part of Kunkle's Hollow. 

Rubus odoratus L. Purple Flowering Raspberry. 

Rubus tritiorus Rich. (R. americanus). Dwarf Raspberry. 

Rubus oeeidentalis L. Black Raspberry. Common; as is also the forma paUidus, 
with amber fruit. No specimens. 

Rubus allegheniensis Port. High Bush Blackberry. Has also recently been called 
Rubus villosus, R. canadensis, and R. nigrobaccus. 

Rubus procumbus ^Nluhl. Dewberry. Has also been known recently as R. canadensis, 
and R. villosus. 

Porterauthus stipulatus (Muhl) Britt. (Gillenia). American Ipecac. Fide Bigelow, 

Filipendula rubra (Hill) Rob. (Ulmaria). Queen-of-the-Prairie. Fide Bigelow. 

Opulaster opulifolius (L.) Ktze. (Physcocarpus). Nine Bark. Fide Bigelow. 

Spiraea alba Du Roi. (S. salicifolia). Narrow-leaf Spiraea. Fide Bigelow. 

Spiraea tomentosa L. Hardback. 

Aruncus aruncus (L.) Karst. (A. sylvoster). Goat's Beard. 

Rosa setigera Mx. Prairie Rose. 

Rosa Carolina L. Swamp Rose. 

Rosa virginiana Mill. (R. humilis). Low Rose. 

Rosa rubiginosa L. Swectbricr (Hose). Fide Bigelow. 

Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. Common Agrimony. Fide Bigelow. 

Agrimonia parvif ora Sohmd. Small-fiowercd Agrimony. 

Sanguisorba canadensis L. American Burnet. Fide P.igelow. 


Subfamily, Malatae. 
Mains eoronaria (L.) Mill. (Pyrus angustifolia). Narrow-leaf Crab-apple. 
Mains glaucescens Eehd. (P. eoronaria). American Crab-apple. 
Mains mains (L.) Britt. (Pyrus). Common Apple. 

Aronia melanoearpa (Mx.) Britt. (Pyrus, A. nigra). Black Chokeberry. Not un- 
common among the Huckleberries. 
Amalanchier canadensis (L.) Med. Service Berry Shad Bush. 
Amalanchier botryapium (L. f.) T. & G. Fide Bigelow. 
Crategns crns-galli L. Cockspur Thorn. No specimen. 
Crategus punctata Jacq. Large fruited Thorn. 
Crategus coccinea L. Scarlet Thorn. 
Crategus succulenta Schred. (C. maerocantha). Long-spine Thorn. 

Subfamily Amygdai-atae. 
Prunns virginiana L. (P. serotina, Padus) Wild Black Cherry. 
Prunus nana Dn Roi. (P. virginiana, Padus) Choke Cherry. 
Prunus americana Marsh. Wild Plum. 
Amygdalus persica L. Peach. 

Fabaceae, Pea Family. 

Subfamily, Cassiatae. 

Cercis canadensis Ij. Redbud. Common all around the area and in the northern 
section but very rare in the southern section. A satisfactory hypothesis to 
account for this and some similar anomalies is beyond the imagination of the 
writer, but the absence of the redbud is exceedingly striking in the spring, 
when a single flowering tree can be seen for miles, so that there can be no 
question of the fact. No specimens. 

Chaniaeehrista nictitans (L.) Moench. Sensitive Pea. 

Chamaechrista faseicultata (Mx.) Greene. (Cassia Chamaechrista). Partridge Pea. 

Cassia marylandica L. Wild Senna. 

Gleditschia tricanthos L. Honey Locust. 

Gymnocladus dioica (L.) Koch. Coffee-bean. This species reaches the edge of 
its range immediately to the west of the Sugar Grove area. After some search 
a single tree was found close by the Leaning Rock on the Clear Creek Road. 
No specimen. 

Subfamily, Fabatae. 
Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. Blue Wild-indigo. Fide Bigelow. 
Baptisia leucantha T. & G. Large White Wild-indigo. Fide Bigelow. 
Melilotus alba Desv. White Sweet-clover. 
Trifolium procumbens L. Low Hop-clover. 
Tri folium pratense L. Red Clover. No specimen. 
Trifolium reflexnm L. Buffalo Clover. Fide Bigelow. Known onh- from Lawrence 

Trifolium hybridum L. Alsike Clover. 
Trifolium rejiens L. White Clover. No specimen. 
Psoralea onobrychis Nutt. Fide Bigelow. 
Cracca virginiana L. (Tephrosia) Goat'.^-rue. 


Robinia pseudacacia L. Black Locust. No specimen. 

Robinia viscosa Vent. Clammy Locust. 

Astragalus carolinianus L. Carolina Milk-vetch. No specimen. 

Stylosanthes biflora (L.) B. S. P. (S. elatior). Pencil Flower. A few specimens 
on Queer Creek. Also recorded for Fairfield County by Bigelow. The northern 
edge of its range. 

Meibomia nudiflora (Desmodium) (L.) Ktze. Naked-flowered Tick-trefoil. 

Meiboniia grandiflora (L.) Ktze. (Desmodium). Pointed-leaf Tiek-trefoil. Fide 

Meibomia michauxii A'ail (Desmodium rotundifolium). Prostrate Tick-trefoil. 

Meibomia eanescens (L.) Ktze. (Desmodium). Hoary Tick-trefoil. 

Meibomia bracteosa (Mx.) Ktze. (Desmodium cuspidatum). Large-bracted Tick- 
trefoil. Queer Creek Valley. No specimen. 

Meibomia paniculata (L.) Ktze. (Desmodium) Panicled Tick-trefoil. 

Meibomia viridiflora (L.) Ktze. (Desmodium) Velvet-leaf tiek-trefoil. 

Meibomia dillenii (Darl.) Ktze. Desmodium) Dilleu's Tick-trefoil. 

Meibomia canadensis (L.) Ktze. (Desmodium) Canadian Tick-trefoil. Fide Bigelow. 

Meibomia rigida (Ell.) Ktze. (Desmodium) Rigid Tick-trefoil. Known from Fair- 
field and Paulding Cos. only. 

Meibomia marylandica (L.) Ktze. (Desmodium) Maryland Tick-trefoil. Known 
only from Fairfield and Hocking Counties. 

Meibomia obtusa (Muhl.) Vail. (Desmodium eiliare). Ciliate Tick-trefoil. Old 
fields e. g. above Stukey's swamp; no specimen. 

Lespedeza repens (L.) Bart_ Creeping Bush-clover. 

Lespedeza proeumbens Mx. Trailing Bush-clover. 

Lespedeza violacaea (L.) Pers. Violet Bush-clover. 

Lespedeza frutescens (L.) Britt. 

Lespedeza hirta (L.) Ell. Hairy Bush-clover. 

licspedeza eapitata Mx. Round-headed Bush-clover. 

Vicia caroliniana Walt. Carolina Vetch. No specimen. 

Lathrus palustris L. Marsh Vetehling. Fide Bigelow. 

Falcata comosa (L.) Ktze. (Amphicarpea monica). Hog Peanut. 

Glycine apios (L.) MacM. (Apios tuberosa). Ground Nut. No specinuMi. 

Strophostyles helvola (L.) Britt. Trailing Wild-Bean. 

Crassulaceae, Orpine Family. 
Sedum ternatum :Mx. Wild Stonecrop. 
Penthorum sedoides Jj. Ditch Stonecrop. 

Saxifragaceae, Saxifrage F.-nnily. 
Micranthes pennsylvanica L. (Haw) (Saxifraga) Swani|. Saxifrage. Near tlie ].umi.- 

ing station N. E. "f Sugar Grove. No specinum. 
Micranthes virgiiiiensis (Mx.) Sm. Early Saxifarge. 
Sullivantia sullivantii (T. & G.) Britt. Sullivnntia. Abundant <... drippixg cliffs 

under waterfalls in the southern section ..f tlie ar.-a. Absent north of Cantwell 



Tiarella cordifolia L. False Miterwort. Abundant and often the dominant under- 
herb of the deep forest in the southern section of the area, but never seen 
around Sugar Grove. It is incomprehensible to me how such an abundant plant 
can drop out so completely in so short a distance under conditions apparently 
so nearly uniform. No specimen. 

Heuchera americana L. Alum-root. 

Mitella diphylla L. Bishop 's Cap. 

Chrysosplenium americanum Schw. Golden Saxifrage. 


Lythraceae, Loosestrife Family. 

Decodon verticillatus (L.) Ell. Water Willow. Only from Buckeye Lake. 
Parsonsia petiolata (L.) Rusby. (Cuphea viscosissima Jacq.). Tar-weed. 

Thymelaceae, Mezereum Family. 
Dirca palustris Ij. Leatherwood. Cantwell Cliffs. No specimen. 

Rhamnaceae, Buckthorn Family. 

Hhamnus lanceolata Pursch. I^anceleaf Buckthorn. Fide Bigelow. 

Ithamnus caroliniana Walt. Carolina Buckthorn. A specimen was collected and 
determined in the field as R. caroliniana by the writer on Big Pine Creek June 
20, 1911, but it was not jareserved. The only specimen in state herbarium is 
from Adams Co. 

■Ceonothus americanus L. New Jersey Tea. 
Vitaceae, Vine Family. 

Vitis aestivalis }\lx. Summer Grape. 
Vitis bicolor LeConte. Blue Grape. 
Vitis cordifolia Mx. Frost Grape. Fide Bigelow. 

Tarthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. (Psedera). Virginia Creeper. No 

Celastraceae, Staff-tree Family. 

Euonymus obovatus Nutt. Running Strawberry-bush. No specimen. 
Euonymus atropurpuretis Jacq. Walioo. Fide Bigelow. 
Celastrus scandens L. Climbing Bitter-sweet. 

Ilicaceae, Holly Family. 
Hex verticillata (L.) Gr. Fever Bush. 

Staphyleaceae, Bladdernut Family. 
Staphylea trifolia L. American Bladdernut. No specimen. 


Aesculaceae, Buckeye Family. 

Aesculus glabra Willd. Ohio Buckeye. No Specimen. 
.Aesculus octandra Marsh. Sweet Buckeye. 


Aceraceae, Maple Family. 
Acer spicatum Lam. Mountain Maple. Was reported by Bigelow. It is unknown 

to the writer. 
Acer saccharinum L. Silver Maple. No specimen. 

Acer rubruni L. Red ^laple. Common on both uplands and lowlands. 
Acer saccharum Marsh. Sugar ^laple. 
Acer nigrum "Six. Black Sugar Maple. 
Acer negundo L. Box Elder. 

Anacardiaceae, Sumac Family. 

Rhus copallina L. Upland Sumac. 

Rhus hirta (L.) Sudw. (R. typliina). Staghorn Sumac. 

Rhus glabra L. Smooth Sumac. 

Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Ktz. (Rhus) Poison Sumac. A single individual along 
the road near the center of section 4, Berne Twp., the extreme southern limit 
of the species. Reported by Bigelow without comment. Undoubtedly once 
far more plentiful than now. 

Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Ktz. (Rhus) Poison Ivy. No specimen. 

Subclass, Amentiferae. 
Hamamelidaceae, Witch-hazel Family. 
Hamamelis virginiana L. Witch-hazel. 

Platanaceae, Planetree Family. 
Platanus occidentalis L. Sycamore. On uplands as well as lowlands where the 
light is sufficiently intense. 

Ulmaceae, Elm Family. 

Ulmus americana L. White Elm. 
Ulmus fulva Mx. Slippery Elm. 
Celtis occidentalis L. Hackberry. 

Moraceae, ^lulberry Family. 

Morus rubra L. Red Mulberry. 

Humulus lupulus L. Hop. 

Cannabis sativa L. Hemp. Fide Bigelow. 

Urticaceae, Nettle Family. 
Urtica gracilis L. Slender Nettle. No specimen. 
Urticastrum liivaricatum (L.) Ktze. (Ijaportea canadansis (L.) Gaud.) Wood 

Nettle, Common. No specimen. 
Pilea pumila (\j.) Raf. (Adicea). Clear Weed. Common. No s})ecimen. 
Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. False Nettle. No specimen. 
Parietaria peniisylvmiica Muhl. Abundant. No spccinieii. 


Fagaceae, Beech Family. 

Fagus graudifolia Ehrh. American Beech. 

Castauea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh. Chestnut. 

Quercus alba L. White Oak. 

Quercus stellata Wang. (Q. minor). Post Oak. Not common. 

Quercus maerocarpa Mx. Bur Oak. 

Quercus bicolor Wilkl. (Q. platanoides) Swamp White Oak. 

Quercus prinus L. Rock Chestnut Oak. 

Quercus imbricaria Mx. Shingle Oak. 

Quercus velutina Lam. Black Oak. 

Quercus coccinea Wang. Scarlet Oak. 

Quercus rubra L. Red Oak. 

Quercus palustris DuRoi. Pin Oak. 

Betulaceae, Birch Family. 
Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Blue Beech. 
Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) Willd. Hop Hornbeam. Must occur at least on the 

western borders of the area but is not common and was not found after some 

little search by the writer. 
Corylus americana Walt. Hazlenut. Comnwn, no specimen. 
Betula nigra L. Red Birch. Common on Queer Creek and some other streams in 

the southern portion of the area. Absent from the northern portion. Not 

known to the northward in Ohio. 
Betula lenta L. Sweet Birch. Common throughout the area. 
Betula lutea Mx. f. Yellow Birch. Common in the deep canyons of the southern 

half of the area, but altogether lacking in the northern section. Otherwise 

unknown south of Wayne and Summit Counties. 
Alnus rugosa (DuRoi) Koch. Smooth Alder. 

Juglandaceae, Walnut Family. 
Hicoria cordiformis (Wang.) Britt. (Carya, H. minima) Bitternut. 
Hicoria ovata (Mill.) Britt. (Carya) Shagbark (Hicory). 
Hicoria laciniosa (Mx. f.) Sarg. (Carya) Not uncommon, no specimens. 
Hicoria alba (L.) Britt. (Carya) Mockernut. 
Hicoria microcarpa (Nutt.) Britt. (Carya) Small pignut. 
Juglans nigra L. Black Walnut. Common along the Hocking Bottom; altogether 

lacking through most of the area. 
Juglans cinerea L. Butternut. Common except on the richest land. 

Salicaceae, Willow Family. 
Populus alba L. Silver Poplar. 

Populus balsamifera candicans (Ait.) Gr. Balm-of-Gilead. 
Populus grandidentata Mx. Large-tooth Poplar. 
Populus tremuloides Mx. American Aspen. 
Populus deltoides Marsh. Cottonwood. 


Salix nigra :\Iarsh. Black Willow. 

Salix fragilis L. Crack Willow. 

Salix alba L. White Willow. 

Salix alba vitellina (L.) Koch. Golden Osier. 

Salix babylonica L. Weeping Willow. A single specimen along the river south 

of Sugar Grove, apparently not planted, now long dead. This species does not 

establish itself in Ohio. 
Salix interior Rowlee (S. fluviatilis, S. longifolia). Sandbar Willow. 
Salix discolor Muhl. Pussy Willow. 
Salix discolor X humilis. 
Salix humilis :\rarsh. Upland Willow. 
Salix sericea Marsh. Silky Willow. 
Salix cordata Muhl. Heart-leaf Willow. 

Subclass Myrtiflorae. 

Hydrangeaceae, Hydrangea Family. 

Hydrangea arborescens L. Wild Hydrangea. 

Grossulariaceae, Gooseberry Family. 
Grossularia cynosbati (L.) Mill. Wild Gooseberry. 
Ribes odoratum Wendl. Golden Currant. 

Oiiagaraceae, Evening Primrose Family. 
Isnardia pulustris L. (Lndwigia) Marsh Purslane. No specimen. 
Ludwigia polycarpa, Short & Peter. Many fruited Ludwigia. No specimen. 
Ludwigia alternifoila L. Seedbox. 
Epilobium coloiatum Muhl. Purple Willow-herb. 
Oenothera biennis (L.) Scop. Evening Primrose. 
Kneiffia pumila (L.) Spaeh. (Oenothera). Small Sundrops. 
Gaura biennis L. No specimen. 

Circaea lutetiana L. Common enchanter's Nightshade. 

Circaea alpina L. Small enchanter's Nightshade. Common in the caves of the 
southern section, not found around Sugar Grove. On the edge of its range. 

Haloragidaceae, Water Milfoil Family. 
Myriophyllum spicatum L. Spiked Water-milfoil. From Buckeye Lake. 

Cucurbitaceae, Pumpkin Family. 
Mierampelis lobata (Mx.) Greene. Wild Cucumber. 
Sicyos angulatus L. Star Cucumber. 

Aristolochiaceae, Birthwort Family. 
Asarum canadense L. Wild-ginger. 
Asarum reflexum Bickncll. Sliort-loljcd Wild-ginger. 
Aristolochia scrpentaria L. Virginia Snakeroot. 


Santalaceae, Sandalwood Family. 
Comandra nmbellata (L.) Nutt. Bastard Toad-flax. 

Subclass Heteromerae. 
Primulaceae, Primrose Family. 

Samolus florilxnidus H. B. K. Water Pimpernel. 
Lysiinachia qiiadrifolia L. Whorled Loosestrife. 
Lysimachia terristris (L.) B. S. P. Fide Bigelow. 
Lysimaehia miuiuilaria L. Moneywort. No specimen. 
Steironema ciliatnm (L.) Raf. Fringed yellow Loosestrife. 
Steironema lanceolatum (Walt) Gr. Fide Bigelow. 
Steironema qiiadiflorum (Sims) Hitch. 
Naumbergia thyrsiflora (L.) Duby. Fide Bigelow. 
Anagalis arvensis L. Scarlet Pimpernel. 

Dodecatlieon meadia L. Shooting Star. Several patches found on the cliffs on 
the west side of "The Gulf." Also reported by Bigelow for Fairfield Co. 

Pyrolaceae, Wintergreen Family. 
Pyrola americana Sw. Round-leaf Wintergreen. Scarce. 
Pyrola elliptica Nutt. Shinleaf Wintergreen. The common form. 
Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh. Spotted Pipsisewa. 

Monotropaceae, Indian-pipe Family. 

Monotrojja uniflora L. Indian-pipe. 
Hypopytis americana (D. C.) Small Pinesap. 

Ericaceae, Heath Family. 

Azalea lutea L. (Rhododendron calendulaeeum) Flame Azalea. Common on a few 
hillsides in the immediate vicinity of Sugar Grove. The only station in the 
state. Persistent and long continued search for it in the southern section of 
the area during its flowering season has failed to reveal it. It is in imminent 
danger of extinction and should be protected. 

Rhododendron maximum L. Rhododendron. Abundant in the northern section of the 
area from Clark's Crossing to Sugar Grove and a little beyond. Also at the 
"Written Rock" on Clear Creek and near the head of Laurel Run. Otherwise 
absent from the southern section although there are multitudes of habitats 
apparently more suitable for it than those in which it has been found. 

Kalmia angustifolia L. Sheep Laurel. I have been informed liy trustworthy ob- 
servers that this plant formerly grew in the area and have been directed to one 
of its habitats, namely the head of Laurel Run, but I have not found it. 
Neither was it known to Bigelow or Sullivant, nor is there an authentic speci- 
men from Ohio. 

Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. Sorrel-tree. On the edge of its range. Common. 

Epigaea repens L. Trailing arVjutus. Common. 

Gaultheria procumbens L. Creeping Wintergreen. 


Vacciniaceae, Huckleberry Family. 
Gaylussaeia baccata (Wang.) Koch. (G. resinosa) Huckleberry. 
Polycodiiim stamineum (L.) Greene. Deerberry. 
Vaccinium angustifolium Ait. Dwarf Blueberry. 
Vaccinium vacillans Kalm. Low Blueberry. 

Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Ait.) Pers. (Vaccinium) Cranberry. Fide Bigelow, doubt- 
less only in Buckeye Lake. 

Ebenaceae, Ebony Family. 

Diospyros virginiana L. Persimmon. Abundant but does not fruit freely. 


Polemoniaceae, Phlox Family. 
Phlox paniculata L. Garden Phlox. 
Phlox maculata L. Spotted Phlox. 
Phlox divaricata L. Wild Sweet-william. 
Phlox stolonifera Sims. (P. reptans) Creeping Phlox. Not uncommon in the 

deepest ravines of the southern section of the area. The only Ohio stations. 
Phlox subulata L. Ground Phlox. 
Polemonium reptans L. Greek A^alerian. No specimen. 

Convolvulaceae, Morning-glory Family. 
Ipomoea pandurata (L.) Meyer. Wild Potato-vine. 

Ipomoca purpurea (L.) Roth. Common Morning-glory. No specimen. 
Convolvulus sepium L. Hedge Bindweed. 

Cuscutaceae, Dodder Family. 
Cuscuta coryli Englem. Hazel Dodder. 
Cuscuta gronovii Willd. Gronovius's Dodder. 

Hydrophyllaceae, Water-leaf Family. 
Hydri)]ihyllum virginianum L. Virginia W^ater-leaf. Fide Bigelow. 
Hydrophyllum macrophyllum Nutt. Large-leaf Water-leaf. 

Hydrophyllum appendieulatum Mx. Appendaged Water-leaf. No specimen. 
Hydrophyllum canadense L. Broad-leaf Water-leaf. No specimen. 
Phacelia dubia (L.) Small. Small-flowered Phacelia. On the ridge west of Clark's 

Crossing and a few other localities, the only Ohio stations. 
Phacelia purshii Buck!. Pursh's Phacelia. In the Hocking Bottom at Sugar Grove. 

No specimen. 

Oleaceae, Olive Family. 
[Fraxinus quadrangulata Mx.] Blue Ash. .\p[)arciifly reaches the eastern edge of 
its range just west of the present area. It is common about Columbus, but 
has not been seen around Sugar Grove. 
Fraxinus pennsylvaniea Marsh. Red Ash. 


Fraxinus lanceolata Borck. Green Ash. 
Fraxinns americana L. White Ash. 

Gentianaceae, Geutian Family. 

Sabbatia angularis (L.) Pursh. Square Stemmed Sabbattia. 

Gentiana crinita Froel. Fringed Gentian. Fide Bigelow. 

Oentiana quinqiiefolia L. Stiff Gentian. Fide Bigelow. 

Gentiana saponaria L. ( Dasystephana ) Soapwort Gentian. Fide Bigelow. 

Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. Closed Gentian. 

Frasera carolinensis "Walt. American Columbo. Fide Bigelow. 

Oblaria virginica L. Pennywort. 

Apocynaceae, Dogbane Family. 

Apocynum audrosaemifolinm L. Sjireading Dogbane. 
Apoeynmn cannabinum L. Indian Hemp. 

Asclepiadaceae, Milkweed Family. 
Asclepias tuberosa L. Buterfly weed. Occasional. No specimen. 
Asclepias piirpurascens L. Purple Milkweed. Fide Bigelow. 
Asclepias incarnata L. Swamp Milkweed. 

Asclepias sullivantii Engelm. Eare. Known otherwise only from Erie Co. 
Asclepias amj)lexicaulis Sm. Blunt leaved Milkweed. Rare. Collected on the ridge 

west of Clark's Crossing. Known otherwise only from Erie County. 
Asclepias exaltata (L.) Muhl. (A. phytolaccoides) Tall Milkweed. 
Asclepias variegata L. White Milkweed. Collected once on Big Pine Creek by 

B. W. Wells and the writer. Known otherwise in Ohio only from Summit Co. 

Also reported by Bigelow for Fairfield Co. 
Asclepias qiiadrifolia L. Four-leafed Milkweed. 
Asclepias syriaca L. Common Milkweed. 
Asclepias verticillata Tj. Wliorled Milkweed. Kettle Hills, W. A. Kellerman. Rare. 

Sclanaceae, Potato Family. 

Datura stramoniumium L. Jimson-weed. No specimen. 

Physalis pubescens L. Low hairy Ground-cherry. No specimen. 

Physalis lanceolata Mx. 

Physalis virginiana Mill. Fide Bigelow. 

Physalis heteroj^hylla Nees. 

Ly('0]>ersicon lysopersicon (L.) Karst. (L. esculentum) Tomato. 

Solanum tuberosum L. Potato. 

Solanum nigrum L. Black Nightshade. 

Solanum caroliniense L. Horse nettle. Bigelow cites this now troublesome weed as 

collected exclusively liy A. Hor of Baltimore, Ohio. Apparently it had just 

appeared in 1S41. No sjiecimen. 

Scrophulariaceae, Figwovt Family. 
Verbascum thapsus L. Common ]\Iullein. 
Verbascum hhittaria L. ]Moth ^Mullein. 


Linaria linaria (L.) Karst. (L. vulgaris) Butter and Eggs. 

Scrophularia marylandica L. ^raryland Figwort. No specimen. 

Cheloue glabra L. Turtle-head. 

Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd. Hairy Beard-tongue. No specimen. 

Penstemon penstemon (L.) Britt. (P. leavigatus) Smooth Beard-tongue. No 

Collinsia verna Nntt. Blue-eyed Mary. Fide Bigelow. 
Mimulus ringens L. Square-stemmed Monkey Flower. 
Mimuhis alatus Soland. Winged Monkey-flower. 
Gratiola virginica L. Clammy Hedge-hyssop. 
Hysanthes dubia (L.) Barnh. Long Stalked False Pimpernel. 
Veronica anagalis-aquatica L. Water Speedwell. Fide Bigelow. 
Veronica scutellata L. Skullcap Speedwell. Fide Bigelow. 
Veronica officinalis L. Common Speedwell. 

Veronica seri)yllifolia L. Thyme-leaf Speedwell. Fide Bigelow. 
Veronica peregrina L. Purslane Speedwell. 
Veronica arvensis L. Field Speedwell. 

Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt. (Veronica) Culver's Root. 

Afzelia macrophylla (Nutt.) Ktze. (Seymeria) Mullein Foxglove. Written Rock, 
Clear Creek, W. A. Kellerman. Not seen within the area by the writer, but a 

few plants were found in Vinton County al>out a mile below the Queer Creek 

Divide. On the edge of its range. 
Dasystoma flava (L.) Wood (Gerardia) Downy False Foxglove. 
Dasystoma laevigata Raf. (Gerardia) Entire-leaf False Foxglove. 
Dasystoma virginica (L.) Britt. Smooth False Foxglove. These are all on the 

edges of their ranges but unlike Afzelia they are common. 
Agalinus tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf. Slender Gerardia. 

Agaliiuis purpurea (L.) Britt. Large Purple Gerardia. Lancaster, J. E. Hyde. 
Oto])hylla auriculata Mx. Auricled Gerardia. Fide Bigelow^ Now known only from 

Ottawa Co. 
Buchnera americana L. Blue Hearts. Fide Bigelow. Now known only from Fulton 

Castilleja coccinea (L.) Spreng. Painted Cup. Fide Bigelow. Now known only 

from Franklin and Knox counties. 
Pedicularis lanceolata Mx. Lanceleaf Lousewort. In the swamp along tlie Logan 

Pike a mile south of Rockbridge, the southernmost station known in this part 

of the state. 
Pedicularis canadensis L. Wood Lousewort. 
Melamjjyrum lineare Lam. Cow-wheat. Abundant in the edge of the woods above 

the canyon of Queer Creek just east of "The Gulf." The only station known 

south of Portage County. 

Orobanchaceae, I'.rootu-ra]u' Family. 
CoiKiiiliiiiis americana (L. f.) Walir. S(|uaw-root. 
Leptaminin vir.i:inicuni (Tj.) Raf. ( Kpiphagus) Beech-drops. 

Bignoniaceae, Bignonia Family. 
Catalpa speciosa Wardrr. Tlardy Catalpa. 


Martyniaceae, Unicorn-plant Family. 
Martynia louisiaiia Mill. Unicorn Plant. Reported by Bigelow as collected at Bal- 
timore by Dr. Hor. Whether as wild or as an escape is not stated. Now 
known from Eichland, Ross, and Lorain counties. If it was wild its natural 
range is greater than is credited in the manuals, which give it as " S. Ind., 111., 
and la. to N. Mex. Also cultivated and naturalized northw. " 

Lentribulaceae, Bladderwort Family. 

Utricularia macrophylla LeC. (U. vulgaris) Greater Bladderwort. Ponds along the 

old canal. No specimen. 
Utricularia gibba L. Humped Bladderwort. Buckeye Lake only. 

Acanthaceae, Acanthus Family. 

Ruellia strepens L. Smooth Ruellia. No specimen, observed at Clark's Crossing. 
Dianthera americana L. Water-willow. Common. No specimen. 

La nt idles. 
Boraginaceae, Borage Family. 

Cynoglossum officinale L. Hound's Tongue. No specimen. 

Cynoglossum virginicum L. Wild Comfrey. Occasional. 

Lappula lappula (L.) Karst. (L. echinata). European Stickseed. Spread through- 
out the lowland forest. No specimen. 

Lappula virginiana (L.) Greene. Virginia Stickseed. 

Mertensia virginica (L.) DC. Virginia cowslip. No specimen. 

Myosotis arvensis (L.) Lam. Field Forget-me-not. Fide Bigelow. 

Myosotis virginica (L.) B. S. P. Virginia Forget-me-not. 

Lithosi>prmuin arvense L. Corn Gromwell. No specimen. 

Lithospermum officinale L. Common Gromwell. Fide Bigelow. No Ohio specimens, 
are known. 

Lithospermum canescens (Mx.) Lehm. Hoary Poccoon. Fide Bigelow. Certainly 
very uncommon. 

Onosmodium carolinianum (L.) D. C. Shaggy False Gromwell. Fide Bigelow. 

Symphytum officinale L. Common Comfrey. Fide Bigelow. 

Verbeiiaceae, Vervain Family. 

Verl)ena urticifolia L. White Vervain. No specimen. 
Verliena hastata L. Blue Vervain. No specimen. 

Lippia lanceolata Mx. Frog-fruit. Bigelow reports this species as seen only by Dr. 
Hor of Baltimore. It is common enough now. 

Lamlaceae, Mint Family. 
Teucrium canadense L. American Germander. No specimen. 
Isanthus brachiatus (L.) B. S. P. False Pennyroyal. 
Trichostema dichotomum L. Blue Curls. 
Scutellaria lateriflora li. Mad-dog Skullcap. 
Scutellaria incana Muhl. Downy Skullcap. 

Scutellaria cordifolin ]\ruhl. (S. versicolor) Heart-leaf Skullcap. No specimen, 


Scutellaria pilosa Mx. Hairy Skullcap. Collected and determined in the field by 
the writer on June 21, 1911. Big Pine Creek. No specimen saved. Later it 
was found there are no specimens in the state herbarium. 

Scutellaria parvula Mx. Small Skullcap. Fide Bigelow. 

Scutellaria galericulata L. :\rarsh Skullcap. Fide Bigelow. 

Agastache nepetoides (L.) Ktze. Giant Hyslop. 

Agastaehe scrophulariaefolius (Willd.) Ktze. 

Nepeta cataria L. Catnip. No specimen. 

Glechoma hederacea L. (Nepeta) Ground Ivy. No specimen. 

Prunella vulgaris L. Self Heal. 

Dracocephalum virginiana L. Physostegia. False Dragon Head. 

Leonurus cardiaca L. Motherwort. Abundant. No specimen. 

Lamium amplexicaule L. Henbit. No specimen. 

Stachys tenuifolia Willd. Smooth Hedge Nettle. 

Stachys asper Mx. Rough Hedge Nettle. 

Monarda clinopodia L. Basal Balm. 

Monarda fistulosa L. Wild Bergamot. 

Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh) Torr. 

Hedeoma pulegeoides (L.) Pers. American Pennyroyal. Abundant. No specimen. 

Melissa officinalis L. Lemon Balm. 

Origanum vulgare L. Wild Marjoram. 

Koellia flexuosa (Walt) MacM. (Pycnanthemum). Narrow-leaf Mountain-mint. 

Koellia pilosa (Nutt.) Britt. (Pycnanthemum). Hairy Mountain-mint. 

Koellia incana (L.) Ktze. (Pycnanthemum). Hoary Mountain-mint. 

Koellia mutiea (L.) Britt. (Pycnanthemum). Short-toothed Mountain-mint. Fide 

Cunilla originoides (L.) Britt. American Ditany. 

Lycopus virginicus L. Bungle-weed. 

Lycopus rubellus Moench. Stalked Water-hoarhound. 

Lycopus americanus Muhl. (L. lucidus var.). Cut-leaf Water-hoarhound. 

Mentha spicata L. Spearmint. 

Mentha piperita L. Peppermint. 

Mentha canadensis L. American Wild Mint. 

Collinsonia canadensis L. Stone Root. 

Phrymaceae, Lopseed Family. 

Phyrma leptostachya L. Lopseed. Often tlie dominant herb in the forest. No 

Plantaginaceae, Plantain Family. 

Plantago rugellii Dec. Broad-leaf Plantain. 

Plantago major Tj. Broad-leaf Plantain. Fide Bigelow. 

Plantago lanccolata L. Ril)-grass Plantain. 

Plantago cordata L;im. Water Plantain. Fide Bigelow. 

Plantago aristata Mx. Large Bracted Plantain. No specimen. 

Plantago virginica L. Dwarf Plantain. Common. No specimen. 


Subclass, Inferae. 
Araliaceae, Ginseng Family. 
Aralia spinosa L. Angelica-tree. Common on Queer Creek; scarce on Big Pine 
Creek; absent north of that point, but undoubtedly gradually extending its 
range to the northward. Otherwise known as a wild plant only in Clermont Co. 
Aralia racemosa L. American Sjiikenard. 
Aralia nudieaulis L. Wild Sarsaparilla. No specimen. 

Panax quiuquefolium L. Ginseng. Formerly abundant, but now practically exter- 
minated. The state herbarium has a specimen collected at Lancaster by Earl 
Hyde, but the writer has not been fortunate enough to see it growing. 

Amiaceae, Carrot Family. 
Eryngium aquaticum L. (E. yuccaefolium of Gr. Man., ed. 7). Rattlesnake Master. 

Fide Bigelow. 
Sanicula canadensis L. Short-styled Snake Root. 
Washingtonia claytoni (Mx.) Britt. (Osmorrhiza Ijrevistylis). Wooly Sweet-cicely. 

No specimen. 
Washingtonia' longistylis (Torr.) Britt. (Osmorrhiza). Long-styled Sweet-cicely. 

No specimen. 
Erigenia bulbosa (Mx.) Nutt. Harbinger of Spring. No specimen. 
Conium maculatum L. Poison Hemlock. Fide Bigelow. 
Zizzia aurea (L.) Koch. Early Meadow Parsnip. Fide Bigelow. 
Cicuta maculata L. Water Hemlock. 

Deeringa canadensis (L.) Ktze. Honewort. Fide Bigelow. 
Slum cicutaefolium L. Water Parsnip. Fide Bigelow. 
Foeniculum foeniculum (L.) Karst. (F. vulgare). Fennel. 

Thaspium barbinode (Mx.) Nutt. Hairy-jointed Meadow-parsnip. Fide Bigelow. 
Thaspiuni trifoliatum (L.) Britt. Fide Bigelow. 
Angelica atropurpurea L. Purple-stemmed Angelica. 
Angelica villosa (Walt.) B. S. P. 

Oxypolis rigidus (L.) Coult & Rose. Cowbane. Fide Bigelow. 
Pastinaca sativa L. Wild Parsnip. Fide Bigelow. 
Heracleum lanatum Mx. Cow Parsnip. Fide Bigelow. 
Daucus carrota L. Wild CaiTot. 

Coniaceae, Dogwood Family. 
Coruus alternifolia Lf. Alternate-leaf Cornel. 
Cornus stolonifera Mx. Red Osier Dog-wood. Fide Bigelow. 
Cornus femina Mill. (C. candidissima, C. paniculata). Panicled Cornel. 
Cornus amomum Mill. Silky Dogwood. 

Cynoxylon floridum (L.) Raf. (Cornus). Flowering Dogwood. 
Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Tupelo. 

Rubiaceae, Madder Family. 
Housfonia coerulia L. Bluets. 
Houstonia longifolia Gaertn. Long-leaf Houstonia. 


Cephalauthus occidentalis L. Button-bush. 

Mitchella repens L. Partridge Berry. 

Galium aparine L. Common Cleavers. Fide Bigelow. 

Galium j^ilosum Ait. Hairy Bedstraw. 

Galium lanceolatum Torr. Lance-leaf Wild Licorice. 

Galium circaezaus ]\Ix. Wild Licorice. Fide Bigelow. 

Calium triflorum Mx. Fragrant Bedstraw. 

Galium tinctorium L. Stiff Marsh Bedstraw. Fide Bigelow. 

Galium conciuum T. & G. Shining Bedstraw. 

Oalium asperellum Mx. Rough Bedstraw. Fide Bigelow. 

Caprifoliaceae, Honeysuckle Family. 
Sambueus canadensis L. Common Elderberry. 
Sambucus raeemosa L. (S. pubens). Red Elderberry. Common in the eaves of the 

southern section of the area ; rare or absent in the northern section. 
Viburnum acerifolium L. Maple-leaf Arrow-wood. 
Viburnum molle Mx. Soft-leaf Arrow-wood. 
Vilmrnum cassinoides L. Withe-ruil. 
Viburnum lentago L. Sheepberry. Fide Bigelo^'. 
Viburnum prunifolium L. Black Haw. 
Triosteum perfoliatum L. Horse Gentian. No specimen. 
Lonieera hirsuta Eaton. Hairy Honeysuckle. Fide Bigelow. 
Lonicera tartarica L. Tartarian Honeysuckle. Escaped near Sugar Grove. No 


Valeriana ceae, Valerian Family. 
Valeriana pauciflora ]Mx. Large-flowered Valerian. No specimen. Observed in 
"The Gulf." 

Campanulaceae, Bellflower Family. 

Campanula aparinoides Pursh. ]\Iarsh Bellflower. Fide Bigelow. 

Campanula amerieana L. Tall Bellflower. 

Specularia perfoliata (L.) D. C. (Legouzia). Venus 's Looking Glass. 

Lobeliaceae, Lobelia Family. 
Lobelia cardinalis L. Cardinal Flower. 
Hobelia sypliylitiea L. Blue Lobelia. 
Xiobelia puberula Mx. Downy Lobelia. Abundant along the Queer Creek Road 

below the canyon. Seen nowhere else; its most northern station in Ohio. 

Otherwise known only from Gallia and Meigs counties. 
Lobelia s])icata. Ijniii. Pale Sniked Lobelia. 
LobeHa leptostacliys .\. D. < '. Spiked Lobelia. 
Lobelia inflata L. ludiiiii T(il)acco. 
Lol elia knlniii I^. l\ai:ii"s Loliclia. Fide Bigelow. 

Co<)i jioxildit s. 
Dipsacaceae, Teasel Family. 
Dipsacus syixi'st )'is Aiill. Wild Teasel. No s])('('imen. 


Ambrosiaceae, Ragweed Family. 
Ambrosia trifida L. Horseweed. 
Ambrosia elatior L. (A. artemesiafolia). Ragweed. 
Xanthium pennsylvanicum Wallr. (X. canadense auth.). American Cockleburr. 

Helianthaceae, Sunflower Family. 
Heliopsis helianthoides (L.) B. S. P. Smooth Ox-eye. 
Verbesina alba (L.) Eclipta. 
Riidbeckia hirta L. Black-eyed Susan. 
Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. Orange Cone-flower. Fide Bigelow. 
Rudbeckia laciniata L. Tall Cone-flower. Common. No specimen. 
Echinacea purpurpea (L.) Moench. (Brauneria). Purple Cone-flower. Fide Bigelow. 
Helianthus microcephalus T. & G. Small Wood Sunflower. 
Helianthus giganteus L. Giant Sunflower. 
Helianthus hirsutus Raf. Stiff -haired Sunflower. 
Helianthus tuberosus L. Jerusalem Artichoke. 

Ridau altcrnifolia (L.) Britt. (Verbesina). Actinomeris. No specimen. 
Coreoj^sis tripteris L. Tall Tickseed. 

Bidens laevis (L.) B. S. P. Smooth Burr-Marigold. Fide Bigelow. 
Bidens cernua L. Nodding Burr-Marigold. No specimen. 
Bidens connata Muhl. Swamp Burr-Marigold. No specimen. 
Bidens frondosa L. Black Beggar-ticks. No specimen. 
Bidens bipinnata L. Spanish Needles. No specimen. 
Bidens trichosperma (Mx.) Britt. Tall Tickseed. 
Bidens aristosa (Mx.) Britt. Western Tickseed. On the edge of its range; reported 

only from counties west of the present area. No specimen. 
Galinsoga parviflora hispida D. C. (G. caraesana). In Mr. Stukey 's barnyard and 

other places. No specimen. 
Polymnia canadensis L. Small-flowered Leafcup. Fide Bigelow. 
Silphinm perfoliatum L. Indian Cup. 
Silphium trifoliatum L. Whorled Rosin Weed. 
Helenium autumnale L. Common Sneezeweed. No specimen. 
Inula helenium L. Elecampane. 
Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. Fragrant Cudweed. 
Gnaphalium uliginosum L. Marsh Cudweed. 

Antennaria neglecta Greene, (det. Fernald). Field Everlasting. Upland fields. 
Antennaria fallax Greene, (det. Fernald). Tall Everlasting. Woods. 
Antennaria plantaginifolia (L.) Rich. (det. Fernald). Plantain-leaf Everlasting. 
Antennaria parlinii Fernald (det. Fernald). Parlin's Everlasting. 
Chrysopsis mariana (L.) Nutt. Maryland Golden Aster. Common in some places 

in the southern section of the area; known otherwise only from Jackson County. 
Solidago caesia L. Wreath Goldenrod. 
Solidago flexicaulis L. (S. latifolia). Zigzag Goldenrod. 
Solidago bicolor L. White Goldenrod. 
Solidago erecta Pursh. Slender Goldenrod. Known only from Faii-field, Hocking, 

and Meigs counties. 
Solidago speciosa Nutt. Showy Goldenrod. 


Solidag-o nigosa Mill. Wrinkled-leaf Goldenrod. 
Solidago patula Miihl. Rough-leaf Goldenrod. 
Solidago iilmnifolia Mnhl. Elm-leaf Goldenrod. 
Solidago neglecta T. & G. Swamp Goldenrod. 
Solidago jiuieea Ait. Plume Goldenrod. 
Solidago canadensis L. Canada Goldenrod. 
Solidago nemoralis Ait. Gray Goldenrod. 
Solidago rigida L. Stiff Goldenrod. Fide Bigelow 

Euthamnia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. (Solidago). Bushy Fragrant Goldenrod Fide 

Boltonia asteroides (L.) L'Her. Boltonia. Fide Bigelow 

Sericocarpus asteroides (L.) B. S. P. White-top Aster. 

Aster divaricatus L. White Wood Aster. Common. 

Aster macrophylhis L. Large-leaf Aster. 

Aster shortii Hook. Short's Aster. 

Aster cordifolius L. Common Blue Wood Aster. Common. No specimen 

Aster lowrieanus Port. Lowrie's Aster. 

Aster sagittifolius Willd. Arrow-leaf Aster. 

Aster novae-angliae L. New England Aster. No specimen. 

Aster punieeus L. Purple Stemmed Aster. 

Aster ericoides L. White Heath Aster. 

Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. Starved Aster. 

Erigeron puehellus Mx. Showy Fleabane. 

Erigeron pliiladelphicus L. Philadelphia Fleabane. No specimen. (Common 

Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. White-top Fleabane. 

Erigeron ramosus (Walt.) B. S. P. Daisy Fleabane. Common. Nn specimen 

Leptilon canadense (L.) Britt. (Erigeron). Horseweed. No specimen 

Doehngeria umbellata (Mill) Nees. (Aster). Tall White-top Aster 

D. humilis, which is reduced to a var. by Gray, is also reported by Bigelow, but is 

not otherwise known in Ohio, 
lonactis linearifolius (L.) Greene. (Aster). Stiff-leaf Aster. Isolated plants pre 
not rare m the southern section of the area, but one may walk all .lay without 
seeing one even when in blossom. Otherwise known only from Adams County 
Eupatonum purpureum L. Joe-Pye-weed. Common. No specimen. 
Eupatorium rotundifolium L. Round-leaf Thoroughwort. Common in the soutlu>rn 

section, the only known Ohio station. 
Eupatorium sessillifolium L. Upland Boneset. 
Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Common Boneset. 
Eupatorium ageratoides L. f. White Snake-root. 

Eupatorium aromaticum L. Smaller White Snake-root. Conun.m in th,. sonthen, 
section of the area as far north as the town of Rockbri.lge. K'cporte.l also by 
Bigelow, but not otherwise known in Ohio. 
Eupatorium coelastinum L. Mist-flower. 

Lacinaria .scariosa (L.) Hill. (iJatris). L^rg.. Blazing-star. A single specimen 
in the pine thicket directly west of Crystal Springs. 7v„own elseuluMv ,,nlv from 
Erie and Lucas counties. 


Lacinaria spicata (L.) Willd. (Liatris). Dense Blazing-star. Pine Barren, above 

Old Man's Cave, a single stalk, B. W. Wells. Also reported by Bigelow for 

Fairfield County. 
Vernonia altissima Nutt. (Y. gigantea, Y. maxima). Tall Ironweed. Abundant. 

No specimen. 
Achillea millefolium L. Common Milfoil. Abundant. No specimen. 
Anthemis cotula L. Common Dog Fennel. 
Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Ox-eye Daisy. 
Tanacetum vulgare L. Common Tansy. No specimen. 
Erectites hieracifolia (L.) Eaf. Fireweed. Abundant. No specimen. 
Mesadenia atriplicifolia (L.) Kaf. (Cacalia). Pale Indian Plantain. 
Senecio aureus L. Golden Groundsel. Common and conspicuous in the spring. No 

Arctium minus Schk. Common Burdock. No specimen. 
Cirsium lanceolatiim (L.) Hill. (Carduus). Spear Thistle. No specimen. 
Cirsium altissimum (L.) Spreng. Tall Thistle. No specimen. 
Cirsium discolor (Muhl). Spreng. Field Thistle. 
Cirsium virginianum (L.) Mx. Yirginia Thistle. Fide Bigelow. Now known only 

from Madison County. 

Cicoriaceae, Chicory Family. 

C_ynthia virginicum (L.) Ktze. (Kregia amplexicaulis, Adopogon). ^'irginia Dwarf- 

Leontodon taraxacum L. (T. officinale). Dandelion. 

Sonchus oleraceus L. Common Sow-thistle. No specimen. 

Sonehus aspera (L.) Hill. Spiny Sow-thistle. No specimen. 

Lactuca virosa L. Strong-scented Lettuce. 

Lactuca canadensis L. Tall Lettuce. 

Lactuca spicata (Lam) Hitch. Tall Blue Lettuce. Fide Bigelow. 

Lactuca integrifolia Bigel. Entire-leaf Lettuce. The only Ohio station. 

Hieracium venosum L. Yeined Hawkweed. 

Hieracium paniculatum L. Panicled Hawkweed. 

Hieracium scabrum Mx. Rough Hawkweed. 

Hieracium marianum Willd. Maryland Hawkweed. I have worked over the last 
three in the Gray Herbarium and submitted them to Professor Fernald, but 
it is not possible to make very satisfactory determinations. The characters 
given in the manuals seem worthless for diagnosis. I give the names merely 
for what they are worth. 

Nabalus altissimus (L.) Hook. (Prenanthes). Tall Eattlesnake-root. 

Nabalus albus (L.) Hook. (Prenanthes). White Rattlesnake-root. Fide Bigelow. 

Nabalus racemosus (Mx.) D. C. (Prenanthes). Glaucous Rattlesnake-root. Fide 

Nabalus crepidineus (Mx.) D. C. (Prenanthes). Corymbed Rattlesnake-root. Fide 

Synopsis-Summary of the Sugar Grove Flora 

I'hyluni Ptenophyta 
Class, Felices 
Subclass, Eusporangiateae 
Order, Ophioglossales (p. 306) 

Family, Ophioglossaceae — 4 

Felieales (p. 306) 

Osmundaceae 3 

Polypodiaceae 26 

Equisetales, Eqiiisetaceae (p. 307)-.. 3 

Lycopodiales, Lycoi)odiaceae (p. 307) 5 

Selaginellales, 8elaginellaceae (p. 

307) : 1 

Total Pteridophytes 42 


Finales (p. 308) 

Pinaceae 3 

Juniperaceae 1 

Taxales, Taxaceae (p. 308) 1 

Total Gymnosperms 5 

Helobiae (total 6) 
Alismales (p. 308) 

Alismaceae 2 

Scheiicherizaceae 1 

Potoniogetonaceae - 1 

Nympheales, Xyiiipheaceae (p. 308) 2 

Spadiciflorae (total 11) 
Pandanales (p. 308) 

Sparganiaceae 2 

Tvphaceae 1 

"Arales (p. 309) 

Araceae 4 

Lemnaceae 4 

Gliimiflorae (total 14o) 
Graminales (p. 300) 

Cyperaceae 67 

Graniinaceae 78 

Liliflorae (total 59) 
Liliales (p. 312) 

Liliaceae -- 21 

Smilacaceae - 5 

Poiitederiaceae 1 

Coninieliiiaeeae - 1 

Jiineaceae - 5 

Xyridaceae 1 

Iridales (p. 314) 

Amyrilidaceae 1 

Dioscoreaceae 1 

Tridaceae - 3 

Orohidales, Oichidaceae (p. 314).. 20 

Total :Monocotylae 221 

Thalamiriorae (total 118) 

Faiiales (p. 315) 

Masiioliaceae 2 

-^ iinonaeeae 1 

Ranunculaceae 26 

Parnassiaceae 1 

Ceratophyllaceae 1 

Berberidaeeae 3 

^Ieiiis))erinaceae — 1 

Lauraceae 2 

Brassicales (p. 316) 

Pai)averaceae 2 

Funiariaeeae 3 

Brassicaceae 22 

Gerauiales (p. 317 

Geraniaeeae - 2 

Oxalidaeeae - 4 

L ininanthaceae 1 

Liliaceae 1 

Balsamiaceae 2 

Riitaceae — 1 

Siinanil)aceae 1 

Polygolaceae 5 

Euiilioibiaceae " 

Cal'itrichaceae 1 

Mai vales (p. 318) 

Malvaceae ...; 5 

Tiliaceae 1 

Guttiferales (p. 318) 

Ily])ericaceae " 

C'istaceae 3 

A'iolaceae ' 3 

I'assifloraeeae 1 


Centrospermae (total 49) 
Caryophyllales (p. 319) 

Caryopliyllaceae 1'' 

Aizoaceae - ^ 

Portulacaeeae " 

Phytolat'caeeae 1 

Chenopodiales (p. 320) 


Amaranthaceae ^ 

Clienopodiaceae 4 

Polygonales, Polygonaeeae (p. 320) 21 
Pip'erales, Sannirac-eae (p. 321).- 1 

Calyciflorae (total 123) 
Eosales (p. 321) 

Rosaeeae 43 

Fabaceae 43 

Saxifragales (p. 323) 

Crassulaceae 2 

Saxifragaeeae - - ^ 

Thymelales (p. 324) 

Lythraceae 2 

Thymelaceae - 1 

Celastrales (p. 324) 

Rhamnaceae 3 

Vitaceae f 

Celastraceae 3 

Ilicaeeae - 1 

Staphyleaceae - 1 

Sapindales (p. 324) 

Aeseiilaeeae 2 

Aceraeeae - 6 

Anacardiaceae 5 

Amentiferae (total 55) 

Platanales (p. 325) 

Hammelidaceae - 1 

Platanaeeae 1 

Urtieales (p. 325) 

Ulmaceae 3 

Moraceae 3 

Urticaceae 5 

Fagales (p. 326) 

Fagaceae - 12 

Betulaceae - - 7 

Juglandaceae ''^ 

Salicales, Salicaceae (p. 326) 16 

Mvrtifiorae (total 19) 
Mvrtales (p. 327) 

Hydrangeaceae 1 

Grossulariaeeae - 2 

Onagaraeeae 9 


Loascales, Cueurbitaeeae (p. 327) 

Aristoloehiales, Aristolochiaceae (p. 


Santalales, Santalaceae (p. 328)- 

Ileteromerae (total 26) 
Primulales, Primulaceae (p. 328).. 10 
Ericales (p. 328) 

Pyrolaceae - - -■- p 

Monotropaceae - - 2 

Ericaceae - ^' 

Vacciniaceae - - ^ 

Ebenales, Ebenaceae (p. 329)- 1 

Tubiflorae (total 146) 
Polemoniales (p. 329) 

Polemoniaceae - " 

CoBvolvnlaceae - 3 

Cuscutaceae ■;; 

Hydrophyllaceae - - " 

v.Tentiauales (p. 329) 

Oleaceae -■- 3 

(ientianaceae - ' 

Apocynaceae - - 

Aselepiadaeeae - ^^ 

Scrophulariales (p. 330) 

Solanaceae ^ 

Scropluilariaceae - 31 

Orobanchaceae - 2 

Biynoniaeeae - ^ 

Martyniaceae - - - ^ 

Lentribulaceae -^ 

Acaiitliaceae - - - - 

Laniiales (p. 332) 

Boragmaceae - - - ^- 

Verbenaceae - - 3 

Laniiaceae - - 3' 

Phrvmaceae ^ 

P'lantagiiiales, Plantaginaceae (p. 

333) ..'. - - ^ 

Inferae (total 168) 
ITmbellales (p. 334) 

Araliaceae '* 

Amiaceae 4. 


Eubiales (p. S34) 

Riibiaeeae - -- :|^ 

Caprifoliaeeae ^^ 

Valerianaceae 4 

Campaimlales (p. 335) 

Campaniilaceae 3 

Lobeliaceae - 

Compositales (p. 335) 

Dipsacaceae ^ 

Ambrosiaccae 3 

Ilelianthaceae ^^ 

Cichoriaceae 4" 

Total Dicotylae ''^j 

Grand total 9'-' 


Bulletins Ohio Biological Survey 

I. Outline of Biological Survey Plan. 

Syrphidae of Ohio by C. L. Metcalf - - - $.50 

II. Catalog of Ohio Vascular Plants 

by John H. Schaffner .50 

III. Botanical Survey of the Sugar Grove 

Region by R. F. Griggs .50 

Volume XIX Number 5 




Euglenoidina Block 







MARCH, 1915 


Entered as second-class matter November 17, 1905, at the postoffice 
Columbus, Ohio, under Act of Congress, July 16, 1894. 


Herbert Osborn, Director 


Administrative Board consisting of Representatives from co- 
operating institutions. 

E. L. Fullmer, 

E. R. Gregory, 
M. E. Stickney, 
L. B. Walton, 
Miss M. Getmdn, 
Bruce Fink 

F. 0. Grover, 

E. L. Rice, 

H. M. Benedict, 

F. H. Herrick, 
C. G. Shatzer. 

Baldwin Wallace University, 
University of Akron, 
Denison University, 
Kenyon College, 
Lake Erie College, 
Miami University, 
Oberlin College, 
Ohio Wesleyan University, 
University of Cincinnati, 
Western Reserve University, 
Wittenberg College 

Berea, O. 

Akron, 0. 

Granville, O. 

Gambler, 0. 

Painesville, O. 

• Oxford, O. 

Oberlin, 0. 

Delaware, 0. 

Cincinnati, O. 

Cleveland, O. 

Springfield, 0. 


The Bulletins of the Ohio Biological Survey will be issued as 
work on any special subject is completed, and will form volumes 
of about 500 pages each. 

They will be sent to co-operating institutions and individuals, 
libraries and colleges in Ohio and to such surveys, societies and 
other organizations as may offer suitable exchange material. 

Additional copies of each Bulletin and of completed volumes 
will be sold at such price as may cover the cost of publication. 
Special rates on quantities to schools for classes. 

Subscription for entire volumes, $2.00 
Price of this number 50 

All orders should be accompanied by remittance made payable 
to Ohio Biological Survey and sent to the Director. 

Correspondence concerning the Survey, applications for ex- 
changes and purchase of copies of Bulletins should be addressed to 
the Director — Professor Herbert Osborn, Columbus, Ohio. 

Volume I Bulletin 4 

Ohio Biological Survey 



Published by 





1. Introduction 343 

(a) General 343 

(b) Methods 345 

(c) New Species 345 

(d) Acknowledgment 346 

2. Structure 346 

3. Development - 347 

4. Economic Importance 348 

(a) General Relation to Water Supplies 348 

(b) Notes on Organisms in Ohio Water Supplies 350 

5. Classification 351 

(a) Historical 351 

(b) Principal Characters 352 

(c) Method of Study 353 

(d) Characters of the Order Euglenoidina 355 

(e) Tables of Families, Genera, and Species 356 

I. Family Euglenidae 356 

1. Genus Euglena 357 

2. Genus Leptocinclis 374 

3. Genus Phacus 377 

4. Genus Cryptoglena 385 

5. Genus Trachelomonas 385 

6. Genus Ascoglena 399 

7. Genus Colacium 400 

8. Genus Eutreptia 401 

II. Family Astasiidae 402 

1. Genus Astasia 402 

2. Genus Menoidium 404 

3. Genus Distigma 406 

4. Genus Sphenomonas 406 

III. Family Peranemidae 406 

1. Genus Euglenopsis 408 

2. Genus Petalomonas 408 

3. Genus Scytomonas 412 

4. Genus Peranema 413 

5. Genus Urceolus 414 

6. Genus Heteronema 415 

7. Genus Tropidoscyphus , 418 

8. Genus Notosolenus 418 

9. Genus Anisonema 419 

10. Genus Ploeotia 421 

11. Genus Metanema 422 

12. Genus Marsupiogaster 423 

13. Genus Entosiphon 423 

14. Genus Clautriavia 424 

15. Genus Dinema 425 

6. Literature 446 

7. Index 447 



A Review of the Described Species of the order Euglenoidina 
Bloch. class Flagellata (Protozoa) with particular reference 
to those found in the city water supplies and in other locali- 
ties of Ohio. 

L. B. Walto7i 

1. Introduction. 


Among- the minute forms of life frequenting inland waters 
and in particular, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, and stagnant pools, is 
an order of single celled organisms belonging to the class Flagel- 
lata of the Protozoa, the representatives of which possess charac- 
teristics of both animals and plants. They are not only of in- 
terest from their economic importance, inasmuch as many of the 
species at times occur in great numbers and impart peculiar odors, 
tastes, and colors to water, rendering it unpalatable for drinking 
purposes, but they are also of much interest from an educational 
standpoint, since they furnish an extremely valuable type in gen- 
eral use for biological instruction both in collegiate work and in 
the laboratory work of the better grades of high schools. 

While the majority of species are sufficiently distinct from 
one another to permit of recognition, the absence of a satisfactory 
review has prevented any general knowledge of these small 
organisms and has also resulted in many errors and inaccuracies 
of classification even among those biologists who have interested 
themselves in the forms allied to Euglena. It was largely with 
a view of attempting to remedy such conditions that the present 
paper, the outcome of studies during the past ten years, was com- 
menced. Just as the work was nearing completion, Pascher and 
Lemmermann's "Die Siisswasserflora Deutschlands, Osterreichs 
und der Schweiz" (Flagellatae, 1914) was issued. While the 
tables of genera and species, nearly all completed at that time in 

Contributions from tlie Biological Laboratory of Kenjon College No. 12. 


the manuscript of the present paper, were closely in agreement 
with those of the "Siisswasserflora," making due allowance for 
individual viewpoints, there are several distinctions in the treat- 
ment of the material which may be mentioned. The synoptic 
tables for the separation of species, etc., are not dichotomous as 
are the tables in the following pages where only two possibilities 
"A'" and "A-," etc., are presented at a time. With the assump- 
tion that the characters utilized are of equal value, dichotomous 
tables certainly furnish a better means toward the classification 
of organisms than tables where three, four or more similar char- 
acters are relatively considered at the same time. The present 
paper furthermore aims to note all recognized species and varieties 
of the order distributed throughout the world, including the few 
forms which are marine. The paper of Lemmermann approaches 
completeness in this respect, inasmuch as the group is a cosmo- 
politan one, in that almost any restricted area where the organ- 
isms are carefully studied will furnish representatives of nearly 
all known species. He omits the marine forms, however. 

The Euglenoidina are of microscopic size, rarely exceeding 
200ix^ — usually 10-60^ — in length and are in general inhabitants 
of the fresh water, although a few are marine and a few parasitic. 
In common with most other minute organisms which are aquatic, 
they are uniformly distributed throughout the temperate and trop- 
ical regions of the world. Consequently in a review of the species 
found in Ohio it has seemed advisable to also include all described 
forms, inasmuch as a majority of these will eventually be found to 
occur in the state. 

The work hitherto done in connection with the Euglenoidina 
found in Ohio is comprised in two check lists of Protozoa. The 
first, a "Report on the Protozoa of Lake Erie," by Jennings (U. 
S. Fish Com. Bull. 1889), who notes fifteen species of the order 
from localities near Put-in-Bay. The second, a list of "The Pro- 
tozoa of Sandusky Bay and Vicinity," by Landacre (Proc. Ohio 
Acad, of Science, Vol. 4, Pt. 10, 1908), lists thirty species with 
many interesting notes. Fifty-two species from Ohio are given in 
the present paper, which also includes one hundred and ninety-four 
species which have been described from various parts of the world. 
No tables or figures are presented in either of the preceding lists. 

1 One micron (ly) equals one thousandth of a millimeter. 



The apparatus and supplies needed in a study such as out- 
lined consist of a good microscope provided with an oil immersion 
objective and the general accessories. The instrument will cost 
approximately $75 and a Spencer 40 or 46 G, or a Bausch and 
Lomb BB-8 will be found quite satisfactory, although where cost is 
not a prohibitive factor the Leitz "Monobjective" binocular, cost- 
ing approximately $250, duty free, with the apochromatic optical 
equipment is to be recommended. Magnifications should range 
from 50-2500. Among accessories may be mentioned slides ; cover 
glasses (22-25m round); half dozen small pipettes; one dozen 
watch glasses (Syracuse pattern) ; a stage micrometer ruled in 
1/10 and 1/lOOmm; an ocular micrometer; camera lucida ($10- 
$20) ; 2-H and 6-H "Kohinoor" drawing pencils; lens paper; dis- 
secting needles, tweezers, and scissors, etc. An Irving Pitt No. 
9108 Note Cover (I-P Mfg. Co., Kansas City), with paper punched 
to fit (procure a light weight bond at a paper supply house, size 
8 X 10V1>. and have punched to fit cover) is useful in keeping notes 
and drawings together. These supplies, with the exception of 
the Note Cover, may be procured from the Spencer Lens Co., of 
Buffalo ; the Bausch and Lomb Co., of Rochester, or from the 
U. S. branch of E. Leitz, 30 E. 18th Street, New York City. 

Small drinking glasses with rectangular pieces of glass placed 
on top to prevent too rapid evaporation (a slight opening should 
be left) , may be used as aquaria, while one or two quart milk pails 
make excellent collecting receptacles. Where smaller quantities 
of material are collected, and it is desirable to prevent contamina- 
tion, ground glass stoppered bottles with metal screw caps (Betz 
Co., Hammond, Indiana), which come in pads usually containing 
six bottles, may be used. These are easily sterilized and may be 
kept as small aquaria until the culture is exhausted. Quantitative 
methods of study have not been utilized in the present paper. 


Four new species of Euglenoidina are noted in the following 
pages. Euglena simylacra from Fremont, Ohio. Eugloia tnnicata 
from Hiawatha Lake, Mt. Vernon, Ohio. Scj/tonwnas dobelli from 
the digestive tract of Molge rul(/ar[!^, Europe. Plocofia mrwiua, a 
marine form, from Woods Hole, Mass. 



It is appropriate to note that much of the systematic work on 
the Euglenoidina by the writer has been based on material obtained 
in connection with investigations made possible through the Emer- 
son McMillin Fund. 

2. Structure. 

The Euglenoidina are typically elongately oval or spindle- 
shaped in form with a length of from 6-500 microns. They are 
provided with a single (rarely two) flagellum (1) arising from a 
cytopharynx (5) and consisting of an axial filament (2) sur- 
rounded by protoplasm (3). They possess either a rapid rotatinqr 
swimming movement drawing themselves forward by means of 
the flagellum, or a creeping, twisting (metabolic) movement. 

The protoplast (22) secretes a periplast (21) which may be 
thin or thick and covered with longitudinal or spiral striae (18) 
composed of punctuations (19). The protoplast often secretes a 
shell in addition to the periplast, which may be covered with spines 
or other formations. The stigma (6) normally present in the 
green Euglenidae varies from orange red to a dull yellow. There 
is usually present a large vacuole (9) with a vacuolar canal open- 
ing into the reservoir (7), narrowed anteriorly into a cytopharynx 
(5), and one or more contractile vacuoles (8) which empty into 
the large vacuole. 

In various genera chloroleucites (17, 23) give the protoplast 
a green color and may be disciform, with the margin smooth or 
deeply notched, ribbon-like, or aggregated into star-like clusters. 
Paramylon (12, 20) in granules of various forms often con- 
taining a distinct pyrenoid (24) may also be present as a product 
of assimilation. The position of the nucleus (14, 15), particu- 
larly in the green forms, is designated by a clear space near the 
middle of the body and consists of a central (15) mass surrounded 
by chromosomes (14). Near the nucleus and only demonstrable 
by careful technical methods there is often a basal granule (bleph- 
roplast?) (16), from which the flagellum may arise by two fila- 
ments (10). In the family Peranemidae a pharyngeal siphon 
(11) or rod-like organ of uncertain function is often present. 






Fig. 1, A Typical Euglenoid. 

1. flagellum. 14. 

2. axial filament. 15. 

3. flagelloplast. 16. 

4. collar. 17. 

5. cytopharynx. 18. 
stigma. 19. 
reservoir. 20. 
secondary vacuole. 21. 
primary vacuole. 22. 

10. double filament. 23. 

11. pharyngeal rod. 24. 

12. paramylon (ant. prim, gran.) 25. 
paramylon (secondary gran.) 26. 

nucleus (periph. area). 

nucleus (cent. area). 

basal granule. 

chloroleucite. (regular). 



paramylon (post. prim, gran.) 



chloroleucite (irregular). 


interstrial area. 


3. Development. 

Reproduction may occur by asexual vegetative division or by 
sexual reproduction, although substantial evidence as to the 
various phases in the latter is still absent. 


The vegetative reproduction consists of either a longitudinal 
division of the normal individual or the division of the individual 
after having undergone an encystment stage. In the latter case 
the cyst often divides a number of times, forming many small 
cysts more or less closely connected. The small individual escap- 
ing from the cyst may grow into a mature form or undergo the 
complicated process of a sexual cycle by the copulation of the 

The form of the spores, particularly among the Euglena, is 
of considerable systematic importance. 

4. Economic Importance. 


The practical importance of the Euglenoidina in their rela- 
tion to man is based upon several considerations. They constitute 
one of the principal groups of the unicellular organisms which 
possess chlorophyl and are able to absorb the various inorganic 
salts as well as the oxygen and carbon dioxide contained in the 
water and thus produce starch-like substances. These substances 
in turn through the intermediate Crustacea, etc., form the basis of 
the food supply of the fishes and other animal organisms living 
in an aquatic environment. Economic phases of this nature, 
which pertain to the fishing industry as well as to water fowl. 
etc., particularly of the region of the Great Lakes, will be more 
appreciated as time brings about a diminishing supply of such 
animal organisms and threatens the commercial importance of 
the industries dependent thereon. 

Water from both public and private supplies often has un- 
pleasant tastes or odors and in the majority of cases the result is 
due to the presence of organisms of microscopic size which reach 
their maximum development, so far as numbers are concerned, in 
reservoirs, ponds, and lakes. Inasmuch as such conditions are 
usually due to the substances — oil globules, etc. — set free when 
the minute forms of life are in a state of disintegration, the filtra- 
tion of the water, particularly mechanical filtration, does not nec- 
essarily remove the unpleasant taste, although the proper kind of 
filtration accompanied by aeration usually proves successful. 
When ground waters from infiltration galleries — deep wells in 


proximity to streams or lakes — or chemically and mechanically 
purified surface waters are pumped into open reservoirs large num- 
bers of microscopic organisms may develop. If the storage reser- 
voirs are covered and the light necessary to the growth of forms 
having chlorophyl is shut out, the number of organisms is much 

While the Euglenoidina, which are under consideration in 
the present paper, form only one of several groups of organisms 
that from time to time pollute water supplies, they are on man-" 
occasions responsible for disagreeable conditions of the water. 
The specific forms causing the trouble have been recognized with 
difficulty, however, owing to the absence of satisfactory tables for 
the separation of genera and species, and thus attempts at identifi- 
cation have only been partially successful, even in the hands of 

Various species of the Euglenoidina give off a recognizable 
"violet" odor, as has been noted in the Annual Report of the State 
Board of Health of Massachusetts for 1892. Butschli, 1884, 
ascribed a "fishy" odor to Euglena sanguinea when the cells were 
found to be disintegrated and suggested that the odor was not 
due to putrefactive processes as had earlier been supposed, but 
to the oil vacuoles formed during metabolism and contained in 
the protoplasm of the individual. 

Zacharias in 1902 called attention to the pools of water 
turned red by the immense numbers of Astasia haematodes 
(Euglena haematodes (Ehrenb.) ). A similar condition has often 
been observed in pools throughout Ohio and other states usually 
during the months of July and August and results from an allied 
form, Euglena sanguinea, Ehrenb. Euglena rubra. Hardy, pro- 
duces the same result in Australia, while Euglena orientalis, 
Kashyops, is another red form which has been described from the 
Shalamar Gardens in Lahore, India. 

When such organisms as the Euglenoidina pollute water sup- 
plies in considerable numbers, they may be eliminated by the cop- 
per sulphate method. The quantity required for the specific 
organisms varies from 0.4 pounds per a million gallons of water 
for Uroglena to 41.5 pounds per a million gallons for Beggiota. 


Trout are killed by an application of 1.2 pounds, while sunfish and 
black bass can withstand 10-17 pounds. Euglena and probably 
most other forms of the order are killed by the use of 0.4 pounds 
to a million gallons of water. 

The method employed is that of taking ordinary commercial 
crystals of blue vitriol to the required amount, placing in a coarse 
bag and drawing through the water at the stern of a row boat 
in parallel paths approximately twenty feet apart until the chem- 
ical is dissolved. 

The various technical details in connection with the calcula- 
tion of the volume of the water, the influence of the temperature 
of the water on the solubility of the crystals, the amount of organic 
material in the water as well as the specific kinds of organisms 
present, render it advisable to consult some one familiar with the 
process before undertaking purification by the copper sulphate 


A considerable number of water supplies in the state were ex- 
amined and samples taken from receiving and storage reservoirs. 
Among the cities visited were Cincinnati, Columbus, Cleveland, 
Akron, Dayton, Cuyahoga Falls, Canton, Hamilton, etc. While 
representatives of the Euglenoidina were not found in every in- 
stance, a result to be expected inasmuch as the group is a re- 
stricted one as compared with the numerous other groups of 
unicellular and multicellular organisms occurring in fresh water, 
many species of much interest were noted. Among these may be 
mentioned Leptocinclis acicularis from the Cincinnati water sup- 
ply, previously known only from Hungary in Europe ; Trachelo- 
monas teres, known before only from New Zealand (Cincinnati 
water supply) ; Notosolenus apocamptus and Entosiphov ovatum, 
from the Hamilton storage reservoir; Trachelomonas rugulosa 
and an undescribed species of Euglerm from the Storage Dam at 
Columbus; Trachelomonas volvocina from Cuyahoga Falls, etc. 

While it is somewhat beyond the scope of the present paper, 
certain other fresh water organisms found in the reservoirs may 
be mentioned. 

In the large storage reservoirs at Cincinnati were noted Pofa- 
mogeton spirillum and Potamogeton pectinatics, comparatively 


large water weeds. These were in small quantities and were 
gradually being dredged out after having withstood a considerable 
amount of a copper sulphate solution. Among the unicellular 
forms were C entropy xis aculeata, Trachelomonaf< tere^, Entosiphon 
sulcatum, Cosmarium, Pleurosigma, Spi7illum, etc. In the storage 
reservoir containing the purified water from immediately above 
the weir where the water was aerated, were obtained Difflugia 
const7icta among filaments of Cladopho^^a glomerata, Trachelomo- 
nas globularis, Amoeba sp., Aspidisca costata, Navicida, Cosma- 
rium, OsciUatoria, etc. None occurred, however, in quantities 
which would impart tastes or odors to the water. 

At Hamilton in an uncovered reservoir situated across the 
river on the hill were found Cladophora crispata submerged on the 
bottom of the reservoir; Halteria grandinella, Pediastrum tetras, 
Codonosiga botrytis, Chilomonas Paramecium, species of Plana- 
rians, etc. 

From the Storage Dam at Columbus numerous species of 
Paramecium, Amoeba, Euglena, Trachelomonas, Diatoms, etc., as 
well as Aelosoma, one of the aquatic oligochaetes. 

Other interesting species were found from samples at Lisbon, 
Cuyahoga Falls, Akron, etc. 

5. Classification. 


The history of the minute forms of aquatic life is closely con- 
nected with that of the microscope and may be said to date from 
Leeuewenhoeck, 1675, who was succeeded by Trembley, 1744; 
Muller, 1786, and Ehrenberg, 1838. The latter, by aid of im- 
proved microscopes, worked out details of structure with great 
care, although erroneously interpreting many of them. For in- 
stance the red pigment spot — the stigma — so generally found 
among the Euglenidae was supposed to be actually an eye, while 
the nerve ganglion which was assumed must accompany it. was 
described in a species of Astasia. Following Ehrenberg came 
Duiardin, 1841, who clearly outlined the class Mastigophora 
(Flagellata) as animals provided with one or more flagella. Later 
Stein, 1850 ; Kent, 1880, and others who did excellent work taking 


into consideration the microscopes which they employed and the 
extent of the systematic territory which they attempted to cover. 

During the present period careful systematic studies of the 
Euglenoidina began with Butschli, 1883, in Bronn's, "Classen und 
Ordnungen des Tierreichs." Senn in 1900 reviewed the genera 
of the group (Euglenineae) in connection with Engler-Prant's 
"Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien," giving excellent illustrations 
of representatives of each genus with tables of genera. The paper 
by Dangeard, 1902, entitled "Recherches sur les Eugleniens," 
formed a most valuable contribution to the literature on the group, 
covering both the systematic and structural parts, omitting largely, 
however, the family Peranemidae. From a systematic side it 
could well be criticized by the lack of conciseness so essential to 
papers dealing with the problems of classification. Species were 
enumerated, although no tables for the separation of either genera 
or species were included, a serious oversight in a modern sys- 
tematic work. A table of contents as well as an index was also 

Lemmermann in 1913 presented as a part of Pascher's "Die 
Siisswasserflora Deutschlands, Osterreichs und der Schweiz" a re- 
view of the "Eugleninae" (Euglenoidina) with excellent figures 
of nearly all species described. 


Following Klebs the order is separated into three families, 
the Euglenidae, which obtain their nourishment primarily by the 
action of sunlight in connection with chlorophyl (holophytic), and 
the Astasiidae and Peranemidae, which obtain their nourishment by 
the absorption of organic substances through the surface of the 
body (saprophytic or saprozoic). 

Without entering into any argument as to the relative position 
of the Euglenoidina among animals and plants, the termination 
-idae has been used with the family names in accordance with 
Zoological classification. 

The principal characters utilized for the purposes of classifi- 
cation are the form of the cell — radial, bilateral, elongate, spher- 
ical, broad, fusiform, provided with a collar which may be notched 


or consist of an annular thickening, etc. ; structure of periplast— 
elastic or metabolic, firm, striated either spirally or more rarely 
longitudinally, the striae consisting of minute elevations as a rule, 
development of a shell with or without spines, punctuations, wart- 
like processes, etc. ; chloroleiicites (chloroplasts) absent or present 
in the form of ribbon-like bands, elongated cylindrical rods, disks 
with margins smooth or lobed, star-like masses, all of which may 
or may not contain pyrenoids; paramylon with granules of vary- 
ing forms, usually elongately spherical ; pharyngeal siphon, a rod- 
like organ of unknown function present in certain Peraneynidae; 
stalk present in a few forms, long, short, branched or not 
branched ; length of flagellum as well as the number and position 
where two flagella are present ; stigma present or absent, etc. The 
structural position of the characters noted is indicated in Fig. 1 
on a preceding page. 

Many other minor characters are used, mention of which will 
be made in the tables for separating genera and species. 


Material from standing water — small ponds, stagnant pools, 
ditches, etc. — particularly where organic matter is in a state of 
decomposition, will invariably yield many interesting species of 
the Euglenoidina. If such material is placed in small bottles where, 
however, it should not remain more than 48 hours with the stoppers 
inserted, and then only when an air space approximately equal to 
one-third the capacity of the bottle is left, and subsequently trans- 
ferred to aquaria, the scum rising on the surface within the course 
of a few days will contain innumerable forms. Ordinary drinking 
glasses make excellent aquaria. They should be provided with a 
rectangular glass cover to prevent too rapid evaporation, although 
this should not entirely close the top, thereby allowing the gases 
arising in the decaying matter to escape. 

Many species of Euglenoidina occur as "plankton" carried 
from place to place in large bodies of water by winds and currents 
and may be obtained with a plankton net made of finely meshed 
"bolting cloth" drawn through the water. 

If one wishes to ascertain the number of organisms present 
in a definite body of water such as a reservoir or pond from which 


water supplies are obtained, quantitative methods of study must be 
used. A measured amount of water— 500-2000cc— is passed 
through an apparatus for concentrating the organisms. This may 
consist of a glass funnel inserted into the stoppered neck of a 
wide mouth bottle holding about 250cc and which also has as an 
overflow, a glass tube with a piece of '"bolting cloth" covering the 
inner end. The organisms may be reconcentrated after reaching 
the laboratory by passing through a funnel having some fine quartz 
sand in the bottom of the funnel supported by a cork with a piece 
of ''bolting cloth" holding the sand in place. The sand must not be 
allowed to dry but be washed out in a watch glass in distilled water, 
the distillation of which has been accomplished in glass vessels 
with due care. 

After having obtained material, rough observations made in 
the laboratory by placing a small quantity of water in a watch 
glass and examining with a magnification of 60-150 diameters, will 
give an idea as to the various genera and species represented. In 
order to properly classify the species, however, one must take a 
clean slide and cover glass and study with magnifications of from 
500-2500 diameters, as well as ascertain the dimensions of the par- 
ticular organisms with either the ocular micrometer or the camera 
lucida, the magnification of the microscope having first 
been obtained with the stage micrometer. In this connection it 
will be advisable to consult some of the introductory books in 
microscopy, such as that of Gage (Comstock Publishing Company, 
Ithaca, N. Y. Price $2.00) if one has not previously had experi- 

The method which the writer has found best adapted for 
studying the Euglenoids and other microscopic organisms in the 
living conditions is that of utilizing a lens-paper aquarium. A piece 
of lens-paper is cut with the dimensions smaller than the cover 
glass, then by trimming out the center a ring-lie piece is left. 
This is placed on the middle of the slide and attached by a drop 
of water from a pipette. Then a drop of water containing the 
organisms is placed in the center, and a cover glass carefully placed 
over it, avoiding air bubbles by lowering gently with the tweezers. 
Immediately tilt the slide and draw off any surplus water with 
the pipette. The aquarium will keep for several hours and the 
cover glass will be supported by the thin layer of lens-paper and 


thus not crush the organisms as the water evaporates. A perma- 
nent aquarium may be made by cutting the outside margin of the 
lens-paper 2-5mm smaller than the cover glass and after the water 
in this external area has partly evaporated (15-30 minutes) run- 
ning a small quantity of paraffin oil around the margin of the cover 
glass. Such an aquarium will retain organisms for a month or 
more in a living condition provided there is a proper balance of 
animal and plant life. 

By means of the lens-paper aquarium described the forms 
may be studied with the 4mm. or even the 2mm. oil immersion 
objective. If the movements are too rapid, they may be placed 
in a 2-3 9f solution of gelatin, which will retard their activities. 
Inverting a drop of water on a slide over the neck of a bottle con- 
taining a 2% solution of osmic acid will instantly kill the forms, 
usually without any distortion. Their life-like appearance may be 
lost, however, and it is always best to study first under natural 


Order EUGLENOIDINA Blochmann. 

Euelenoidina Blochmann; Die mikoskopische Tierwelt d. Susswassers, 
1895; Doflein, Lehrbuch der Protozoenkunde 1911, p. 505. 

Euglenineae Senn, Engler u. Prantl, Natiirliche Pflanzenfamilien, p. 173 I 
Teil, Ab. la^. li> 1900. 

Euglenida Delage et Herouard, Traite de Zoologie Concrete, Tome 1, 
p. 345. 

Eugleninae Lemmermann, Die Siisswasserflora Deutschlands, Osterreichs 
und der Schweiz Heft 2, p. 115, 1914. 

Form elongately oval with a pharynx from which one or more, 
rarely two, flagella extend ; body metabolic but not amoeboid, pro- 
vided with a firm periplast which is often striated or sculptured ; 
excretory system complicated usually with a comparatively large 
reservoir into which one or more contractile vacuoles open ; ante- 
riorly near the base of the pharynx a stigma ; protoplasm contain- 
ing granules of paramylon while chromatophores may or may not 
be present; nucleus large with central "Binnenkorper" ; reproduc- 
tion agamous with a single or with multiple division, although 
isogamous copulation has been observed in the genus Copromonas 


Habitat mostly in fresh water, a few species marine, and a 
few parasitic. 

Length 6-500 microns. 

The order may be separated into three families as follows: 



Ai Green chloroleucites and red stigma present . 1. Fam. Euglenidae 

A- Green chloroleucites and red stigma absent; forms 
Bi Form radial, usually free swimming, nourishment 

saprophytic 2. Fam. Astasiidae 

B- Form bilateral, movement usually creeping, nour- 
ishment through solid particles taken into the 
pharynx 3. Fam. Peranemidae 

1. Fam. EUGLENIDAE Stein 

Euglenidae Stein 

Form oval elongate radial, usually somewhat flattened, the 
body twisted spirally, metabolic; protoplasm containing green 
chloroleucites as well as paramylon granules ; periplast often 
with spirally arranged punctuations ; cytopharynx present from 
which arises one or rarely two flagella ; red stigma present ; repro- 
duction as a rule through division during the encysted stage, the 
cysts often being enclosed within a gelatinous envelope. 

The species are inhabitants of fresh water with the exception 
of Trachelomonas and Eutreptia, which are also found in salt 

The number of described species which may be recognized 
is 127, distributed throughout the world. 


Ai Provided with a single flagellum. 

B' Free swimming, not attached by a stalk. 

C^ Not provided with a brownish protective 

D" Periplast elastic, forms metabolic; typi- 
cally radial in structure . . 1. Gen. Euglena 
D- Periplast firm, thickened, forms not 
metabolic; radial or compressed in 


El Chloroleucites disk form, more or 
less numerous. 

F^ Form radial not compressed; 
usually provided with two 

annular paramylon granules. 2. Gen. Leptocinclis 
F- Form compressed; paramylon 

granules of various shapes. .3. Gen. Phacus 
E- Chloroleucites in the form of two 

elongate lateral bands . 4. Gen. Cryptoglena 

C- Provided with a brown or brownish-green 
protective covering which usually bears 

rugosities or spine like processes. . 5. Gen. Trachelomonas 
B- Typically sessile (free swimming during part of 
reproductive cycle) and attached to minute 
Crustacea, rotifers, filamentous algae, etc. 
Q Not provided with a basal stalk; distinct 

protective envelope present . . 6. Gen. Ascoglena 

C- Provided with a basal stalk; distinct pro- 
tective envelope not present ... 7. Gen. Colacium 
A- Provided with two flagella; form bluntly conical with 

posterior end more or less pointed ... 8. Gen. Eutreptia 

1. Gen. EUGLENA Ehrenberg. 

Form oblong or spindle shaped, contractile; free swimming; 
a single anterior flagellum ; body covered by an elastic periplast 
often provided with minute elevations arranged spirally; on the 
anterior end a deep groove from the base of which arises a flagel- 
lum ; an anterior stigma together with a complicated vacuole sys- 
tem consisting of a reservoir into which one or more small con- 
tractile vacuoles open; protoplasm containing green chromato- 
phores (chloroleucites), together with paramylon bodies both 
differing greatly in form and position in the various species; 
nucleus large, centrally located with an interior nucleolar body. 

Reproduction agamous through division occurring either in 
the free swimming stage, where it is usually longitudinal, or dur- 
ing an encysted stage, where the single cyst often divides into 
numerous smaller cysts. Conjugation has not been definitely 
demonstrated, although a sexual cycle probably occurs. 

The species are found chiefly in stagnant fresh water, although 
a few are marine and one has been noted as parasitic in a species 
of Mesostoma, one of the Turbellarians, although not described. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 




AiChloroleucites (green chromatophores) present with the 

color rarely obscured by red hematochrome. 

Bi Chloroleucites in the form of more or less flattened 

rods or ribbons which may be arranged into a star 

shaped mass or otherwise distributed throughout 

the protoplasm. 

Ci Color green; species usually not exceeding 70m 
in length. 

D^ Some of the chloroleucites collected into 
star-like masses. 

E' Star-like masses 1-2 (rarely 3) in num- 

F^ Nucleus posterior; chloroleucites in 

a single median star-like mass. 

F- Nucleus median; chloroleucites in 

two or three star-like masses. 

E- Star-like masses more than three in 


F' Posterior end pointed; pyrenoids 

without shell-like covering 
F- Posterior end rounded; pyrenoids 
with shell-like covering 
D- Chloroleucites not collected into star-like 
masses, but in the shape of elongated 
El A single chloroleucite present. 

F^ Species extremely elongated; chlo- 
roleucite straight 
F- Species comparatively short; chlo- 
roleucite spiral 
E- Two or more chloroleucites present. 
Fi Two lateral chloroleucites 
F- Chloroleucites in the form of nu- 
merous elongated bands. 
G^ Band like chloroleucites pai'allel 
with the longitudinal axis 
G- Band like chloroleucites ar- 
ranged spirally 
C- Color normally red; species exceeding 70m in 
Di Periplast striated; length 120-225m. 

E' Caudal end acute; length approximately 

1. E. viridis 

2. E. geniculata 

3. E. olivacea 

4. E. oblonga 

5. E. elongata 

6. E. minima 

7. E. piscif ormis 

8. E. terricola 

9. E. splendens 

10. E. sanguinea 

1. E. orientalis another red species with disk-like chloroleucites is noted on a 
succeeding page. 


E- Caudal end more or less truncate; length 

approximately 200/^. . . . 11. E. rubra 

B- Periplast smooth; length 75-100m. . 12. E. haematodes 

B- Chloroleucites in the form of flattened disks which 
are often much elongated and rarely with an irreg- 
ular or extremely notched outline. 
C^ Length less than 5 times the diameter. 

D' Prominent anterior and posterior paramylon 
granules not present. 
El Chloroleucites distinctly lobed. 

F' Form elongately oval; length 95- 

100m 13. E. velata 

F- Form spindle shaped; length 85m. 14. E. sociabilis 
E- Chloroleucites not distinctly lobed. 
Pi Length exceeding 55m. 

G^ Pellicula with many small 
granules underneath arranged 

spirally 15. E. granulata 

G' Pellicula without distinct gran- 
ules underneath. 
Hi Color green. 

P Chloroleucites round or 

ji Pyrenoids present 
in chloroleucites; 

length 80-90M. 16. E. polymorpha 
J- Pyrenoids absent 
in chloroleucites; 
length 60-70M. 17. E. proxima 
I- Chloroleucites slightly 
constricted at mid- 
dle, more or less 
dumb-bell shaped. 18. E. caudata 

H- Color red or yellowish red. 
P Cysts spherical in 

form. . . 19. E. flava 

I- Cysts flasklike in form 20 E. orientalis 
F- Length less than 50m. 

G' Form short cylindrical . 21. E. variabilis 

G- Form spindle shaped . 22. E. gracilis 

D^ Prominent anterior and posterior paramy- 
lon granules nresent; length of individual 
approximately 60m .... 23. E. torta 
C- Length more than 6 times the diameter. 

D^ Posterior part of body with an acute tip. 
El Periplast not covered with prominent 
punctuations arranged either spirally 


or longitudinally. 

Fi Prominent anterior and posterior 
paramylom granules not present. 
G' Body extremely metabolic; 
not normally twisted into a 
spiral however. 
Hi Chloroleucites in the form 
of flattened disks, numer- 
ous; posterior part of 
body with short acute 
tip ... 24. E. deses 

Hi Chloroleucites in the form 
of elongate cup shaped 
disks, 2-4 in number; 
posterior part of body 
with elongated acute tip 25. E. mutabilis 
G- Body not metabolic, normally 

twisted into a spiral . 26. E. spiroides 
F- Prominent anterior and posterior* 
paramylon granules present. 
G^ Anterior part of body immedi- 
ately in front of stigma nearly 
equal to the diameter of the 
median part of the body. 
HI Anterior and posterior 
paramylon granules 
large, suboval or spherical. 
P Large paramylon 
granules, suboval; 
length of individual 
375-500M. . . 27. E. oxyuris 

I- Large paramylon gran- 
ules spherical; 
length of individual, 
75m. . . 28. B. simulacra 

H' Anterior and posterior 
paramylon granules in 
the form of elongated 
rods; length of individ- 
ual, 70-80M. 

Ji Body exceedingly met- 
abolic; not prolonged 
posteriorly into an 
extended acute tip; 
length, 120- 135m. 29. E. intermedia 

* Occasionally lateral in E. limnophila. 


I- Body not metabolic; 
prolonged posteriorly 
into an extended 
acute tip; length, 
70-80M. . . 30. E. tripteris 

G- Anterior part of body imme- 
diately in front of stigma 
approximately one-half the 
diameter of the median part. 
H^ Posterior end not de- 
veloped into a needle- 
like tip . . 31. E. acus 
H- Posterior end developed 
into a needle-like tip. 
P Chloroleucites not spir- 
ally ai-ranged; length, 
80m. . . . 32. E. limnophila 
T- Chloroleucites spirally 

arranged; length 125m 33. E. acutissima 
E- Periplast covered with prominent punc- 
tuations, arranged either spirally or 

Fi Flagellum short; punctuations ar- 
ranged spirally. ... 34. E. spirogyra 
F- Flagellum as long as body; punc- 
tuations, arranged longitudinally 35. E. fusca 
1)- Posterior part of body with a rounded or 
truncate tip. 

E^ Paramylon granules in the form of 
elongate rods; tip of body rounded; 
length, 250-300M. ... 36, E. ehrenbergii 

E- Paramylon granules not rod-like; tip 

truncate or emarginate; length, 175m. 37. E. truncata 
A~ Chloroleucites apparently absent and the individuals col- 
orless; stigma yellow to orange brown. . . 38. E. quartana 

-1. E. viridis Ehrenb (Fig. 1, PI. XII). 

Oval or fusiform ; periplast striated spirally ; flagellum as long 
as body; stigma prominent; nucleus posterior; chloroleucites in 
the form of elongated rods collected into a median stellate mass; 
paramylon granules small, round or oval, with pyrenoids. 

Reproduction by longitudinal division or by encystment in a 
spherical state with thickened membrane colored a yellowish 

Species from Ohio. 


L 50-60/x. D. 14-18/x. 

(var. olivacea L. 72-80,u. D. 16/j..) 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Storage Dam, Columbus. 

Many other species have been erroneously classified as E. 
viridis in ordinary biological instruction. The posterior position 
of the nucleus, together with the single stellate group of chloro- 
leucites, should easily distinguish it from several closely allied 
forms. The following varieties have been noted: var. mucosa 
Lemm., surrounded by mucous in swimming stage and only slightly 
metabolic; var. olivacea Klebs, distinguished primarily by the 
olive green color of the chloroleucites and the tendency of these 
to be separated into disciform fragments, together with the larger 
size of the form. Dangeard has suggested that the var. hijal'ma 
Klebs possibly belongs to the genus Astasia, inasmuch as it is 
deprived of chlorophyl and possesses only a rudimentary stigma. 

Hiawatha Lake, Mt. Vernon, 0. ; Kokosing River, Gambier, 0. 

*2. E. geniculata Dujard (Fig. 2, PI. XII). 

Cylindrical elongate with periplast striated spirally ; flagellum 
as long as body; stigma prominent; nucleus central; chloroleucites 
in the form of elongate rods collected into 2 or 3 stellate masses, 
one mass posterior to the nucleus; paramylon with pyrenoids. 

Reproduction by longitudinal division, or by encystment 
without thickened membrane as in E. viridis. 

L. 70-85,u. D. 12-22/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Storage Dam, Columbus. 

3. E. olivacea Schmitz (Fig. 3, PI. XII). 

Fusiform, short posteriorly, metabolic ; periplast striated 
spirally ; flagellum as long or longer than the body ; chloroleucites 
numerous, stellate ; pj^renoids not covered with paramylon ; para- 
mylon granules short, oval. 

Reproduction by longitudinal division. Encystment not 

L. 68-89/1. D. 14-21/x. 
Distribution, cosmopolitan. 


4. E. oblonga Schmitz (Fig. 4, PI. XII). 

Oval, short with rounded ends; periplast spirally striated; 
flagellum longer than body; nucleus central ;(?); chloroleucites 
numerous, stellate; pyrenoids with shell; paramylon (?). 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 50-70/,. D. 25-35/x. 

Distribution (?) 

5. E. elongata Schew. (Fig. 5, PI. XII). 

Extremely elongate, fusiform, scarcely metabolic; periplast 
smooth; flagellum 2/3 length of body; nucleus slightly posterior; 
chloroleucites elongated bands; pyrenoids absent; paramylon ( ?). 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 64/x. D. 5-6/x. 

Distribution, New Zealand in cold springs. 

6. E. minima France (Fig. 6, PI. XII). 

Small, fusiform, extremely metabolic; periplast weakly 
striate spirally; flagellum Vo body length; nucleus (?) ; chloroleu- 
cites in form of spiral bands ; pyrenoids 2, with shells ; paramylon 
small, rods. 

Reproduction by longitudinal division; cysts (?). 

L. 27/,. D. 8-9/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?) in swamps. 

*7. E. pisciformis Klebs (Fig. 7, PI. XII). 

Fusiform, rounded anteriorly, short posteriorly, slightly meta- 
bolic ; periplast weakly striate spirally ; flagellum as long as body ; 
stigma with prominent granulation; nucleus posterior (?) ; chloro- 
leucites 2 or 3(?) in number arranged longitudinally and nearly 
as long as body; pyrenoid with double shell; paramylon ( ?). 

Reproduction by cysts forming several cells (8?) within a 
single membrane. 

L. 25-30/x. D. 5-7/x. 
(var. minor L. 18-20/... D. 4.5-5/^.) 
Distribution, cosmopolitan. 


The var. mino7' Hansg. has a length of 18-20/x and a diameter 
of 4.5-5/^. E. piscifoi'mis is a small species with swimming move- 
ments analogous to those of a fish, whence the name. The body 
becomes metabolic to a slight extent when the individual ceases 

Gambler, 0. Pool "Hotel Hill," var. minor (18/j in length). 

8. E. terricola (Dang.) (Fig. 8, PI. XH). 

Cylindrical, elongate, tip distinct, decidedly metabolic ; peri- 
plast weakly striate spirally ; flagellum V2 length of body ; nucleus 
central ; chloroleucites numerous, band-like, arranged longitudi- 
nally posterior to nucleus ; pyrenoids 2, enclosed in paramylon ; 
paramylon granules small, short, cylindrical. 


L.(?). D.(?). 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?). 

9. E. splendens Dang. (Fig. 9, PI. XH). 

Oval with short tip ; periplast with prominent punctuations 
arranged spirally ; flagellum longer than the body ; nucleus central ; 
chloroleucites numerous, ribbon-like, arranged spirally between 
striate punctuations; pyrenoids absent; paramylon round, rarely 

Reproduction by longitudinal division. Encystment with 
division in spherical condition. 

L. 70-80/x. D. 22-27/,. 

Distribution, France, Casette near Potiers. 

Distinguished from other species by the peculiar arrangement 
of chloroleucites, more numerous and shorter than in E. sanguimea 
and without pyrenoids. 

*10. E. sanguinea Ehrenb (Fig. 10, PI. XH). 

Elongately oval, red, fusiform to cylindrical, with short tip, 
metabolic; periplast striate spirally with indistinct punctuations; 
flagellum 2 times length of body; chloroleucites in the form of 
rods or ribbons or extremely notched disks; pyrenoid with shell; 
paramylon round or oval; green chlorophyl of the chloroleucites 
obscured by the red haematochrome which may however disap- 
pear in small aquaria with changed metabolism. 


Reproduction by copulation of gametes. Encystment with 
division in spherical state, the gelatinous envelope thick. 

L. 55-120/^. D. 28-33^. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

An interesting species which at times colors pools and small 
ponds an intense red on the surface. In the var. furcata Hiibner 
the cell is narrowed anteriorly so that a neck-like appearance re- 
sults, while a spiral furrow reaches from the cytopharynx to the 
middle of the body. 

Ohio, Cedar Point; Sandusky, in quarry ponds. 

11. E. rubra Hardy (Fig. PI. XII) . 

Cylindrical, red, with broadly rounded anterior end and poste- 
rior end suddenly narrowed into a distinct tip which is rounded 
posteriorly; periplast spirally striate; flagellum approximately as 
long as body; chloroleucites( ?) ; pyrenoids( ?) ; nucleus slightly 
posterior; paramylon short cylindrical. 

Reproduction by encystment with formation of distinct mem- 

L. 150(?)-200^. D. 50(?)-60/u 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Australia ; Europe, Bohemia. 

The species was described by Hardy, 1911, in association with 
E. viridis in small pools at Donocaster, Australia, and more re- 
cently it has been noted from Bohemia. It appears quite distinct 
from E. sanguinea. 

12. E. haematodes (Ehrenb), (Fig. 12, PI. XII). 

Fusiform, red, metabolic; periplast smooth; flagellum 11/2-2 
times length of body; stigma absent (?) ; chloroleucites in the form 
of rods and ribbons (notched disks ?) ; pyrenoids ( ?) ; paramylon 
round or oval ; protoplast colored red by haematochrome. 

Reproduction by longitudinal division. Encystment with a 
thick membrane and subsequent division. 

L. 75-103/.. D. 28-36/y. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?) . 

-13. E. velata Klebs (Fig. 13, PL XII). 

Elongately oval with short tip, rounded anteriorly, metabolic ; 
periplast weakly striate spirally; flagellum as long or somewhat 
shorter than the body; nucleus large, median; stigma large, granu- 


lar; chloroleucites 20-30 in number, distinctly lobed ; pyrenoids 
double shelled; paramylon( ?). 

L. 90-100/x. D. 25-30/x. 

Distribution, Europe and North America; Ohio, Gambler, 
Brook, McElroy Farm, with filaments of Lyngbya. 

14. E. sociabilis Dang. (Fig. 1, PI. XIII). 

Fusiform with short tip, metabolic; periplast (?) flagellum 
longer than body; nucleus (?) ; chloroleucites numerous — about 10 
in number ; pyrenoids double shelled ; paramylon oval or rod-like. 

Reproduction by encystment with subsequent division result- 
ing in spherical colonies of 2, 4, or 8 cells each with stigma and 
nucleus distinct. 

L. 85/x. D. 25/x. 

Distribution, France. 

15. E. granulata (Klebs), (Fig. 2, PI. XIII). 

Fusiform with short tip, metabolic; pellicula spirally striate, 
yellowish brown with distinct punctuations ; flagellum as long as 
body ; nucleus central ; chloroleucites in the form of large disks 
with slightly irregularly borders, each containing a prominent 
pyrenoid ; paramylon ( ?) . 

Reproduction by encystment within a gelatinous envelope. 
L. 60-90/x. D. 20-25/7,. 

Distribution, Europe. Cosmopolitan ( ?) 

The var. luteo Lemm. is colored light green. 

*16. E. polymorpha Dang. (Fig. 3, PI. XIII). 

Oval approaching cylindrical, metabolic with short tip ; peri- 
plast striated spirally, light brown in color ; flagellum twice as long 
as body; nucleus central (?) ; chloroleucites 15 or more in number 
in the form of disks with irregular borders, each containing a 
pyrenoid; paramylon oval, often absent. 

Reproduction, encystment spherical with gelatinous membrane. 

L. 80-90/x. D. 20-25/x. 

First found by Dangeard near Potiers in company with 
E. sanguinea. 

Mirror Lake, 0. S. U., 0., from stems of Eleodea. Length 


*17. E. proxima Dang. (Fig. 4, PI. XIII). 

Fusiform, not elongately cjdindrical with colorless tip, meta- 
bolic; periplast spirally striate; flagellum 1-1 i/o times length of 
body; nucleus central; chloroleucites numerous, disciform, about 
50 in each individual ; pyrenoids absent ; paramylon small, elon- 
gately oval or annular (?). 

Reproduction by encystment with cysts spherical, two cells 
being formed in a common envelope. 

L. 60-70/^. D. 20/x. 

Distribution, France, Potiers. Storage Dam, Columbus. 

The elongately oval chloroleucites suggests a form somewhat 
intermediate between those possessing elongated rods and those 
with flattened disks. 

18. E. caudata Hubner (Fig. 5, PI. XIII). 

Broadly fusiform with narrowed elongate tip, metabolic; 
periplast spirally striate; flagellum as long as body; nucleus cen- 
tral ; chloroleucites numerous, dumb-bell shaped ; pyrenoids with 
a double shell ; paramylon ( ?) . 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 110^. D. SSfx. 

Distribution, Europe (?). 

19. E. flava Dang. (Fig. 6, PI. XIII). 

Fusiform with short tip, red, metabolic; periplast (?) ; flagel- 
lum about length of body; nucleus (?) ; chloroleucites 3-15 in num- 
ber, disciform; pyrenoids with double shell; paramylon ( ?). 

Development by longitudinal division. Encystment with 
spherical cysts. 

L. 60//. D. 25-30/7.. 

Distribution, France at Potiers. 

20. E. orientalis Kashyop (Fig. 7, PI. XIII). 

Fusiform approaching cylindrical, color red; periplast (?) ; 
flagellum about as long as body ; chloroleucites globular ; pyre- 
noids (?) ; paramylon disiform, about l/x in diameter. 

Reproduction by flask shaped cysts from which it escapes 

L. 60-120/'. D. 25 (?) -40 (?)/.. 


Distribution, East India, Lahore. 

A species apparently quite distinct by reason of flask-like cysts 
and development of haematochrome, 

-21. E. variabilis Klebs (Fig. 8, PI. XIII) . 

Cylindrical, short, rounded anteriorly, decidedly metabolic; 
periplast strongly striate spirally; flagellum 2-3 times length of 
body; nucleus (?) ; stigma large, dark red; chloroleucites disciform, 
without pyrenoids; paramylon one large granule anteriorly, many 
small granules (?). 

Reproduction by division while provided with thin gelati- 
nous envelope. 

L. 30-46/x. D. 9-13;u. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

Gambler, 0., Hotel Hill Spring. A form which may at least 
be placed as a variety of the above, although not agreeing in detail 
with the figure from Klebs. 

22. E. gracilis Klebs (Fig. 9, PI. XIII). 

Cylindrical to bluntly oval without pronounced tip, decidedly 
metabolic; periplast spirally striate; flagellum about length of 
body; nucleus central; chloroleucites 12-15 in number, disciform 
with irregular margin; with pyrenoids; paramylon absent(?). 

Reproduction by division while provided with thin gelati- 
nous membrane. Encystment with thick gelatinous membrane. 

L. 37-45^. D. 6-22/x. 

Distribution, France, Potiers. 

A small but exceedingly active species. 

-23. E. torta Stokes (Fig. 10, PI. XIII). 

Elongately fusiform with tip twisted, not metabolic (?) ; 
flagellum as long as body; periplast smooth; chromatophores( ?) ; 
pyrenoids (?) ; paramylon in the form of 2 long rod-like granules 
anterior and posterior to the nucleus. 

Reproduction by division. 

L. 63/x. D.(?). 

Distribution, United States. 

This species described by Stokes is closely allied to E. trip- 
teris and may prove identical with that form. 

Ohio. Milford Center. 


-24. E. deses Ehrenb. (Fig. 1, PL XIV). 

Elongately cylindrical or band-like in form with short tip, 
metabolic; periplast weakly striate spirally; flagellum short; 
nucleus large, oval, central ; stigma prominent ; chloroleucites 
numerous, disciform ; pyrenoids without shell ; paramylon in the 
form of short or elongate rods. 

Reproduction by division with or without encystment in a 
gelatinous covering. 

L. 70-200/x. D. 17-24^. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Gambler, 0. 

The species is not free swimming but constantly undergoing 

25. E. mutabilis Schmitz (Fig. 2, PI. XIV). 

Elongately cylindrical, slightly narrowed anteriorly, tip elon- 
gate, decidedly metabolic ; periplast smooth ; flagellum ( ?) ; chloro- 
leucites 2-4 in number in the form of entire or a single half of 
hollow cylinders ; pyrenoids 2, without shell ; paramylon small, 
rod-like or disk-like. 

Reproduction by cysts, fusiform or cask-like in appearance. 

L. 80-90;u. D. Ifj.. 

A species particularly noticeable by reason of its comparative 

26. E. spiroides Lemm. (Fig. 3, PL XIV). 

Spirally twisted in the form of an elongate band with tip at 
a pronounced angle ; periplast weakly striate longitudinally ; flagel- 
lum short; nucleus central (?) ; chloroleucites numerous, disciform; 
pyrenoids absent; paramylon round, small. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 60-170/x. D. 16;u. 

Distribution, Europe. 

^:=27. E. oxyuris Schmarda (Fig. 4, PL XIV). 

Extremely elongate cylindrical or slightly flattened, rounded 
anteriorly, posteriorly with elongate tip, form usually twisted ; 
periplast decidedly striate spirally; flagellum 1/2 length of body; 
nucleus central ; chloroleucites numerous, disciform ; pyrenoids ab- 
sent; paramylon in the form of 2 large annular elongate rings, 
one anterior, the other posterior to the nucleus. 


Reproduction by longitudinal division. Encystment not 

L. 375-490;u. D. 30-45/.. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

The species is a large and interesting one, extremely well 
adapted for biological instruction in laboratory work. After once 
having found a locality it may be obtained in abundance. Longi- 
tudinal division of the mature form has been observed to take place 
within five hours without the reconstruction of the second para- 
mylon granule. This was from aquarium material during mid- 
winter, but at ordinary room temperature during the day. 

Ohio, Gambier; E. Swamp on S. "Bass Island, Lake Erie (Jen- 
nings) ; Sandusky Basket Factory Cove, L. Erie (Landacre). 

-28. E. simulacra n. sp. (Fig. 5, PI. XIV) . 

Elongately cylindrical or slightly flattened, rounded anteriorly, 
posteriorly with long acute tip, metabolic; periplast without pro- 
nounced spiral striations ; chloroleucites disciform, numerous ; 
pyrenoids( ?) ; paramylon in the form of two large spherical gran- 
ules, one anterior and one posterior to the nucleus, which is round. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 75/x. D. 8-8.5/.. 

Distribution, Ohio, Fremont. 

This interesting species is described from several specimens 
observed May 6, 1913, obtained in cultures procured from Fre- 
mont, 0., early in the spring. It differs from E. oxyuris by the 
presence of two large spherical instead of oval paramylon gran- 
ules, by the rounder nucleus and by its much smaller size. All 
the forms observed were nearly identical in size. Camera lucida 
drawings were made. No swimming movements took place, but 
instead a series of slow, twisting contortions. 

29. E. intermedia (Klebs), (Fig. 6, PI. XIV). 

Elongately cylindrical with short tip, decidedly metabolic; 
periplast weakly striate spirally ; flagellum short ; chloroleucites 
disciform, numerous; pyrenoids absent; paramylon consists of 
2-3 ( ?) large rod-like granules anterior and posterior to the nucleus. 

Reproduction, division in gelatinous membrane. 

L. 120-135/x. D. 8-12.5/x. 

Distribution, Europe. 


The var, klebsii Lemm. is 78-80/t long, 7-8/x in diameter and 
has rod-like paramylon granules much shorter. 

*30. E. tripteris (Dujard.), (Fig. 7, PI. XIV). 

Elongately band-like in form, spirally twisted with very long 
and acute tip, not metabolic ; when swimming three definite areas 
are formed by the body ; periplast weakly striate longitudinally ; 
flagellum 1/2 length of body ; chloroleucites numerous, disciform ; 
pyrenoids absent; paramylon in the form of 2 elongate rod-like 
granules, one anterior and the other posterior to the nucleus. 

Reproduction by division without formation of thickened 

L. 70-80/x. D. 8-14/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

The species appears rather rare, but is easily known by its 
peculiar tripartate areas when swimming. It is not metabolic. 

Ohio, Gambler (Academy Pond) ; Milford Center. 

*31. E. acus Ehrenb. (Fig. 8, PI. XIV). 

Extremely elongate, fusiform, tip attenuate, weakly meta- 
bolic ; periplast weakly striated spirally ; flasrellum about 1/3 length 
of body ; nucleus central, oval ; chloroleucites numerous, discoid ; 
pyrenoids absent; paramylon elongate rods, usually 7-12 in num- 
ber, scattered through protoplast. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 70-200/z. D. 7-12/.,. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

Two varieties have been recognized, var. minor' Hansg. 70-75/. 
long and 4-6/x in diameter, from peat bogs, and var. rigida Hubner. 
extremely rigid, 110/< long and 7.5/x in diameter, with paramylon 
arranged spirally. The species is not found commonly. Dangeard 
notes only isolated examples from two localities in France. The 
Hiawatha Lake forms are somewhat larger than the dim.ensions 
(180/x) ordinarily given. 

Ohio, Mt. Vernon (Hiawatha Lake) ; Milford Center; San- 
dusky (Landacre), in vegetation from basket factory cove. 

32. E. limnophila Lemm. (Fig. 9, PI. XIV). 

Fusiform with straight or slightly bent needle-like tip, 
slightly metabolic ; periplast scarcely striate ; flagellum short ; 


chloroleucites numerous, discoid; pyrenoids absent; paramylon in 
the form of 1-2 elongate rods anterior and posterior or lateral to 
the nucleus. 

Reproduction ( ?) . 

L. 82;u. D. 10;u. 

Distribution, Europe. 

*33. E. acutissima Lemm. (Fig. 10, PI. XIV). 

Elongately fusiform, rigid, with needle-like tip ; periplast 
weakly striate spirally; flagellum short; chloroleucites numerous, 
discoid, arranged in spiral lines: pyrenoids absent; paramylon in 
the form of 2 elongate rods, one anterior, the other posterior to 
the nucleus. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 123/^. D. 7/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

Ohio, Fremont. 

-34. E. spirogyra Ehrenb. (Fig. 1, PI. XV). 

Elongately cylindrical, narrowed anteriorly while posteriorly 
produced into an acute tip often slightly bent into a crescentic 
shape, slightly metabolic ; periplast yellowish brown with promi- 
nent spiral punctuations, a prominent row often alternating with 
a less prominent row; flagellum short; chloroleucites numerous, 
discoid ; pyrenoids absent ; paramylon in the form of 2 prominent 
annular granules, the one anterior, the other posterior to the 

Reproduction by longitudinal division and by cysts without 
a gelatinous envelope. 

L. 80-150/1. D. 6-20/.. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

Three varieties have been recognized, var. ahrupte-acuminata 
Lemm., 125/x in length and 15/j, in diameter with alternate promi- 
nent and weak rows of punctuations, and the tip distinctly set off 
from the rest of the cell; var. laticlavius (Hubner), 130/x in length 
and 20/x in diameter with weakly but uniformly developed rows 
of punctuations, and var. marchia Lemm., 79-100/^ in length and 
6-12/x in diameter with equally developed rows of punctuations 
which are almost in contact with one another. 


The forms thus far observed by the writer from Ohio are 
larger than any hitherto recognized, with L. 150/x and D. 20/x. 

Ohio, Gambier (Acad. Pond, Bishops Pool) ; E. Swamp, S. 
Bass Island, and Portage River (Jennings) ; Sandusky, L. Erie, 
basket Factory Cove (Landacre). 

35. E. fusca (Klebs), (Fig. 2, PI. XV). 

Elongate band-like in form, gradually narrowed posteriorly 
with short tip, weakly metabolic ; periplast dark brown to black 
with longitudinal rows of distinct punctuations ; flagellum as long 
as body; chromatophores numerous, discoid; pyrenoids absent; 
paramylon in the form of 2 large annular granules, anterior (?) 
and posterior to the nucleus. 

Reproduction by longitudinal (?) division and by cysts without 
gelatinous covering. 

L. 90-225/.,. D. 23-27.5//. 

Distribution, Europe. 

This was originally described as a variety of E. spv^ogyra by 
Klebs but later given a specific rank by Lemmerman, 

36. E. ehrenbergii Klebs (Fig. 3, PI. XV). 

Elongately band-like in form with rounded ends, decidedly 
metabolic ; periplast weakly striate spirally ; flagellum less than 
length of body ; chloroleucites numerous, discoid ; pyrenoids ab- 
sent (?) ; paramylon in the form of elongate cylindrical rods which 
at times are somewhat flattened or even discoid. 

Reproduction ( ?) . 

L. 290/x. D. 26//. 

Distribution, Europe. 

*37. E. truncata; n. sp. (Fig. 4, PL XV). 

Elongately cylindrical or band-like in form, slightly metabolic 
and often assuming a twisted appearance ; periplast spirally 
striate ; flagellum less than length of body ; nucleus anterior, oval ; 
posteriorly body normally emarginate or truncate ; chloroleucites 
numerous, discoid, 2.5// in diameter; pyrenoids apparently absent; 
paramylon with large granules absent, but with many small gran- 
ules about 1.5/1 in diameter and 2// in length. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 175^. D. 27-29//. 


Distribution, Mt. Vernon (Hiawatha Lake), O. 

This species has been found in almost all cultures from Hia- 
watha Lake, at Hiawatha Park, Mt. Vernon, during a period of 
three years. Large paramylon granules are absent, while the 
emarginate posterior end of the body is a character of interest. 
The body is often twisted into bipartate or tripartate areas similar 
to E. tripteris. 

The species is allied to E. ehrenbergii Klebs to which Ambhj- 
ophis viridis Ehrenb. (Kent, V. 1, p. 386) must be referred but 
differs by the characters in the "Table." Amblyophis aegyptiaca 
Schmarda (fresh water Egypt) is not sufficiently described to place 
it with certainty, systematically. 

38. E. quartana Moroff (Fig. 5, PI. XV). 

Colorless, fusiform, gradually narrowed behind, decidedly 
metabolic ; periplast distinctly differentiated, thick but smooth ; 
flagellum II/2 times length of body; nucleus in posterior third of 
body; chloroleucites absent; paramylon granules usually oval, com- 
paratively large. 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 50ju. D. 15/x. 

Distribution, Germany (Munich). 

The species was described by Moroff in cultures made from 
drainage water at Munich in which Beggiota had developed in 
quantities. It should be regarded as a valid species with some 
doubt by reason of the possible loss of the chlorophyl due to arti- 
ficial conditions. 

2. Gen. LEPTOCINCLIS Party. 

Forms radial not compressed usually with periplast striate 
spirally, not metabolic. Flagellum and vacuole system as in 
Euglena. Chloroleucites numerous, disciform in form and nor- 
mally contiguous to the pellicula. Usually provided with two large 
lateral annulate paramylon granules. Reproduction through di- 
vision in a resting stage. Nourishment holophytic or saprophytic. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 




Ai Pellicula striate. 

B' Posterior end suddenly constricted to form a more 
or less pronounced tooth. 
C^ Periplast with striae spiral. 
D^ Anterior end rounded. 
D- Anterior end produced into a neck-like 
process. ...... 

C- Periplast with striae not distinctly spiral. 
B- Posterior end either gradually narrowed or broadly 

Ci Posterior end gradually narrowed. 
D' Anterior end broadly rounded. 

El Form oval, posterior third not de- 
cidedly narrowed. 
E- Form spindle shaped, posterior third 
decidedly narrowed. 
D- Anterior end gradually narrowed. 

El In the form of a short and broad 
spindle. ..... 

E- In the form of a long and narrow 


C- Posterior end broadly rounded. 
A- Pellicula smooth. 

B' Anterior end not mouth-like in appearance. 
B- Anterior end mouth-like in appearance. 

1. L. ovum 

2. L. sphagnophila 

3. L. steinii 

4. L. buetschlii 

5. L. teres 

6. L. f usiformis 

7. L. acicularis 

8. L. texta 

9. L. globosa 
10. L. marssonii 

*1. L. ovum (Ehrenb), (Fig. 6, PI. XV). 

Oval, posterior end with distinct spike 6-1 ii in length ; periplast 
decidedly striate spirally; flagellum twice length of body. 
Reproduction ( ?) . 
L. 30-38/x. D. 15-18/x. 
Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water and Plankton. 

Lemmermann recognizes four varieties: var. glohida (Perty), 
spherical, L. 20-27/x, D. 16-21//, with flagellum 2-3 times length of 
body; var. striata (Hubner), approaching cylindrical, L. 37-38/*, 
D. 25/x, with many annular paramylon granules; var. punctuato- 
striata Lemm., L. 27-28/1, D. 20-21/x, oval with punctuate striae; 
var. palatina Lemm., L. 20/x., D. 20-21//., with striae composed of 
elongate markings. The spike is usually shorter in the varieties. 

Ohio, Landacre, Sandusky (Biemiller's Cove) ; Magnetic 
Springs (Baker's Creek) ; Coll. Osborn. 


2. L. sphagnophila Lemm. (Fig. 7, PI. XV). 

Oval, narrowed neck-like anteriorly, tip distinct; flagellum 
about twice the length of the body ; periplast weakly striate 

Reproduction ( ?) . 

L. 33/^. D. 12/A. 

Distribution, Europe. Sphagnum swamps and in Plankton. 

3. L. steinii Lemm. (Fig. 8, PI. XV). 

Short fusiform with tip distinct ; periplast with distinct striae 
which are scarcely spiral. 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 22-30/x. D. 8-15;u. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water and Plankton. 

A single variety is recognized by Lemmermann, var. svecica 
Lemm., with the posterior end slightly enlarged near the tip and 
with L. 24.5-26/^, D. 9.5-12/.. 

4. L. buetschlii Lemm. (Fig. 9, PI. XV). 

Oval with short tip ; periplast distinctly striate spirally ; fla- 
gellum about 2 times length of body. 
Reproduction ( ?) . 
L. 34-38/..D. 21-23/.. 
Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

-5. L. teres (Schmitz), (Fig. 10, PI. XV). 

Oval to fusiform, broadest anteriorly and with short tip ; peri- 
plast distinctly striate spirally ; flagellum 2 times length of body. 
L. 34-38/x. D. 21-23/.. 
Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 
Gambler, 0. 

6. L. fusiformis (Carter), (Fig. 1, PI. XVI). 

Short and broadly fusiform ; periplast distinctly striate spi- 
rally, flagellum about as long as body. 
Reproduction ( ?) . 
L. 25-36/.. D. 14-23/.. 
Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water and Plankton. 


*7. L. acicularis France (Fig. 2, PI. XVI). 

Elongately fusiform ; periplast with not more than 12 spiral 
striae ; flagellum somewhat exceeding length of body. 

Reproduction ( ?) . 

L. 21-22/.,. D. 6-V 

Distribution, Hungary (Balaton), and North America. 

A small individual 12/j. long having a central nucleus and a 
large circular spherical ( ?) paramylon granule, was found among 
filaments of Cladophora taken from the storage reservoir immedi- 
ately above the weir at the Cincinnati water works, Ohio. 

*8. L. texta (Duj.), (Fig. 3, PI. XVI). 

Broadly oval ; periplast distinctly striate spirally ; flagellum 
2-3 times length of body; paramylon granules numerous, cylin- 
drical, spherical or annular in form. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 52-60/x. D. 38/x. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water and Plankton. 

Gambler, 0. var. 48/* in length. 

9. L. globosa France (Fig. 4, PI. XVI). 

Spherical, slightly pointed anteriorly; periplast with weak 
rhomboidal markings ; flagellum shorter than length of body. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 14-21/x. D. 12-18/x(?). 

Distribution, Europe. 

Two varieties, cuHndrica Lemm., short cylindrical rounded at 
extremities, and fusiforrnis Lemm., broadly fusiform. 

10. L. marssonii Lemm. (Fig. 5, PI. XVI). 

Fusiform, emarginate anteriorly ; periplast smooth ; flagellum 
1-2 times length of body. 
Reproduction ( ?). 
L. 39-40/x. D. 11-13/x. 
Distribution, Europe. Standing water and Plankton. 

3. Gen. PHACUS Dujardin 

Form compressed, free swimming with thick, firm pellicula; 
not metabolic; a single flagellum; vacuole system as in Euglena; 


cliloroleucites numerous, disciform; paramylon granules of vari- 
ous forms, at times absent; reproduction during encystment in 
gelatinous capsules which multiply rapidly. 
Distribution, cosmopolitan. 


A^ Posterior part of body more or less uncinate. 
Bi Periplast smooth or with longitudinal striae. 

C Sides concave 1. P. anacoelus 

C- Sides convex. 

D^ Lateral margins much expanded. . 2. P. alata 

D- Lateral margins not expanded. 

E' Form circular from a lateral view ex- 
cept posterior spike-like process. . 3. P. orbicularis 
E- Form elongate. 

F' Dorsal area without longitudinal 

carina. . . 4. P. pleuronectes 

F- Dorsal area with longitudinal 

carina 5. P. triqueter 

B- Periplast with fine wart-like processes. . . 6. P. suecica 
A- Posterior part of body not uncinate, the spike-like pro- 
cess either being straight or absent. 
Bi Periplast smooth or with longitudinal striae. 

C^ Posterior tooth-like process as long as or longer 

than the body 7. P, longicauda 

C- Posterior tooth-like process when present, 
shorter than the body. 
D^ Posterior end with tooth-like process. 
El Tooth-like process approximately 

length of body. 
E- Tooth-like process extremely short. 
D- Posterior end without tooth-like process. 
El Posterior end slightly constricted. 
E2 Posterior end broadly rounded. 
B2 Periplast with spiral striations, minute spines, or 
course wart-like processes. 

Ci Periplast with spines or wart-likc processes, 
but without spiral striations. 

Di Periplast covered with minute spines. . 12. P. hispidula 
D2 Periplast covered with coarse wart-like 

processes. . . . . . 13. P. monilata 

C^ Periplast with spiral striations. 

Di Posterior end gradually narrowed to form a 

tooth-like process. . . . . 14. P. pyrum 

D- Posterior end either suddenly narrowed to 
form tooth-like process, or process absent. 





. 9. 










the posterior end rounded. 
El Posterior tooth distinct and approxi- 
mately as long as body. 
Fi Transversely oval with lateral 

wing-like processes. . . 15. P. nordstedtii 
F- Elongately oval or cylindrical with- 
out wing-like process. . 16. P. setosa 
C^ Posterior tooth either much shorter than the 
body or absent. 

D' Posterior end acute, in some species elon- 
gated into a tooth-like process. 
E' Posterior end with long tooth-like 
process V2 to % the length of the 

body 17. P. striata 

E- Posterior end without long tooth-like 

F^ A single large annular paramylon 
granule present. 

Qi Posterior end suddenly nar- 
rowed. ... 18. P. oscillans 
G- Posterior end gradually nar- 
rowed. ... 19. P. parvula 
F- Two large annual paramylon 
granules present. 

Gi Elongately oval, gradually nar- 
rowed posteriorly, the length 
approximately 3 times the 
diameter. . . 20. P. clavata 

G- Oval, more broadly rounded 
posteriorly, the length ap- 
proximately 2 times the di- 
ameter. ... 21. P. pusilla 
D^ Posterior end rounded. ... 22. P. dangeardii 

1. P. anacoelus Stokes (Fig. 6, PI. XVI) . 

Oval or spherical with margins concave and posterior spike 
short and uncinate; periplast (?) ; flagellum approximately as long 
as the body. 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 42/x. D. 35/^(?). 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. U. S. A., Western New York; 
Austria (Prague). Shallow ponds. 

2. P. alata Klebs (Fig. 7, PI. XVI) . 

Oval or spherical with lateral margins much expanded and 
posterior spike short and decidedly uncinate ; periplast longitudi- 


nally striate ; flagellum longer than body ; paramylon in the form 
of 2 large granules, one on each side. 
Reproduction (?). 

L. 19;U. D. lojJ.. 

Distribution, Europe. 

*3. P. orbicularis Hubner (Fig. 8, PI. XVI). 

Spherical with short uncinate posterior spike ; periplast longi- 
tudinally striate ; flagellum as long as body ; paramylon in the form 
of one large annular granule. 

Reproduction (?) . 

L. 70/^. D. 45/x. 

Distribution, Europe and North America in standing water. 

Ohio, Hiawatha Lake, Mt. Vernon. 

*4. P. pleuronectes (Mull.). (Fig. 9, PI. XVI). 

Broadly oval, slightly twisted with short uncinate posterior 
spike, and median fold reaching posteriorly to middle of cell ; peri- 
plast longitudinally striate ; flagellum as long as or slightly longer 
than the body; paramylon, 1-2 annular granules. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 45-49^. D. 33-35/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan, in standing water and Plankton. 

Sandusky, Basket Factory Cove (Landacre) ; Magnetic 
Springs (Baker's Creek, 0.) ; coll. Osborn. 

*5. P. triqueter (Ehrenb.), (Fig. 10, PI. XVI). 

Oval, decidedly concave-convex, posterior spike short and unci- 
nate ; dorsal fold prominent, reaching from anterior to posterior 
end; periplast longitudinally striate; flagellum as long as body; 
paramylon 1-2 annular granules. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 49-55/j. D. 33-35,a. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. In standing water. 

The species is common and easily identified by the longitudinal 
carina or fold reaching to the posterior end, although closely allied 
to P. pleuro7iectes and placed as a variety of that species by some 
investio-ators. It was found in East Swamp, S. Bass Island, and 
East Harbor, Lake Erie, by Jennings, and in Sandusky Bay by 

Gambler, Mt. Vernon, 0. (Hiawatha Lake). 


6. P. suecica Lemm. (Fig. 1, PI. XVII). 

Broadly oval with posterior spike slightly acuminate ; peri- 
plast with longitudinal striae which possess fine wart-like pro- 
cesses ; flagellum about as long as body and arising from an ante- 
rior elevation ; paramylon in the form of small round or oval 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 34^. D. 20-21/1;. 

Distribution, Europe. 

-7. P. longicauda (Ehrenb.), (Fig. 2, PL XVII). 

Oval with elongate straight posterior spike ; periplast longi- 
tudinally striate ; flagellum less than length of body ; paramylon 
in the form of 1 large discoid granule. 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 85-115/x. D. 46-70^. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan, in standing water and Plankton. 

Variety torta Lemm. is decidedly twisted. 

Found by Jennings in swamps on South Bass Island and East 
Harbor, in Lake Erie and also by Landacre in Sandusky Bay (Bas- 
ket Factory Cove). 

Gambler, 0. 

8. P. caudataHubner (Fig. 3, PI. XVII). 

Oval concave-convex with posterior spike short, straight, and 
the dorsal fold reaching to the posterior end ; periplast longitudi- 
nally striate ; flagellum as long as body ; paramylon in the form of 
one large annular granule anterior to the nucleus and one smaller 
granule near the posterior spike. 

Reproduction ( ?) . 

L. 45/x. D. 22.5/x. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

-9. P. acuminata Stokes (Fig. 4, PI. XVII). 

Broadly oval or circular with short posterior spike and a pro- 
nounced dorsal fold nearly reaching the posterior end ; periplast 
longitudinally striate ; flagellum about length of body ; paramylon, 
2 small round granules. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 25/x. D. 25/t-i. 


Distribution, North America. Streams and ponds. Storage 
Dam, Columbus, 0. 

Stokes notes the habitat in connection with Myriophyllum, 

10. P. brevicaudata (Klebs) , (Fig. 5, PI. XVII) . 

Oval, without spine and with dorsal fold reaching posterior 
end ; periplast longitudinally striate ; flagellum as long as body ; 
paramylon one annular granule. 

Reproduction ( ?) . 

L. 31-35/x. D. 23-25/x. 

Distribution, Europe. In standing water. 

11. P. stokesii Lemm. (Fig. 6, PI. XVII). 

Broadly oval to spherical with dorsal fold attaining posterior 
end ; periplast longitudinally striate ; flagellum as long as body ; 
paramylon 1 round granule in posterior part of cell. 

Reproduction ( ?) . 

L. 46/x. D. 43-46/x. 

Distribution, North America. In pools. 

12. P. hispidula (Eichw.), (Fig. 7, PI. XVII). 

Oval with short straight posterior spike and tubular opening 
for flagellum ; periplast longitudinally striate, the striae covered 
with minute spines ; flagellum as long as body ; paramylon either 
discoid or rod-like. 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 30-55/x. D. 18-33/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water. ° 

This is probably the species figured but unnamed in Conn's 
paper on the protozoa of Connecticut. 

13. P. monilata Stokes (Fig. 8, PI. XVII). 

Spherical, covered with wart-like processes, posterior spike 
straight; flagellum as long as body, arising from a minute eleva- 
tion; paramylon ( ?). 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 3V D. 30;a(?). 

North America. Ponds. 

*14. P. pyrum (Ehrenb.), (Fig. 9, PI. XVII). 
Oval, broadest anteriorly, provided posteriorly with elongate 
straight spine ; periplast spirally striate ; flagellum as long as body ; 


paramylon consisting of 2 large or several small lateral discoid 

Reproduction, longitudinal division without encystment. 

L. 30-55/x. D. 13-15/.. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water. 

15. P. nordstedtii Lemm. (Fig. 10, PI. XVII). 
Transversely oval with posterior spike distinct, straight, and 

as long as body ; periplast forming wing-like lateral extensions with 
distinct spiral striae; flagellum as long as body; paramylon (?) . 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 53/.. D. 2V 

Distribution, Europe and Asia Minor. 

16. P. setosa France (Fig. 11, PI. XVII). 

Broadly oval, approaching cylindrical, emarginate anteriorly, 
the posterior spike pronounced, straight, and as long as body; 
periplast spirally striate; flagellum (?) ; paramylon in the form of 
numerous spherical or cylindrical granules. 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 30-31/i. D. 15/x(?). 

Distribution, Europe, Hungary (Balaton). 

Lemmermann notes the length of this species as 30-31/x, which 
if including the posterior spike would be an extremely small form. 
The magnification of the figured specimen is given as 610, and if 
correct makes the actual size approximately 100/. for the total 
length, which is evidently an error. 

17. P. striata France (Fig. 12, PI. XVII). 

Oval, often broadest posteriorly with posterior spike distinct 
and 1/2-1/3 the length of the body; periplast spirally striate; 
flagellum scarcely as long as body; paramylon 1 large discoid 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 20-24/x. D. 4-9/.. 

Distribution, Europe, Hungary (Balaton). 

*18. P. oscillans Klebs (Fig. 13, PI. XVII). 
Oval, broadest anteriorly, gradually narrowed posteriorly with 
short but distinct tooth, lateral margins turned in toward the con- 


cave ventral surface; periplast spirally striate; flagellum about 
length of body ; paramylon 1 large discoid granule. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 26/x. D. lO/ji. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. Storage Dam, Colum- 
bus, 0. 

19. P. parvula Klebs (Fig. 14, PI. XVII). 

Oval, broadest anteriorly, posterior end acute but without 
pronounced tooth; periplast spirally striate; flagellum as long as 
body; paramylon 1 annular granule. 

Reproduction by free longitudinal division as well as by 
division within an envelope. 

L. 17-30/x. D. 9-10/x. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

20. P. clavata Dang. (Fig. 15, PI. XVII). 

Conical gradually narrowed posteriorly; periplast spirally 
striate ; flagellum about 2/3 length of body ; paramylon 2 annular 
or several rod-like granules. 

Development ( ?). 

L. 25/x(?). D. 10/.(?). 

Distribution, France. 

Dangeard in the description of the species fails to note the 
size, stating, however, that it is allied to P. oscillans. Conse- 
quently provisional dimensions are given. 

21. P. pusilla Lemm. (Fig. 16, PI. XVII). 

Elongately oval, with wing-like thickening laterally, the poste- 
rior end slightly pointed ; periplast spirally striate ; flagellum 1/2 
length of body ; paramylon, 2 annular granules. 

Reproduction ( ?) . 

L. 20/x. D. 7.5/7. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water, 

22. P. dangeardii Lemm. (Fig. 17, PI. XVII). 

Elongately oval with rounded ends, often slightly narrowed 
posteriorly; periplast spirally striate; flagellum as long as body; 
paramylon, 1 annular granule. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L.(?). D.(?). 

Distribution, France. 


4. Gen. CRYPTOGLENA Ehrenberg. 

Form oval, short, scarcely acute posteriorly, compressed, free 
swimming, with ventral longitudinal furrow; a single flagellum; 
pellicula thick as in Phacus ; chloroleucites in the form of two 
elongate bands. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

A single species in the genus. 

*1. C. pigra Ehrenb. (Fig. 1, PI. XVIII). 

Body oval, rigid, flattened, slightly pointed behind ; a single 
flagellum inserted at the bottom of a slight depression equivalent 
to the cytopharynx of Euglena, etc.; nucleus posterior; two elon- 
gate chloroleucites situated one on each side and extending nearly 
the entire length of the body ; stigma in contact with anterior end 
of one of the chromatophores ; vacuole present. 

Reproduction ( ?). 

L. 11-15/.. D. 6-7/t. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

Landacre notes the species from Sandusky Bay in decaying 
vegetation of Biemiller's Cove under the name Chloromonas pigra 
in accordance with Kent. 

5. Gen. TRACHELOMONAS Ehrenberg. 

Free swimming forms having a single flagellum and normally 
provided with a protective shell of a brownish color. The indi- 
viduals frequenting the shells are colored green by the chloro- 
leucites contained in the protoplasm and are provided with a 
stigma, paramylon granules and other structures characteristic 
of the family Euglenidae. Reproduction through division inside 
of the shell, the new individual leaving and forming a new shell. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

The species inhabit fresh water in ditches, pools, and ponds, 
particularly in stagnant waters where rusty patches of "ooze" are 


A' Surface of shell not provided with distinct spines. 

Bi Posterior end of shell not produced into a spine- 
like process. 

C Form approximately spherical or slig-htly 
oval, but never decidedly longer than wide. 


Di Spherical or elongately oval. 

El Surface smooth or finely punctuate. 
Fi Surface smooth. 

Qi Shell not provided with mi- 
nute perforations. . 1. T. volvocina 
G2 Shell provided with minute 

perforations. . . 2. T. perforate 

Fi Shell finely punctured. . 3. T. intermedia 
E2 Surface with wart-like processes, 
with folds, or with numerous minute 
compact rod-like protuberances. 
Fi Surface with wart-like process. 4. T. verrucosa 
F~ Surface with folds or minute rod- 
like protuberances. 
G^ Surface covered with folds. 
Hi Folds short, not reaching 
from anterior to poste- 
rior end. 

11 Folds minute, diago- 

nal. . . 5. T. rugulosa 

12 Folds, large irregu- 

lar. . 6. T. vermiculosa 

H^ Folds elongate, reach- 
ing from anterior to 
posterior end. . 7. T. stokesiana 

G- Surface with numerous rod- 
like projections. 
Hi Opening for flagellum 
^ ■ without a collar. . 8. T. spiculifera 

H= Opening for flagellum 

with a collar. . 9. T. vestita 

D2 Transversely oval. . . • 10. T. bernardi 

C2 Form elongately ovoid or cylindrical, the length 
approximately 2 times the diameter. 
Di Form oval or ovoid, not cylindrical. 
E^ Form that of a regular oval. 

Fi Shell smooth. 

G^ Opening for flagellum ap- 
proximately V2 the diame- 
ter of the shell; length 
25/" 11. T. teres 

G^ Opening for flagellum less 
than Vs the diameter of the 
shell; length 13-16m. . 12. T. oblonga 

F2 Shell covered with granulations 
or punctuations. 
Gi Collar distinct. . . 13. T. crebea 


G- Collar absent. . . 14 T. lemmermannii 

E- Form ovoid, being broader either an- 
teriorly or posteriorly. 
Fi Broadest posteriorly. 

Gi Shell smooth. . . 15. T. ovalis 

G- Shell covered with punctua- 
tions or granulations. 
H^ Covered with fine irregu- 
lar punctuations. . 16. T. similis 
H- Covered with coarse reg- 
ular granulations. . 17. T, volzii 
F- Broadest anteriorly. 
Gi Shell smooth. 

HI Collar absent or low. 
I^ Flagellum opening 
with a notched col- 
lar. . . 18. T. eurystoma 
I- Flagellum opening 
only slightly thick- 
ened. . . 19. T. incerta 
H- Collar comparatively 

high. . . . 20. T. africana 
° G- Shell covered with fine punc- 

tuations and lines. , 21. T. reticulata 
D- Form cylindrical. 

El Shell smooth 22. T. euchlora 

E2 Shell with coarse granulations. . 23. T. conspersa 
B2 Posterior end of shell produced into a spine-like 

Ci Shell either with 3 annular transverse furrows 
or with elongated collar the height of which 
approximates the diameter of the shell. 

Di "With 3 annular furrows. ... 24. T. annulata 
B- With elongated collar. ... 25. T. minor 

C- Shell without transverse furrows and elon- 
gated collar. 

Di Anterior end of shell obliquely truncate. 
E- Form oval. 

Fi Elongately oval. ... 26. T. affinis 
F- Transversely oval. . . 27. T. volgensis 

El Form triangular or trapezoidal. . 28. T. acuminata 
D- Anterior end transversely truncate. 

E' Posterior spike-like process not longer 
than diameter of shell. 

Fi Median part of shell cylindrical. 29. T. urceolata 
F- Median part of shell oval. 

G' Median part longitudinally 

oval. . . . 30. T. fluviatilis 


G- Median part transversely 

oval 31. T. schauinslandii 

E-' Posterior spike-like process longer 

than diameter of shell . . 32. T. ensifera 
A2 Surface of shell provided with distinct spines. 

Bi Spines not uniformly distributed over entire sur- 

C^ Posterior spines absent. ... 33. T. acanthostoma 

C^ Posterior spines present. 

D^ Spines in a single row on posterior or 

posterior and anterior end . . 34. T. armata 
D- Spines covering entire shell except an 

equatorial belt . ... 35. T. raciborskii 

B^ Spines uniformly distributed over entire surface. 
C^ Form spherical or nearly spherical. 

Di Posterior part of shell not produced into 
a spike-like process. 
El Spines short and numerous. 

Fi Form spherical, covered with 

prominent short but distinct 

spines. . . . . 36. T. globularis 

F- Form oval, largest anteriorly, 

covered thickly with fine minute 

spines . . . . 37. T. westii 

E- Spines extremely long, equal in length 

to diameter of shell, about 10 in 

number 38. T. americana 

D- Posterior part of shell produced into a 

spiike like process . . . 39. T. aegyptraca 

C- Form not spherical, the length approximately 
twice the diameter. 

D^ Posterior part of shell not produced into 
a spine like process. 

El Form regularly oval, neither the ante- 
rior nor the posterior end broadest. 
F^ Anterior end developed into a 
neck like process ... 40. T. piscatoris 
F- Anterior end broadly rounded. 

G^ Granulations between spines 

H' Spines as long as or 
longer than length of 
shell ... 41. T. setosa 
H- Spines short. 

V Spines bent . 42. T. spinosa 
I- Spines straight. 

Ji Posterior end 

broadly rounded 43. T. hispida 


J- Posterior end 

pointed . 44. T. obtusa 
G^ Granulations present between 

spines . . . 45. T. horrida 

E- Form ovoid, the posterior or anterior 
end broadest. 

Fi Posterior end broadest . 46. T. saccata 
F- Anterior end broadest. 

G^ Posterior end rounded, and 
only slightly narrower than 
anterior end; collar notched 47. T. bulla 
G- Posterior end becoming de- 
cidedly narrowed ; collar not 
notched ... 48. T. obovata 

D- Posterior end of shell produced into an 
acute or spike like process. 
E' Definite posterior spike like process 

absent; collar not toothed . 49. T. helvetica 
E- Definite posterior spike like process 

present; collar toothed . . 50. T. caudata 

*1. T. volvocina Ehrenb. (Fig. 2, PI. XVIII) . 

Shell spherical, smooth ; flagellum opening with slightly thick- 
ened margin, rarely with low collar; flagellum 2-3 times length 
of body. 

L. 7-21^. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water and Plankton. 

Three varieties are recognized, var. papillata Lemm., shell 
spherical and flagellum opening surrounded by papilla ; var, cerri- 
cula (Stokes), shell spherical with flagellum opening developed 
into an internal tube 7-8/x in length; var. subglobosa Lemm., with 
shell slightly elongate and flagellum opening developed into a short 
internal tube. 

The water in small pools is at times colored a deep brown by 
the large numbers of individuals of the species. 

Ohio, Lake Erie (Jennings) (Landacre), Gambler (Walton). 

2. T. perforata Awerinz. (Fig. 3, PI. XVIII). 

Shell spherical with minute openings ; flagellum opening with 
annular thickening or with low collar. 
L. 17-20/x. D. 16-19/z. 
Distribution, Europe. Standing water and Plankton. 


3. T. intermedia Dang. (Fig. 4, PI. XVIII) . 

Shell spherical, finely punctuate; flagellum opening with 
annular thickening ; flagellum 2 times length of body. 
L. 20/x. D. 16/x. 
Distribution, Europe. 

4. T. verrucosa Stokes (Fig. 5, PI. XVIII). 

Shell spherical, colorless, emarginate anteriorly, covered with 
wart-like processes; flagellum (?). 
L. 24-24.5^. 
Distribution, North America. Ponds. 

*5. T. rugulosa Stein (Fig. 6, PI. XVIII). 

Spherical with weak spiral folds; flagellum 2-3 times length 
of body. 

L. 15-23^. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water and Plankton; 
Columbus Storage Dam. 

6. T. vermiculosa Palmer (Fig. 7, PI. XVIII). 

Spherical with short irregular folds; flagellum opening with 
annular thickening. 

L. 23jU,. 

Distribution, North America (Palmer). Found accompany- 
ing £'^t?^oim pecimaiis (Kutz.). 

7. T. stokesiana Palmer (Fig. 8, PI. XVIII) . 

Spherical with numerous longitudinal folds which often anas- 
tomose and at the extremities become spiral ; flagellum opening a 
short conical tube in a flattened depression. 

L. 18/x. 

Distribution, North America. Ponds Penn, Valley, Bucks 
County (Palmer). 

8. T. spiculifera Palmer (Fig. 9, PI. XVIII) . 

Spherical with numerous short projections ; flagellum opening 
with thickening either annular or in the form of a polygon. 

L. 25/x. 

Distribution, North America (Palmer). With Eunotia pecti- 
nalis (Kutz.). 

9. T. vestita Palmer (Fig. 10, PI. XVIII). 

Spherical, thickly covered with radial spicules thickened on 


distal end and with a flagellum collar having a height of between 
1/3 and 1/2 the diameter of the shell; collar broadest at top; 
flagellum (?). 
L. 25,ji. 

Distribution, North America. Ponds with Eunotia pectinalis 

10. T. bernardi Wolosz. (Fig. 11, PI. XVIII). 
Transversely oval, truncate anteriorly ; flagellum opening with 
annular thickening; flagellum 4 times length of body. 
L. 10-15/x. D. 15-18/x. 
Distribution, Java. Plankton (Sawa). 

*11. T. teres Maskell (Fig. 12, PI. XVIII). 

Oval, smooth; flagellum opening extremely wide; collar low; 
flagellum about as long as body. 

L. 35/. . D. 15/4?). 

Distribution, New Zealand. A form 29/x long which must be 
referred to this species was obtained in water from one of the 
upper storage reservoirs at the Cincinnati water works. 

•=12. T. oblonga Lemm. (Fig. 13, PI. XVIII). 

Oval, smooth; flagellum opening with annular thickening 
which is at times developed into a low collar. 

L. 13-16/.. D. 11-12/x. 

Distribution, Europe and North America. Standing water. 

Mirror Lake, 0. S. U., Columbus, 0. 

Var. truncata Lemm. is truncate anteriorly, comparatively 
shorter than oblonga with dimensions L. 12-13/i, D. 11/x. Var. 
punctuata Lemm. is elongately oval and thickly covered with line 

-13. T. crebea Kellicott (Fig. 1, PI. XIX). 

Oval, thickly covered with granulations; collar widened at 
mouth, normally straight, and minutely notched; flagellum (?) 

L. 25/i. D. ( ?) . 

Distribution, North America. 

Found by Kellicott in Ohio and by Palmer in the Delaware, 
although it is here noted that the prevalent form has a collar 
curved to one side. This is the form which Lemmermann has 
considered as var. dentata by reason of the teeth on the collar. 


14. T. lemmermanaii Wolosz. (Fig. 2, PI. XIX) . 
Elongately oval, narrowed posteriorly, truncate anteriorly, 

finely punctuate; flagellum about 2 times length of body. 
L. 26^. D. 13/x. 
Distribution, Java. Plankton (Sawa). 

15. T. ovalis Daday (Fig. 3, PI. XIX) . 

Oval, smooth, distinctly narrowed anteriorly where it is trun- 
cate, broadly rounded posteriorly; flagellum 4/5 length of body; 
flagellum opening 4/i in diameter and with fine marginal teeth. 

L. 32/^. D. 18/7. 

Distribution, East Africa. 

16. T. similis Stokes (Fig. 4, PI. XIX). 

Oval, broadly rounded at both ends, irregularly punctuate; 
collar curved to one side and provided with irregular teeth. 
L. 28/.. L. 14/x. 
Distribution, North America. 

17. T. volzii Lemm. (Fig. 5, PI. XIX). 

Oval, thickly covered with granulations, collar cylindrical, 4u 

L. 32/x. D. 15. 
Distribution, Sumatra. 

18. T. eurystoma Stein (Fig. 6, PI. XIX). 

Oval, broadest anteriorly, rounded posteriorly, smooth ; collar 

low truncate, with indentations ; flagellum 2 times length of body. 

L. 30-31.5/x. D. 7. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

var. acuta Lemm. is pointed posteriorly with collar obliquely 

19. T. incerta Lemm. (Fig. 7, PI. XIX). 

Oval, broadest anteriorly, gradually narrowed posteriorly ; 
flagellum opening with annular thickening; flagellum 2-21/2 times 
length of body. 

L. 37.6/^. D. 18/.(?). 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

var. punctuata Lemm. is 15.5// in length and 7/j in diameter. 

Oval, smooth, slightly broadest toward anterior end, collar 
comparatively high (5/x) and small; flagellum (?). 
with a collar !/> in height. 


20. T. africana Fritsch (Fig. 8, PI. XIX). 
L. 27-33/x. D. 12^. 

Distribution, Madagascar. Forest streams. 

In material preserved ( ?) from Analamagotra near Perinet, 
Madagascar, collected by P. A. Methuen. The truncate posterior 
end of species together with its comparatively high and slender 
collar easily distinguishes it from other forms. 

21. T. reticulata Klebs (Fig. 9, PI. XIX). 

Oval, colorless, broadest anteriorly, gradually narrowed pos- 
teriorly, thickly covered with fine punctuations and marks ; stigma 
prominent; flagellum 2 times length of body. 

L. 26/x. D. 17/i. 

Distribution, Europe. In cultures of decaying organisms. 

22. T. euchlora (Ehrenb.), Fig. 10, PI. XIX). 

Cylindrical, rounded at ends, smooth, collar low; flagellum? 
chloroleucites 6-10 each with pyrenoid ; 
L. 25/.. D. ? 

Distribution, Cosmopolitan. Standing water, 
var. cijlindrica (Ehrenb.) is smaller, L.23.5-27/X. D.8-9/X. 

23. T. conspersa. 

Broadly cylindrical, bottle shaped, widest toward base which 
forms a flat surface, anteriorly a prominent neck; brown or yel- 
lowish brown in color covered with irregular granules; flagellum 
3 times length of body. 

L. 25-35/x. D. 10-25/.. 

Distribution, Austria (Prague). Stagnant pools. 

24. T. annulata Daday (Fig. 12, PI. XIX). 

Fusiform with elongate neck and posterior spike, and with 
three transverse annular furrows which separate the shell into 
four areas; chloroleucites rod like; flagellum ? 

L. 97/.. D. 40/.. 

Distribution, Paraguay. Swamps and bogs. 

25. T. minor Palmer (Fig. 1, PI. XX). 

Spherical, with extremely long collar and posterior spike; 
shell covered with scattered granules ; spike often bent or twisted 
and with a length of about 17//, while the collar is 5/^ in height. 
Flagellum ? 


L. 30? D. ? 

Distribution, North America. Found with Euyiotia pectinalis 


26. T. affinis Lemm. (Fig. 2, PI. XX). 

Cylindrical with undulations, with an extended neck like pro- 
cess obliquely truncate, and with short but pronounced spike; 
flagellum IV2 times length of body. 

L. 51/x. D. 27/.. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

Var. plamtonico Wolosz., has a rough shell, L.45/x D.25// while 
var. levis Lemm. has a shell which is comparatively broad, L. 60/x. 
68.5/x., D. 26-27/.. 

27. T. volgensis Lemm. (Fig. 3, PI. XX). 

Transversely oval with prominent neck, smooth; posterior 
spike distinct ; flagellum slightly longer than body. 

L. 20-40/1. D. 15-20/i. 

Distribution, Europe. Plankton of the Volga. 

Var. treuhii Wolosz., has a rough shell, L.20-40/X, D.15-20/X, with 
posterior spike 15-20/.. in length. Var. javanica similar to treuhii 
but 25/i in length, 18-20/x in diameter and with a posterior spike 
only bfx long. 

28. T. acuminata (Schmiarda), (Fig. 4, PL XX). 

Triangular or in the form of a trapezoid, smooth, distinctly 
narrowed anteriorly with prominent straight or slightly curved 
posterior spike ; collar obliquely truncate ; flagellum 2 times length 
of body. 

L. 50-59/j. D. ? 

Distribution, Europe. In standing water. 

Var. verrucosa Teodor. has a shell with L.26-34/X and a D. 14-22/. 
which is irregularly covered with spinous warts or protuberances. 

29. T. urceolata Stokes. (Fig. 5, PI. XX). 

Cylindrical with anterior neck like process transversely trun- 
cate and a prominent posterior spike; flagellum about length of 

L. A^iJi. D. ? 

Distribution, North America. Ponds. 


30. T. fluviatilis Lemm. (Fig. 6, PI. XX). 

Oval, smooth or somewhat rough, with neck-like process trans- 
versely truncate, gradually narrowed posteriorly into a long (5.5;«.) 
spike ; flagellum ? 

L. 28.7-34;u. D. 12-12.5^. 

Distribution, Siam. Plankton Menam River. 

Var. curvata Lemm. has a shell with L.63/x and D.23/i, with the 
posterior spike (16.5/x) curved. 

31. T. schauinslandii Lemm. (Fig. 7, PI. XX). 

Transversely oval, covered with fine granulations, with anter- 
ior neck-like process ; gradually narrowed posteriorly into a spike ; 
flagellum ? 

L. 27.5/.. D. U,x. 

Distribution, Siam. Plankton Menam River. 

32. T. ensifera V. Daday (Fig. 8, PI. XX). 

Spherical or transversely oval, smooth, with anterior neck-like 
process and massive (42-70/x) posterior spike; flagellum ? 

L. 130;u. D. 44/x. 

Distribution, Paraguay. Swamps and bogs. 

Var. ornata Lemm. has the median part of the shell covered 
with minute elevations. 

33. T. acanthostoma Stokes (Fig. 9, PI. XX). 

Spherical, finely punctuate ; flagellum opening with two irreg- 
ular rows of short spines. 
L. 36.5/t. 
Distribution, North America. Ponds. 

34. T. armata (Ehrenb.), (Fig. 10, PI. XX). 

Broadly oval, not punctuate, with a circular row of compara- 
tively long spines at posterior end ; terminal spike absent; flagellum 
opening thickened or with low toothed collar; flagellum 2 times 
length of body. 

L. 29-64^. D. ? 

Distribution, Cosmopolitan? Standing water and Plankton. 

Var. steinii Lemm. Possesses an anterior wreath of short spines 
behind a circle of longer spines. 


35. T. raciborskii Wolosz. (Fig. 11, PI. XX). 

Oval, surface thickly covered on both ends with heavy short 
spines ; flagellum 3 times length of body. 
L. 40/x. D. 30/i. 
Distribution, Java. Plankton of Sawa River. 

*36. T. globularis (Awerinz.), (Fig. 12, PI. XX). 

Spherical, covered with short scattered spines ; flagellum open- 
ing without collar although an annular thickening often present; 

L. 20/x. 

Distribution, Russia (Bologoje). North America (Gambler, 

Specimens which must be referred to this species were found 
in a sample of water from a pool at the foot of Bishop's Hill, 
Gambler, Ohio, and also from the Cincinnati Storage Reservoir. 
The shell was green in color and covered with short blunt spines 
regularly arranged. No prominent collar was noticeable. 

D. 27/x. 

37. T. westii Wolosz. (Fig. 13, PI. XX). 

Broadly oval, slightly widened anteriorly ; thickly covered with 
extremely fine spicules ; flagellum ? 
L. 18/x. D. 15/x. 
Distribution, Java. Plankton of Bawa River. 

*38. T. americana Lemm. (Fig. 14, PI. XX). 

Spherical, with about 12 extremely long (12^() spines scat- 
tered irregularly over surface and with a cylindrical collar 7/* 
in height with spherical enlargement on the end ; flagellum ? 

Li. 13/x. 

Distribution, North America. With Eunotia pectinalis 
(Kiitz.). Mirror Lake, O. S. U., Columbus, O. 

39. T. aegyptiaca Lemm. (Fig. 15, PI. XX). 

Spherical, thickly covered with fine spines; with prominent 
collar and posterior spike; flagellum ? 
L. 56.4/i. 
Distribution, Cosmopolitan? Standing water. 


40. T. piscatoris (Fisher), (Fig. 16, PI. XX). 

Cylindrical rounded posteriorly with prominent neck-like pro- 
cess anteriorly provided with small teeth and at times with spines ; 
surface covered with spines; flagellum 11/2-2 times length of body. 

L. 25-40/x. D. ? 

Distribution, North America. Pools. 

41. T. setosa Zykoff (Fig. 1, PI. XXI). 

Oval with numerous long thin spines, approximating the 
length of the shell, directed posteriorly; collar widened at mouth 
and provided with teeth ; flagellum ? 

L. 30fx,. 

Distribution, Russia. Plankton of the Volga River. 

*42. T. spinosa Stokes (Fig. 2, PI. XXI). 

Oval, thickly covered with short and somewhat curved spines ; 
collar low, flagellum? 

L. ? 

Distribution. North America. Pools. Akron, Ohio, Water 


*4,3. T. hispida (Perty), (Fig. 3, PI. XXI). 

Oval, yellowish brown, thickly covered with short spines; 
collar short, often absent; flagellum 11/2-2 times length of body. 

L. 20-42/,. D. 15-26/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water and Plankton. 

The following varieties have been recognized: 

var. pmwtmta Lemm. finely punctured and without spines. 

var. coronafa thickly covered with short spines while the open- 
ing of the flagellum is circled by larger spines. 

var. crenulatocollis (Mask ell) flagellum opening wide with col- 
lar expanded at top and provided with teeth. 

var. caudata Lemm. thickly covered with spines and provided 
with distinct posterior spike. 

var. cylindrica Klebs, cylindrical and thickly spined. 

var. subarmata Schr()der, covered with spines, those on the 
ends being much longer. 

In form, number, size, and arrangement of spines the species 

varies widely. 

Ohio, in E. Swamp on South Bass Island and in Portage 
River (Jennings) and on vegetation in Basket Factory Cove, San- 


dusky (Landacre). Landacre also notes a variety "with spines 
on the ends and smooth in the middle" which may possibly be re- 
ferred to subarmata. 

Hamilton, O., storage reservoir. 

44. T. obtusa Palmer (Fig. 4, PI. XXI). 

Cylindrical, broadly rounded anteriorly and conical poste- 
riorly; thickly covered with spines; flagellum opening narrow; 

L. 33;u. D. 16jU,. 

Distribution, North America. Ponds and ditches. 

45. T. horrida Palmer (Fig. 5, PI. XXI). 

Broadly oval, covered with numerous spines with nearly par- 
allel margins and abruptly pointed at ends ; minute wart-like pro- 
cesses between base of spines; collar low with widened mouth, 
the margin undulating; flagellum ( ?). 

L. 40^. D.(?). 

Distribution, North America. Ditches. Obtained in N. J. by 
Palmer and in Iowa by Edmundson. 

46„ T. saccata Lemm. (Fig. 6, PI. XXI) . 

Oval, gradually narrowed anteriorly into a neck -like process; 
covered thickly with spines; flagellum (?). 
L.(?). D.(?). 
Distribution, Paraguay, S. A. Swamps and bogs. 

47. T. bulla Stein (Fig. 7, PI. XXI) . 

Elongately oval, covered with short spines, scarcely narrower 
posteriorly with distinct collar (6/i in height) provided with 
teeth ; flagellum about length of body. 

L. 50-5 V D. 20/x(?). 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?). Standing water. 

Var. regularis Lemm. without spines, emarginate anteriorly, 
neck absent. L.30/x. D.14/x. 

48. T. obovata Stokes (Fig. 8, PI. XXI) . 

Oval, gradually narrowed posteriorly, thickly covered with 
short spines; flagellum opening with annular thickening; fla- 
gellum (?). 

L. 22.6|u. D.(?). 

Distribution, North America. Swamps and bogs. 


49. T. helvetica Lemm. (Fig. 9, PI. XXI). 

Oval, gradually narrowed posteriorly into a spike-like pro- 
cess; thickly covered with spines; collar present, truncate; fla- 
gellum( ?). 

L.(?). D.(?). 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

50. T. caudata (Ehrenb.) (Fig. 10, PI. XXI). 

Oval, narrowed slightly posteriorly, thickly covered with 
spines ; posterior spike present, straight or slightly curved ; collar 
widened at mouth, provided with teeth; flagellum about as long 

as body. 

L. 29-53/x. D. 21/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water. 

Palmer notes this as a rare species occurring as a typical 
form at Tinicum, Pa., the local species having a length of 40/.. 

6. Gen. ASCOGLENA Stein. 

Elongately oval similar to Euglena, but secreting a brownish 
yellow protective covering which gives it a flask-like form, the 
posterior end being attached to algae or other aquatic plants or 
debris in the water. General structure as in Euglena. 


Ai Protective envelope elongately cylindrical and slightly 

broadened near the base . . _ • • • 1- A- vaginicola 

A- Protective en\ elope urn shaped, with distinct neck, broad- 
est near anterior end 2. A. amphoroides 

1. A. vaginicola Stein. (Fig. 11, PI. XXI). 

Body bluntly oval without a pronounced acute tip ; stigma not 
prominent; chloroleucites 12-15 in number, discoid (?); paramy- 
lon granules absent ( ?) ; secreting a gelatinous protective envelope 
which is colored yellow or light brown through the action of iron 
oxide; individual fixed to bottom of protective envelope which is 
in turn attached to plant debris, algae, etc. 

L. 43/.. D. 8-16/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?) . 

2. A. amphoroides (France) (Fig. 12, PI. XXI). 

Protective envelope urn-shaped, yellowish brown, with dis- 


tinct neck; interior cell oval, nearly or quite filling protective 
envelope; chloroleucites large, discoid, without pyrenoids; fla- 
gellum( ?). 

L. 18/x. D. 14/.. 

Distribution, Hungary (Balaton). Found on Tribonema. 

7. Gen. COLACIUM Stein. 

Species attached by a pedicle to Cyclops and other small Crus- 
tacea as a rule during later stages, free swimming during early 
stages of development. Form oval or cylindrical, several indi- 
viduals usually being united into a colony attached by a single 
stalk ; structure similar to Euglena, the flagellum becoming lost 
as the forms become sedentary. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 


A^ Body oval. 

B' Basal stalk shorter than length of individual. 1. C. vesiculosum Eh. 

B- Basal stalk much longer than length of indi- 
vidual. . . > . . . 2. C. arbuscula 
A- Body cylindrical . . . . . . 3. C. calvum 

='=1. C. vesiculosum Ehrenberg (Fig. 13, PI. XXI). 

Form oval with basal stalk shorter than length of individual ; 
length about two and one-half times the diameter when extended 
tapering toward each extremity but more attenuate posteriorly, 
pyriform and widest anteriorly when contracted ; motile individ- 
uals resembling Euglena; chloroleucites oval, numerous; colonies 
consist of from two to eight individuals. 

L. 19-2V D. 9-17/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Found on Cyclops, Copepods, 
Rotifers, etc. 

Variety Platans I^emm. forms free swimming colonies of 4 
transversely arranged cells. 

A colony consisting of two representatives was found in a 
culture March 26, 1912, obtained about two weeks earlier from Mir- 
ror Lake on the campus of the State University at Columbus. 
These were attached to the second right swimming appendage of 
Cyclops sp. (Nauplius stage) . A camera lucida drawing was made 
and while they were being studied a predatory Coleps hirtus hap- 
pened along devouring both individuals. , 


Jennings (1900) notes the species from Cyclops in towings 
taken 21/2 miles north of Kelly Island, also on Polyarthra platyp- 
tera and various Crustacea in swamps on S. Bass Island. C. 
steinii Kent, which Jennings found on Dkiptomns sp. from surface 
towings in Lake Erie, must be referred to this species. 

2. C. arbuscula Stein (Fig. 14, PI. XXI). 

Oval with basal stalk much longer than the length of the 
individual and much branched distally, otherwise as in C. vesicu- 

L. 20-30|u. D. 10-17/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

-3. C. calvum Stein (Fig. 15, PI. XXI). 

Cylindrical, with a cup-like base longitudinally striate, and 
with a short thick stalk; flagellum as long as body. 

L. 42-48/-. D. 19-20/-. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Plankton and on Crustacea. 

Common at Sandusky on algae and duckweed roots from 
Biemillers Cove (Landacre). 

8. Gen. EUTREPTIA Perty. 

Form bluntly conical, free-swimming, provided with two fla- 
gella; posterior end somewhat attenuated when swimming; 
strongly metabolic with small knot-like swellings appearing ante- 
riorly and moving posteriorly ; periplast striated ; chloroleucites 
discoid and without a pyrenoid ; stigma present; nucleus central 
or slightly anterior; metabolic movements accompanying swim- 
ming movements as a rule. 

Found in both fresh and salt water. 


A' Posterior end of body extended into a tail like appendag:e . 1. E. viridis 
A- Posterior end of body only slightly narrowed. . . 2. E. lanowii 

1. E. viridis Perty (Fig. 16, PI. XXI). 

Broadly fusiform, emarginate anteriorly, with tail-like 
appendage posteriorly; each flagellum as long as body; paramylon 
in the form of round or flattened cylindrical rods. 

Reproduction in resting condition within gelatinous mem- 
brane. Cysts not known except in the var. schizochJora Entz. 


L. 49-66/x. D. 3-13^. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water and Plankton. 

A variety schizochlora has been described by Entz from ponds 
containing saline waters in Hungary. The paramylon is absent 
or in the form of small granules ; reproduction by cysts with a thick 

2. E. lanowii Steuer (Fig. 1, PI. XXII). 

Fusiform, more elongate than in preceding species, truncate 
anteriorly, gradually narrowed posteriorly; paramylon spherical 
or kidney formed. 

Reproduction by division during motile condition and also by 
cysts with definite membrane. 

L. 25-60/x. D. 3-13/.. 

Distribution, Austria, Trieste (Grand Canal). 

2. Fam. ASTASIIDAE Butschli. 

Free-swimming, radial, non-colonial, colorless forms obtain- 
ing their nourishment as saprophytes ; green chloroleucites and red 
stigma absent as a rule; paramylon present; often extremely 

The majority of the forms are inhabitants of fresh water, a 
few, however, being found in salt water. 


Ai Provided with a single flagellum. 

B' Body strongly metabolic .... 1. Gen. Astasia 

B- Body rigid 2. Gen. Menoidium 

A2 Provided with a long and a short flagellum. 

B' Body strongly metabolic .... .3. Gen. Distigma 

B- Body rigid 4. Gen. Sphenomonas 

1. Gen. ASTASIA Dujardin. 

Decidedly metabolic; periplast usually striate; a single fla- 
gellum; stigma rarely present; reproduction by division during 
free-swimming stage. 


Ai Forms not endoparasitic in Cyclops, Catenula, etc. 

Bi Broadly rounded posteriorly and much narrower an- 
teriorly 1. A. lagenula 

B- Not broadest posteriorly. 

01 Oval, flattened 2. A. inflata 


C- Not flattened. 

Di Stigma present . . ... 3. A. ocellata 

D- Stigma absent. 
El Cell straight. 

Fi Nucules central . . . 4. A. klebsii 

F- Nucleus posterior . . . 5. A. dangeardii 
E- Cell lunate ..... 6. A. curvata 

A2 Forms endoparasitic in Cyclops, Catenula, etc. 

Bi Living in Catenula . . . . . . 7. A. captiva 

B- Living in Cyclops 8. A. mobilis 

1. A. lagenula (Schew.) (Fig. 2, PI. XXII). 

Elongate, posterior end extremely broad and rounded, giving 
a club-like appearance ; periplast smooth ; flagellum as long as 
body; nucleus central; paramylon granules spherical. 

L. 25-30/.. D. 10/.,. 

Distribution, Malay Archipelago (Island Bali). Ditches. 

2. A. inflata Duj. (Fig. 3, PI. XXII). 

Flattened, short, oval ; periplast strongly striate spirally ; 
flagellum as long as body ; nucleus central ; paramylon granules 

L. 35-46/x. D. 12/1. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?). Stagnant water. 

*3. A. ocellata Khawk. (Fig. 4, PI. XXII). 

Fusiform or somewhat cylindrical, broadest anteriorly ; peri- 
plast smooth; flagellum 11/2-2 times length of body; stigma pres- 
ent ; nucleus central ; paramylon granules spherical or polyhedral. 

Reproduction by cysts with thick membrane. 

L. 35-65^. D. 8-35/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water. 

Ohio, Mt. Vernon (Hiawatha Lake). 

*4. A. klebsii Lemm. (Fig. 5, PI. XXII). 

Fusiform with posterior tail-like process ; periplast indis- 
tinctly spirally striate; flagellum as long as body; stigma absent; 
nucleus central ; paramylon granules oval. 

L. 50-59/x. D. 13-20/x. 

Distribution, Europe and North America. Stagnant water. 

Gambier, 0., Academy Pond. 


5. A. dangeardii Lemm. (Fig. 6, PI. XXII). 

Oval or fusiform, broadest anteriorly; periplast distinctly 
striate spirally ; flagellum as long as body ; stigma absent ; nucleus 
posterior; paramylon granules oval. 

Reproduction by oval cysts with thin membrane. 

L. 30-58^. D. 12-20/.. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Stagnant water. 

6. A. curvata Klebs (Fig. 7, PI. XXII) . 

Elongately cresentic, narrow, usually twisted or somewhat 
flattened with ends attenuated, truncate anteriorly; periplast 
weakly striate spirally ; flagellum about 2/3 length of body ; stigma 
absent; paramylon extremely small, elongate. 

Reproduction (?). 

L. 40-46^. D. 5-6/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Stagnant water, cultures of 

algae, etc. 

7. A. captiva Beauch. (Fig. 8, PI. XXII) . 

Elongately fusiform with rounded posterior end; periplast 
spirally striate ; flagellum as long as body or absent ; stigma rudi- 
mentary ; nucleus central; paramylon granules round or in the 
form of elongate rods. 

L. 30-40/1. D.(?). 

Distribution, France. Endoparasitic in Catenula lemnae. 

8. A. mobilis (Rehberg) (Fig. 9, PI. XXII). 

Fusiform with pointed posterior end; periplast finely striate 
spirally; stigma present (?) ; nucleus anterior or posterior; para- 
mylon round or rod-like; flagellum lV-2 times length of body or 

L. 26-32^. 

Distribution, Europe. Endoparasitic in Cyclops and in the 
eggs of the Qg^ sack. 

Rehberg described a form as Lagenella mobilis with a length 
of 102-103/x which was often of a green color. Alexieff has also 
noted a species which may be identical with A. mobilis. 

2. Gen. MENOIDIUM Perty. 

Body not metabolic, usually somewhat curved in longitudinal 
axis ; nucleus central or slightly posterior to central area ; pellicula 


striated longitudinally; paramylon cylindrical or rectangular, 
numerous granules being present; movement free-swimming, ro- 
tating on axis. Four species in fresh water from 16-120/x in length. 


A' Form attenuate, length more than 7 times the diameter. 

fii Form typically lunate; flagellum as long as body; 

length approximately 120/^ . . . . 1. M. falcatum 

B~ Form typically sigmoid; flagellum 1/2 as long as body; 

length of body 40-80m 2. M. tortuosum 

A2 Form not attenuate, length less than 6 times the diameter. 

Bi Narrowed into a neck like anterior end . . 3. M. pellucidum 
B- Broadly rounded anteriorly . . . . 4. M. incurvum 

1. M. falcatum Zach. (Fig. 10, PI. XI). 

Comparatively narrow and decidedly curved into a form simi- 
lar to a new moon, the posterior end pointed; periplast (?) ; flagel- 
lum as long as body; nucleus (?) ; paramylon granules elongate. 

L. 120/.. D. 14/x. 

Distribution, Europe. Ditches. 

2. M. tortuosum (Stokes) (Fig. 11, PI. XXII). 

Typically in the form of a letter "S," gradually narrowed and 
pointed posteriorly; periplast (?) ; flagellum 1/2 length of body; 
nucleus central; paramylon granules elongate. 

L. 42-78/1. D. 5-13/x. 

Distribution, North America. Among decayed vegetation. 

The species was originally placed in the genus Atractonema 
by Stokes who noted its soft flexible body which, however, was 
persistent in shape. 

3. M. pellucidum Perty (Fig. 12, PI. XXII). 

Slightly curved, narrowed posteriorly with extremity rounded, 
anteriorly developed into a neck-like process; periplast covered 
with many weak striae ; flagellum slightly more than 1/0 length of 
body; nucleus posterior; paramylon cylindrical, more or less 

L. 39-40/x. D. 7-10/t. 

Distribution, Europe. Stagnant water. 

4. M. incurvum (Fres.) (Fig. 13, PI. XXII). 

Broadly cylindrical, slightly curved, broadly rounded on the 
ends; periplast with comparatively distant striations ; flagellum 


about as long as body ; nucleus posterior or central ; paramylon ( ?) . 
L. 16-25|.. D. 7-8/.. 
Distribution, Europe. Stagnant water. 

3. Gen. DISTIGMA Ehrenberg. 

Decidedly metabolic, elongately fusiform ; periplast weakly 
striate longitudinally ; movement free-swimming or creeping ; re- 
production by division of motile forms, cysts being unknown. 

A single species. 

1. D. proteus Ehrenb. (Fig. 14, PI. XXII). 

Elongately fusiform ; primary flagellum Yo length of body ; 
secondary flagellum short ; paramylon granules cylindrical. 
L. 46-110/1. D.(?). 
Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?) . 

4. Gen. SPHENOMONAS Stein. 

Rigid, with longitudinal keels ; periplast longitudinally striate, 
with a primary and secondary flagellum ; reproduction by division 
during motile condition. 


Ai 1 longitudinal carina present . . . . 1. S. teres 

A- 4 longitudinal carinae present . . . . 2. S. quadrangularis 

1. S. teres (Stein) (Fig. 15, PI. XXII). 

Broadly fusiform ; longitudinal carina weakly developed ; pri- 
mary flagellum as long as or slightly longer than the length of the 
body ; secondary flagellum short ; nucleus anterior. 

L. 20-40/1. D. 8//,. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?). Stagnant water. 

2. S. quadrangularis Stein (Fig. 6, PI. XXII). 

Broadly fusiform, quadrate in cross-section, with 4 well de- 
veloped carinae; primary flagellum 2 times length of body; sec- 
ondary flagellum short; nucleus central. 

L. 30/1. D. ( ?) . 

Distribution, Europe. Stagnant water. 

3. Fam. PERANEMIDAE Ehrenberg. 

Colorless, green chromatophores and red stigma being absent; 
form bilateral as a rule, movement usually creeping although a 


swimming- rotating movement occurs in a few species (Heteronema 
acus Ehrenberg, Euglevop.sis rorax Klebs.) ; pharynx distinct; 
nourishment by means of solid particles taken into pharynx ; para- 
mylom present. 

Inhabitants of fresh water, with representatives of a few 
genera (Urceolus, Anisonema, Ploeotia, Entosiphon) also found 
in salt water. 

The members of this family are easily overlooked when study- 
ing the Protozoa by reason of the small size of many of the species 
as well as their transparent bodies. Furthermore the majority 
of the forms are not of frequent occurrence. 


Ai Flagellum directed posteriorly absent; a single 
anterior flagellum present. 
B^ Rod-like organ absent. 

C^ (Subfam. Euglenojiseae) Free-swimming 
with a rotating movement; weakly meta- 
bolic; striate spirally ... 1. Gen. Euglenopsis 
C2 (Subfam. PetaloTnonadeae) Creeping; not 
metabolic; not striate spirally. 
Di Anterior end pointed; contractile 

vacuole marginal .... 2. Gen. Petalomonas 
D^ Anterior end truncate; contractile 

vacuole anterior .... 3. Gen. Scytomonas 
B- (Subfam. Peranenieae) Rod-like organ present. 

Ci Form spindle shaped .... 4. Gen. Peranema 
C2 Form flask shaped .... 5. Gen. Urceolus 

A." Flagellum directed posteriorly present; an ante- 
riorly directed flagellum also usually present. 
Bi Granules not arranged spirally in the ectoplasm; 
species not exceeding 60m. in length. 
C^ Two flagella arising from same area pres- 
ent, one directed anteriorly, the other 

D' (Subfam. Heteronemeae) Posterior 
flagellum shorter than the anterior 

El Body not flattened; weakly meta- 
bolic ..... 6. Gen. Heteronema 
E- Body flattened; not metabolic. 

Fi With 6-8 longitudinal ribs. 7. Gen. Tropidoscyphus 
F- Without longitudinal ribs. 8. Gen. Notosolenus 

D- (Subfam. A)}iso)iei)ic(ie) Posterior flag- 
ellum usually longer or at least equal 
in length to the anterior flagellum. 


El Pharyngeal siphon absent. 

Pi Posterioi* flagellum twice the 
length of the anterior flag- 

G^ Keel like ribs absent . 9. Gen. Anisonema 
G- Keel like ribs present. 10. Gen. Ploeotia 
F- Posterior flagellum approxi- 
mately equal in length to the 
anterior flagellum. 
Gi Without an apparent 
ventral longitudinal fur- 
row; metabolic . 11. Gen. Metanema 
G- Without an apparent 
. • longitudinal furrow; not 

metabolic . . 12. Gen. Marsupiogaster 

E- Pharyngeal siphon present . 13. Gen. Entosiphon 
C- (Subfam. Clautr'avieae) A single flagellum 

directed posteriorly ... 14. Gen. Clautriavia 

B- (Subfam. Divevieae) Granules arranged spirally 

in the ectoplasm; species 75-80m. in length. 15. Gen. Dinema 

1. Gen. EUGLENOPSIS Klebs. 

Form spindle shaped, colorless or yellowish white, slightly 
metabolic, free swimming with rotation on axis ; a single flagel- 
lum ; pellicula more or less spirally striate ; an anterior mouth- 
like fold present. 

Habitat, fresh water. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?) . 

The genus consists of a single species. 

1. E. vorax Klebs (Fig. 1, PI. XXIII). 

Possessing the characters of the genus with protoplasm color- 
less and containing numerous paramylon granules. 

L. 20-25/x. D. 8/1. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

While its small size will aid in distinguishing it from many 
other species belonging to the family Astasiidae, some of which it 
resembles, the possession of the mouth-like fold is the character 
of importance. Thus far it has not been noted from Ohio. 

2. Gen. PETALOMONAS Stein. 

Cells rigid, not metabolic ; unsymmetrical in form and often 
with peculiarly developed processes; periplast thick and firm and 


occasionally developing a longitudinal carina or a longitudinal fur- 
row; 1 flagellum arising from a depression on the right of the 
cytopharynx ; a primary and a secondary vacuole usually to right 
of cytopharynx ; nucleus usually at left of cell. 

Reproduction by longitudinal division; cysts not known. 

Nourishment, saprobiotic. 


Ai Longitudinal carinae absent although longitudinal fur- 
rows which may be mistaken for carinae may be 

Bi Posterior end without peculiarly developed pro- 

C^ Lateral margins not turned inward. 

Di Broadly oval .... 1. P. mediocanellata 

D- Elongately oval . . . . 2. P. angusta 

C- Lateral margins turned inward . . 3. P. inflexa 
B- Posterior end with peculiarly developed processes. 
Ci Posterior lateral processes 2 in number; cell 
not gradually narrowed anteriorly — but 
nearly cylindrical . . . . 4. P. sinuata 

C- Posterior processes 6 in number; cell grad- 
ually narrowed anteriorly . . . 5. P. sexlobata 
A2 Longitudinal carinae present. 
Bi 1-3 longitudinal carinae. 
Ci 1 longitudinal carina. 

Di Carina with a sharp edge . . 6. P. steinii 

D2 Carina rounded . . . . 7. P. carinata 

C- 2-3 longitudinal carinae. 

D^ Posterior end rounded or truncate . 8. P. abscissa 
D- Posterior end deeply emarginate . 9. P. mira 
B- 4-5 longitudinal carinae. 

C^ Carinae not extremely developed. 

D^ Fusiform, rounded posteriorly; L.12-15m. 10. P. quadrilineata 
D- Oval, truncate posteriorly; L.34m. . 11. P. sulcata 
C- Carinae extremely developed, their height ex- 
ceeding ordinary diameter of body . 12. P. alata 

1. P. mediocanellata Stein (Fig. 2, PI. XXIII). 

Broadly oval, ventral and dorsal sides with furrows, that on 
the dorsal side being narrow; flagellum as long as bodv. 
L. 22-25/x. D.(?). 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Pools containing much vegeta- 


Var. distomata (Stokes) has the two furrows equally broad 
and the anterior end of the cell slightly elongated. Found on the 
surface of decaying leaves in the bottom of shallow pools. 

Var, pleurosigma (Stokes) is fusiform, similar to P. medio- 
canellata, with the posterior end pointed, and has a length of 17ju. 
Standing pond water with aquatic vegetation. 

2. P. angusta (Klebs) (Fig. 3, PI. XXIII). 

Elongately oval, dorsal side convex, ventral side with furrow ; 
flagellum as long as body. 

L. 14-23/^. D, 7-14;x. 

Distribution, Europe. Pools containing much vegetation. 

Var. pusilla (Klebs) is 7/x in length and 3-4/^ in diameter; var. 
lata (Klebs) is broadly oval with short pointed posterior end, 
L. 22/x, D. 12-14^u 

*3. P. inflexa Klebs (Fig. 4, PI. XXIII). 

Elongately oval, flattened, broadly truncate or emarginate 
posteriorly, pointed anteriorly; lateral margins curled inwardly; 
flagellum as long as body. 

L. 30^. D.(?). 

Distribution, Europe and North America. Pools containing 

much vegetation. 

var. obliqua Klebs has only the left lateral margin curled 
ventrally, while the flagellum is oblique to the longitudinal axis 

of the body during the swimming movement. 

Var. pellucida Klebs is thin, transparent, and the dorsal side 
possesses a shallow furrow, the lateral margins curled inwardly. 
L. 8/M, D. 8/x. 

Gambler, O. Small forms 11.5jw in length referable to the 
var. pellucida were obtained in a small brook filled with Lynghya 
on the McElroy Farm. 

*4. P. sinuata (Stein) (Fig. 5, PI. XXIII) . 
Short cylindrical, pointed anteriorly and with a lateral poste- 
rior process on each margin; flagellum IV2-2 times length of body. 
L. 38/^. D.(?). 
Distribution, Europe. Pools with much vegetation. 

5. P. sexlobata Klebs (Fig. 6, PI. XXIII). 

Broadly oval, pointed bluntly anteriorly, with six short but 


thick posterior processes turned inwardly ; flagellum 2 times length 
of body. 

L. 27-30/x. D. 21-23^. 

Distribution, Europe. Pools with much vegetation. 

6. P. steinii Klebs (Fig. 7, PI. XXIII). 

Oval, trianglar in cross section; carina prominent; flagellum 
as long or longer than the body. 
L. 38-42^. D. 22^. 
Distribution, Europe. Pools with much vegetation. 

7. P. carinata France (Fig. 8, PI. XXIII). 

Elongately oval, with ends rounded ; carina broad, formed by 
membraneous fold rolled toward the right; vacuole and nucleus 
on median line. 

L. 23/x. D.(?). 

Distribution, Hungary (Balaton). 

8. P. abscissa (Duj.) (Fig. 9, PI. XXIII). 

Broadly oval or round, slightly narrowed anteriorly and often 
truncate posteriorly ; ventral surface flat or with furrow ; dorsal 
surface with 2 longitudinal carinae ; flagellum longer than body. 

L. 27.5^. D.(?). 

Distribution, Europe. Pools rich in aquatic vegetation. 

Var. convergens Klebs, is pointed anteriorly and emarginate 
posteriorly with the longitudinal carinae converging anteriorly and 
the L. 19/x, the D. 17//. 

Var. parallela Klebs is rounded anteriorly and emarginate 
posteriorly with the longitudinal carinae parallel although often 
unequal in size, L. 30/1, D. 17//. 

Var. deformis Klebs is pointed anteriorly, truncate posteriorly, 
with 3 longitudinal parallel carinae. 

9. P. mira Awerinz. (Fig. 10, PI. XXIII). 

Oval with anterior end narrowed and curved toward the right, 
the posterior end deeply emarginate; 3 longitudinal carinae; lateral 
margins with a row of granules ; flagellum 2 times length of body. 

L. 26-30/x. D. 18/x. 

Distribution, Russia (Bologoje-Sea). In slime. 


10. P. quadrilineata Penard (Fig. 11, PI. XXIII). 

Fusiform, rounded posteriorly; flagellum 2 times length of 

L. 12-15/x. D.(?). 
Europe, Wiesbaden. 

11. P. sulcata Stokes (Fig. 12, PI. XXIII). 

Oval, less than twice as long as wide, truncate posteriorly, 
dorsal and ventral surfaces each with 4-5 longitudinal or slightly 
obhque carinae, which at times meet posteriorly; flagellum equal 
to length of body. 

L. 3V D.(?). 

Distribution, North America. Ponds. 

12. P. alata Stokes (Fig. 13, PI. XXIII). 

Oval, broadly rounded posteriorly, with 4 extremely high 
longitudinal carinae, height much greater than diameter of body, 
in furrows between carinae; flagellum 2 times length of body. 

L. 23/x. D.(?). 

Distribution, North America. Ponds with Ceratophylliim. 

3. Gen. SCYTOMONAS Stein. 

Form oval, somewhat flattened; truncate anteriorly; not 
metabolic ; flagellum arising from one side of anterior end ; vacuole 
anterior, circular or triangular in outline; movement creeping as 
in Petalomonas. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 


Ai Oval, narrowed anteriorly. 

B^ Frequenting digestive tract of fi'ogs and toads, also stag- 
nant waterf?), nucleus posterior .... 1. S. pusilla 

B- Frequenting digestive trace of Molge vulgaris, — nucleus 

anterior . . . . . . . 2. S. dobellii 

A2 Elongately oval with broadly rounded ends, not distinctly nar- 
rowed, anteriorly . . . . . . 3. S. major 

1. S. pusilla Stein (Fig. 14, PI. XXIII). 

Oval, distinctly narrowed anteriorly and rounded, or rarely 
fusiform or emarginate; flagellum li/^ times length of body; 
nucleus posterior, rarely central. 


L. 7.5-20/x. D. 7-8/x. 

Distribution, Europe. Intestine of frogs and toads. 

Lemmermann notes Copromonas subtilis Dobell as a synonym 
of this, while he suggests that Sytomonas pusilla Klebs may repre- 
sent a distinct genus, the cell being oval, truncate anteriorly, 
nucleus central, flagellum scarcely as long as body, cytopharynx 
absent. In cultures of decaying algae, 

2. S. dobelli n.sp. (Fig. 15, PI. XXIII). 

Oval, distinctly narrowed anteriorly; flagellum IV2 times 
length of body ; nucleus anterior. 

L. 7-10/x. D. S-4iJ.. 

Distribution, Europe. Intestine of Molge vulgaris L., one of 
the Salamanders. 

It seems evident that this form referred by Lemmermann 
doubtfully to 5. 7najor should be considered as a distinct species 
by reason of difference in host, general size, position of nucleus, 
etc. Therefore it is fitting that it bear the name of the investi- 
gator by whom it was discovered. 

3. S. major (Berhner), (Fig. 1, PI. XXIV). 

Elongately oval, broadly rounded at the ends; flagellum II/4, 
times the length of the body; nucleus central. 

L. 20/x. D. op.. 

Distribution. Europe. Digestive tract of Lacerta viridis Gessn., 
the small green lizard. 

4. Gen. PERANEMA Stein. 

Form spindle shaped, narrowed anteriorly ; strongly meta- 
bolic ; flagellum longer than body ; pharynx prominent ; rod-like 
organ present ; pellicula striate spirally ; nucleus central ; para- 
mylon present; movement a slow swimming one accompanied by 
decided metabolic contractions of the body. 


A^ Fusiform or cylindrical, flagellum 1-1 ^/^ times length 

of body, L.22-70/X 1. V. trichophorum 

A2 Elongately spherical, flagellum 2i^-3 times length of body, 

L.S-ISm. . . . . . . . 2. P. granulifera 

-1. P. trichophorum (Ehrenb.) (Fig. 2, PI. XXIV). 
Fusiform or cylindrical ; periplast spirally striate, the striae 


formed of numerous elevations apparently developed as short 
hairs; flagellum 1-1 1/2 times length of body. 

L. 22-70^. D. 12-20;u. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. In stagnant water generally in 
company with Eugleva. The presence of the rod-like organ serves 
to distinguish the species from members of the genus Astasia. 

Jennings in his study of the Protozoa of Lake Erie noted 
under the name of Astasia tridiophora Ehrb., a form which may 
be referred to this species. Conn in The Protozoa of Connecticut 
suggests that the extreme variation in the forms indicates several 
species in the genus. 

2. P. granulifera Penard (Fig. 3, PI. XXIV). 

Elongately spherical ; periplast covered with granules ; flagel- 
lum 21/2-3 times length of body. 
L.VlS/^. D.(?). 
Distribution, Europe. Stagnant pools. 

5. Gen. URCEOLUS Meresch. 

Form flask shaped with contracted neck ; decidedly metabolic ; 
posterior end rounded ; anterior end forming a funnel shaped peri- 
stome extending into a pharynx and reaching to the posterior third 
of the body ; flagellum somewhat longer than body ; rod-like organ 
present; pellicula either striate spirally or smooth surrounded with 
mucous containing minute for^^ign substances; principal vacuole 
with a small accessory contractile vacuole and with a long excre- 
tory canal ; movement creeping. Four species. 

Habitat, fresh water and marine. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?) . 


Ai Periplast without a gxlatinous layer in which is imbedded 
numerous minute granules of sand. 
Bi Periplast striated. 

C Posterior end with a short tip; prominent spiral 

carinae not present 1. U. cyclostomus 

C- Posterior end developed into an elongate tip; sev- 
eral prominent spiral carinae . . . 2. U. costatus 
B- Periplast not striated . . . . . 3. U. alenizini 

A- Periplast with gelatinous layer in which are imbedded 

numerous minute granules of sand . . . . 4. U. sabulosus 


*1. U. cyclostomiis (Stein) (Fig. 4, PI. XXIV). 

Fusiform with anterior end normally flask-like in form ; peri- 
plast spirally striate; flagellum slightly longer than body; promi- 
nent rod-like organ present. 

L. 26-50^. D. 17-30^. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan (?). Stagnant pools. 

Ohio, decaying vegetation from Biemiller's Cove, Sandusky 
(Landacre) . 

2. U. costatus Lemm. (Fig. 5, PI. XXIV). 

Fusiform with pointed tip and several prominent spiral cari- 
nae ; flagellum less than length of body. 
L. 35-40/1. D. 12-14/x. 

Distribution, Europe. Ponds containing much vegetation and 
also in Plankton. 

3. U. alenizini Meresch. (Fig. 6, PI. XXIV). 

Broadly fusiform with more or less blunt ends, the anterior 
end truncate, posterior rounded; periplast smooth; flagellum 
slightly longer than body. 

L. 39/1. D. 24/*. 

Distribution, Europe. Stagnant water and water from refuse 

4. U. sabulosus Stokes (Fig. 7, PI. XXIV). 

Broadly fusiform, somewhat widened anteriorly and obliquely 
truncated with contracted neck-like process of the cytopharynx; 
covered with gelatinous substance containing numerous minute 
granules ; flagellum as long or longer than body 

L. 58;u. D.(?). 

Distribution, North America. Fresh water with algae. 

This species placed originally in the genus Urceolus by Stokes 
was later transferred by him to a new genus Urceolopsis. The 
general structure, however, suggests that it may be replaced in the 
former genus at least for the present. It swims rapidly. 

6. Gen. HETERONEMA (Duj.) Stein. 

Form elongate, or spherical, usually assuming a more or less 
twisted appearance; decidedly metabolic; anterior end pointed- 
provided with two flagella the length of the anterior from 1-2 


times the length of the body, the length of the posterior from 
1/2-I times the length of the body; principal vacuole with small 
accessory vacuole; rod-like organ slightly developed; movement 
slow gliding, rarely a rotating free-swimming movement. 
Habitat, fresh water. 


A^ Periplast without distinct spiral or long'itudinal striations. 
Bi Cells normally straight. 

C Anterior and posterior ends blunt . . 1. H. acus 
C- Anterior and posterior ends sharply pointed 2. H. acutissimum 
B- Cells curved or twisted. 

Ci Curved or sickle like in form . . . 3. H. tremulum 
C- Twisted into a form resembling spiral threads of 

a screw . . . . . . 4. H. spirale 

A- Periplast with distinct spiral or longitudinal striations. 
B' Periplast longitudinally striate, length approximately 

250m. . . . • • • • 5. H. mutabile 

B= Periplast spirally striate, length 35-60/^. 

C Comparatively long, fusiform, twisted . 6. H. klebsii 

C- Compai-atively short, spherical or oval, not twisted. 

D' Secondary flagellum shorter than the body 7. H. nebulosum 
D- Secondary flagellum longer than the body 8. H. globiferum 

1. H. acus (Ehrenb.) (Fig. 8, PI. XXIV). 

Fusiform with rounded ends ; periplast weakly striate spirally ; 
primary flagellum slightly longer than body; secondary flagellum 
about y-> length of body. 

L. 45-50/a. D. 8-20/x. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?) . Stagnant pools. 

2. H. acutissimum Lemm. (Fig. 9, PI. XXIV) . 

Elongately fusiform with pointed ends ; periplast smooth ; 
primary flagellum as long as body; secondary flagellum 1 1/2-2 times 
as long as body. 

L. 17/x. D. 2.5-3/x. 

Distribution, Europe. Pools with aquatic vegetation. 

3. H. tremulum Zach. (Fig. 10, PI. XXIV). 

Slightly lunate or curved, narrowed in front, broadly rounded 
posteriorly ; periplast smooth ; primary flagellum somewhat longer 
than body ; secondary flagellum 14 s,s long as body. 

L. 40/^. D.(?). 


Distribution, Europe. Stagnant pools. 

4. H. spirale Klebs (Fig. 11, PI. XXIV) . 

Cylindrical with 5-6 prominent spiral ridges; periplast 
smooth; primary flagellum 2 times length of body; secondary 
tlagellum about % length of body. 

L. 42/x. D. 24-30;x. 

Distribution, Europe. Stagnant pools. 

''5. H. mutabile (Stokes) (Fig. 1, PI. XXV). 

Oval to elongately cylindrical, extremely metabolic ; periplast 
longitudinally striate ; primary flagellum 14 length of body • sec- 
ondary flagellum as long as body. 

L. 250;.. D. ( ?) . 

Distribution, North America. Cypress swamps S. Florida 
Stokes originally placed this in the genus Zygoselmis Duj 
He notes that 'The incessant alterations in the form of this curious 
infusorian are indescribable. The food is indiscriminately animal 
or vegetable. The endoplasm of the individuals observed con- 
tained desmids, diatomes, and in a single instance a small rotifer " 
A form which is referred to this species with some hesitation 
was taken m a culture obtained from the Kokosing River at 
Gambler, O. 

6. H. klebsii Senn (Fig. 2, PI. XXV) . 

Fusiform, resembling a triangular prism somewhat twisted • 
longitudinally (?) striate; primary flagellum somewhat longer than 
the body; secondary flagellum slightly shorter than the bodv 

L. 52-58/.. D. IS,,. 

Distribution, Europe. Peat swamps in Harz Mountains 

7. H. nebulcsum (Duj.) (Fig. 3, PI. XXV). 

Spherical or oval, with narrow, clear, anterior end ; periplast 
decidedly striate spirally; primary flagellum 2 times 'length of 
body; secondary flagellum 1/2 length of body 

L. 40-57/x. D. 10-30/x. 

Distribution, Europe, 

8. H. globiferum Stein (Fig. 4, PI. XXV). 

Oval, rounded or emarginate posteriorly; periplast striate 


spirally; primary flagellum 2 times length of body; secondary 
flagellum slightly longer than body. 

L. 3V D.(?). 

Distribution, Europe. Stagnant pools. 


Form oval, pointed anteriorly and posteriorly; often slightly 
metabolic; 8 prominent longitudinal carinae; anterior flagellum 
long, posterior flagellum short; principal vacuole with smaller 
accessory vacuole ; rod-like organ absent ; movement creeping. 

Habitat, fresh water. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 

The genus consists of two species. 


Ai Anterior end of cytopharynx with two prominent lobes; 

L. 50-60/". . . . . . . . 1. T. octocostatus 

A- Anterior end of cytopharynx rounded . . . 2. T. cyclostomus 

1. T. cyclostomus Senn (Fig. 5, PI. XXV). 

Broadly fusiform, with anterior end curved at extremity into 
a lip-like process ; pointed posteriorly ; 4 well developed longitudi- 
nal carinae present; primary flagellum 11/2 times length of body; 
secondary flagellum 2/3 length of body. 

L. 16^. D. 10-lV 

Distribution, Europe. Thus far found only in a small stream 
near Halle, Germany. 

2. T. octocostatus Stein (Fig. 6, PI. XXV). 

Broadly fusiform, emarginate anteriorly with two lateral 
points; pointed posteriorly; primary flagellum 11/4-2 times length 
of body ; secondary flagellum 1/3-1/4 length of body. 

L. 35-63/x. D.(?). 

Distribution, Europe. Pools rich in aquatic vegetation. 

8. Gen. NOTOSOLENUS Stokes. 

Form oval approaching rectangular; strongly compressed 
dorso-ventrally ; concave dorsally, convex ventrafly; body rigid, 
not metabolic; two flagefla, the length of the anterior 1-1 1/2 times 
length of body, length of posterior 1/3 length of body; mouth 
oval ; pellicula smooth ; principal vacuole with accessory contractile 


vacuole anteriorly on right side of body; nucleus on left middle 
part of body; rod-like organ not evident; movement creeping in 
irregular manner. 

Habitat, fresh water. Three species. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?) . 


A^ Broadly oval or circular in outline; posterior end rounded. 
Bi Oval, median furrow narrow, occupying about % diam- 
eter of body . . . . . . 1. N. apocamptus 

B2 Circular, median furrow broad, occupying about % 

diameter of body . . . . . 2. N. orbicularis 

A~ Triangular in outline, emarginate at posterior end which is 

the broadest part of the body . . . . . 3. N. sinuatus 

*1. N. apocamptus Stokes (Fig. 7, PI. XXV). 

Oval, pointed anteriorly, broadly rounded posteriorly; dorsal 
median furrow narrow; primary flagellum about II/2 times length 
of body ; secondary flagellum 1/2 length of body. 

L. 6.5-10/x. D.(?). 

Distribution, cosmopolitan N. America, Germany, Senn. 
Standing water with Myriophyllum. 

Hamilton, 0. Storage reservoir. 

2. N. orbicularis Stokes (Fig. 8, PI. XXV). 

Oval to circular in outline, rounded at ends; median dorsal 
furrow broad approximating % diameter of body ; primary flagel- 
lum 11/2 times length of body; secondary flagellum 1/2 length of 

L. 10-11.5^. D.(?) (. 

Distribution, North America. Near bottom of shallow pools. 

3. N. sinuatus Stokes (Fig. 9, PL XXV). 

More or less triangular, broadest posteriorly with end emargi- 
nate; dorsal furrow narrow, slightly carinate anteriorly; primary 
flagellum II/2 times length of body; secondary flagellum 1/2 length 
of body. 

L. 22.5/x. D. 11, X. 

Distribution, North America. Standing water with dead 

9. Gen. ANISONEMA Dujardin. 

Form oval, distinctly compressed dorso-ventrally ; a ventral 
furrow extends backward and to the right from the mouth ; body 


rigid, not metabolic; two flagella, the anterior about as long as 
the body, the posterior considerably longer; pellicula smooth or 
striate in longitudinal spirals; principal vacuole with accessory 
contractile vacuole; nucleus on right side of body; movement in 
a slow creeping or a quick jerking manner. 

Habitat, fresh water and marine. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 


A' Length not more than 2 times diameter. 

Bi Elongately oval; primary flagellum approximately as 

long as body 1- A. ovale 

B- Broadly oval; primary flagellum 2 times length of 

body. • • • • • . 2. A. emarginatum 

A- Length nearly 3 times or more than 3 times the diameter. 
Bi Length 25-60m. 

C^ Pointed anteriorly; length 25-40/x. , . 3. A. acinus 

C2 Broadest anteriorly; length 60^^. . . 4. A. truncatum 
B2 Length 11m.; broadly fusiform .... 5. A. pusillum 

*1. A. ovale Klel:s (Fig. 10. PI. XXV). 

Oval, rigid, emarginate anteriorly ; periplast smooth ; primary 
flagellum about as long as body; secondary flagellum about II/2 
times as long as body. 

L. 11^. D. 7/x. 

Distribution, Europe and North America. Standing water. 

Gambler, 0. (McElroy Farm). 

Var latum Klebs with L. 12/i, D. 10/., broad and emargmate 


2. A. emarginatum Stokes (Fig. 11, PI. XXV). 

Broadly oval, rigid, emarginate anteriorly; periplast smooth; 
primary flagellum about 2 times length of body ; secondary flagel- 
lum about 21/2 times length of body. 

L. IV D.(?). 

Distribution, North America. Standing water with Myrio- 
phijUum, etc. 

*3. A. acinus Duj. (Fig. 12, PI. XXV). 

Oval, rigid, noticeably flattened; periplast smooth or weakly 
striate; left side of ventral furrow prominent, thickened ante- 
riorly; primary flagellum as long as body; secondary flagellum 
about 2 times length of body. 


L. 25-40/i. D. 16-22^. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water and Plankton. 
Landacre notes the species from Biemiller's Cove, Sandusky, 
0., in "towings." 

4. A. truncatum Stein (Fig. 13, PI. XXV). 

Oval, broadest anteriorly, rigid; periplast smooth; primary 
flagellum as long as body; secondary flagellum more than twice 
as long as body. 

L. 60^. D. 20ix. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

5. A. pusillum Stokes (Fig. 14, PI. XXV). 

Broadly oval, flattened, convex dorsally, longitudinally striate, 
concave ventrally ; primary flagellum as long as body; secondary 
flagellum about 3 times length of body. 

L. IV D.(?). 

Distribution, North America. Pond water. 

The movement of the form is noted by Stokes as a slow oscil- 
lating one. 

10. Gen. PLOEOTIA Dujardin. 

Form broadly oval, pointed behind ; two flagella, the posterior 
being much longer than the anterior ; provided with carinae which, 
beginning at the posterior end, extend toward the anterior end 
in a more or less spiral manner; nucleus central; movement 

Habitat, marine. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Two species. 


Ai Somewhat compressed, posterior end acuminate, length less than 

twice the diameter . . . • • • 1- !*• vitrea 

A- Radial, not compressed, posterior end not acuminate, length 

more than twice the diameter . . . . . 2. P. marina 

1. P. vitrea Duj. (Fig. 1, PI. XXVI). 

Broadly oval with acute tip slightly uncinate and with 8 longi- 
tudinal carinae; primary flagellum about as long as body; sec- 
ondary flagellum about 2 times length of body. 

L. 30/7. D. 20,.. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan ( ?) . Salt water. 


2. P. marina n. sp. (Fig. 2, PI. XXVI) . 

Fusiform, rigid, not compressed; 8 longitudinal carinae 
slightly spiral; cell transparent; primary flagellum 2/3 length of 
body; secondary flagellum 2 times length of body. 

L. 50^. D. 2Six. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Two species. 
Woods Holl, Mass. 

This form was described and illustrated in a well drawn figure 
by Calkins (U. S. Fish Com. Bull., p. 426, 1901— printed 1902) 
under the name Anisonema vitrea Duj., a species which belongs 
to the genus Ploeotia. It differs from P. vitrea by the characters 
noted above. The length of its secondary flagellum eliminates it 
from the genus Tropidoscmyhus, while the presence of keel-like 
ribs or carinae removes it from the genus Anisonema. The genus 
Ploetia is founded on a form laterally compressed. It seems bet- 
ter, however, to remove such a qualification and place it here 
rather than make a new genus for its reception. 

11. Gen. METANEMA Klebs. 

Form oval, metabolic comparatively short, compressed dorso- 
ventrally; two flagella of approximately equal length, the poste- 
rior, however, not trailing directly behind, but carried to one side 
during swimming. 

Habitat, fresh water. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Two species. 


Ai Pellicula smooth . . . . . . . 1. M. variabile 

A2 Pellicula with distinct spiral striae . . . . 2. M. striatum 

1. M. variabile Klebs (Fig. 3, PI. XXVI). 

Short cylindrical, decidedly metabolic, rounded on ends ; peri- 
plast smooth ; primary flagellum as long as body ; secondary flagel- 
lum somewhat longer than body. 

L. 14-16/x. D. 9-12/x. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

2. M. striatum Klebs (Fig. 4, PI. XXVI). 

Cylindrical, slightly metabolic, flattened, emarginate ante- 
riorly ; periplast spirally striate ; primary flagellum slightly longer 


than body; secondary flagellum a little longer than primary 

L. ISjLi. D. 7fi. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

12. Gen. MARSUPIOGASTER Schewiakoflf. 

Rigid, elongately striate ; periplast thin ; 1 primary and 1 sec- 
ondary flagellum, the latter equal at least in length to the former, 
and both arising from a pocket-like excavation; reproduction un- 
known ; swimming with a trembling movement. A single species. 

1. M. striata Schew. (Fig. 5, PI. XXVI). 

Oval, flattened, anteriorly obliquely truncate; primary flagel- 
lum as long as body ; secondary flagellum 1 V-2 times length of body. 
L. 27/x. D. 15/x. 
Distribution, Sandwich Islands (Oahu). 

13. Gen. ENTOSIPHON Stein. 

Form oval, short, slightly compressed ; ventral furrow absent ; 
two flagella, each approximately the length of the body, arising 
from the depression at anterior end ; mouth anterior opening into 
a tube through which nourishment is taken in the form of small 
granules ; pellicula with longitudinal carinae or furrows ; principal 
vacuole vvdth several small accessory contractile vacuoles; move- 
ment creeping, often with a trembling motion. 

Habitat, fresh water and marine. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Three species. 


Ai Pellicula with distinct longitudinal furrows; rod-like organ 
attaining posterior part of body. 

B^ Furrows 4-8 in number .... I.E. sulcatum 

B- Furrows 10-12 in number 2. E. ovatuni 

A^ Pellicula with only indistinct furrows; rod-like organ ex- 
tending only half the length of the body . . . 3. E. obliquum 

*1. E. sulcatum (Duj.) (Fig. 6, PI. XXVI). 

Oval, emarginate anteriorly; 4-8 longitudinal striae; primary 
flagellum about as long as body; secondary flagellum slightly 
longer than body; rod-like organ attaining posterior part of the 


L. 20-25/x. D. 10-15/i. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. Standing water. 

Var. acuminatum Lemm. is oval, broadened posteriorly, with 
sharp tip. 

Ohio, jar of decaying Nelumbo from E. Harbor, Lake Erie 
(Jennings). Algae from logs of basket factory, Sandusky Bay, 
and also from College Lake, Columbus (Landacre). 

*2. E. ovatum Stokes (Fig. 7, PL XXVI). 

Oval, emarginate anteriorly; 10-12 longitudinal striae; pri- 
mary flagellum about as long as body ; secondary flagellum approxi- 
mately 2 times length of body; rod-like organ attaining posterior 
part of body. 

L. 25-28/x. D. 10-12/.,. 

Distribution, North America. Infusion of dead leaves. 

Hamilton, 0., storage reservoir; Cincinnati, 0., upper storage 

3. E. obliquum Klebs (Fig. 8, PI. XXVI). 

Oval, broadest anteriorly, end diagonally truncate; periplast 
weakly striate longitudinally; rod-like organ only attaining the 
middle of the body; primary flagellum about length of body; sec- 
ondary flagellum li/o times length of body. 

L. Ib/x. D. l.bfx. 

Distribution, Europe. Standing water. 

14. Gen. CLAUTRIAVIA Massart. 

Form oval, free swimming; possessing a single flagellum 
directed posteriorly instead of anteriorly; pellicula rigid; mouth 
anterior, ventral; vacuole posterior left area of body; paramylon 
evident. Two species. 

Reproduction by longitudinal division. 

Distribution, Belgium. 

This genus undoubtedly represents a form belonging to the 
subfamily Anisonemeae in which the anterior flagellum has been 
lost in the process of the evolution of the species. The first repre- 
sentatives were found by Massart from a culture of algae obtained 
at Nieuport on the Belgian coast from a fresh water ditch. While 
noted as free swimming, the movements are rather "tad-pole" like, 
dependent on the posterior flagellum. 


The genus has not been found in America and if later dis- 
covered will probably be noted from brackish water ditches near 
the coast. 


Ai Length 18-20m.; diameter not greatest posteriorly; flagellum 

not 'onger than body . . . . . . 1. C. mobilis 

A- Length 7-8m.; diameter greatest posteriorly; flagellum 3-4 times 

length of body . . . . . . . 2. C. parva 

1. C. mobilis Mass. (Fig. 9, PI. XXVI). 

Oval approaching cylindrical ; rigid ; cytopharynx opening an- 
teriorly and ventral in position ; nucleus right, posterior part of 
cell; primary flagellum absent; secondary flagellum IV2 times 
length of body. 

L. 18-20/x. D. 12-13/1. 

Distribution, Belgium. Among algae in fresh water ditch on 
coast near Nieuport. 

2. C. parva Schout. (Fig. 10, PI. XXVI). 

Oval, widest posteriorly, rigid; cytopharynx opening ante- 
riorly and ventrally; primary flagellum absent; secondary flagel- 
lum 3 times length of body. 

L. 9-10/1. D. 7-8/.. 

Distribution, Belgium. Among algae in fresh water ditch 
coast near Nieuport. 

15. Gen. DINEMA Perty. 

Elongately oval, rounded at both ends, slowly metabolic; 
ectoplasm with granules arranged spirally; two flagella, the an- 
terior about as long as the body and not attenuate at end; the 
posterior about twice as long as body and decidedly attenuate at 
end; rod-like organ present; pellicula striate spirally; principal 
vacuole with small accessory contractile vacuoles; nucleus large, 
situated somewhat behind the middle of the body; movement 

A single species. 

Habitat, fresh water. 

Distribution, cosmopolitan. 


1. D. griseolum Perty (Fig. 11, PI. XXVI). 

Elongately oval with rounded ends; periplast spirally striate 
with ectoplasm containing granules arranged spirally; primary 
flagellum as long as body; secondary flagellum II/2 times length 
of body. 

L. 76-80/.. D. 30-40;^. 


1. Euglena viridis Ehrenb., x 500 (Walton). 

2. Euglena geniculata Dujard., x 500 (Dangeard). 

3. Euglena olivacea Schmitz, x 500 (Lemmermann). 

4. Euglena oblonga Schmitz, x 500 (Schmitz). 

5. Euglena elongata Schw., x 500 {Schewiakoff ). 

6. Euglena minima France, x 1000 (France). 

7. Eugleyia jnsciformis Klebs, var. minor, x 1000 (Walton). 

8. Eugleyia terricola (Dang-eard), x 500 (Lemmermann). 

9. Euglena splendens Dangeard, x 500 (Dangeard). 

10. Euglena sanguinea Ehrenberg, x 500 (Haase). 

11. Euglena rubra Hardy, x 500 (Hardy). 

12. Euglena haematodes (Ehrenberg), x 500 (From description). 
18. Euglena velata Klebs, x 500 (Dangeard). 


1. Euglena sociabilis Dangeard, x 500 (Dangeard). 

2. Euglena grayiulata (Klebs), x 500 (Hiibner). 

3. Euglena jyolymorpha Dangeard, x 500 (Dangeard). 

4. Euglena proxima Dangeard, x 500 (Dangeard). 

5. Euglena caudata Hiibner, x 500 (Lemmermann). 
P. Euglena flava Dangeard, x 500 (Lemmermann). 

7. Eugleyia orientalis Kashyop, x 500 (From description). 

8. Euglena variabilis Klebs, x 500 (Klebs). 

9. Euglena gracilis Klebs, x 500 (Lemmermann). 
10. Euglena torta Stokes, x 500 (Stokes). 


1. Euglena deses Ehrenberg, x 500 (Walton). 

2. Euglena mutabilis Schmitz, x 500 (Schmitz). 

3. Eugleyia spiroides Lemmermann, x 500 (Lemmermann). 

4. Euglena oxyuris Schmarda, x 250 (Walton). 

5. Euglena simulacra n. sp., x 500 (Walton). 

6. Euglena intermedia, (Klebs), x 500 (Lemmermann). 

7. Euglena tripteris Dujard., x 500 (Walton). 

8. Euglena acus Ehrenberg, x 500 (Walton). 

9. Euglena limnophila Lemmermann, x 500 (Lemmermann). 
10. Euglena acutissima Lemmermann, x 500 (Lemmermann). 



1. Euglena spirogyra Ehrenberg-, x 500 (Walton). 

2. Euglena fusca (Klebs), x 500 (Hiibner). 

3. Euglena ehrenberg ii Klehs, x 2b0 (Lemmermann). 

4. Euglena truncata n. sp., x 250 (Walton). 

5. Euglena quartana Moroff, x 500 (Maroff). 

6. Leptocinclis ovum (Ehrenberg), x 1000 (Stein). 

7. Leptocinclis sphagnophila Lemmermann, x 1000 (Zacharias). 

8. Leptocinclis steinii Lemmermann, x 1000 (Stein). 

9. Leptocinclis buetschlii Lemmermann, x 1000 (Butschli). 
10. Leptocinclis teres (Schmitz), x 1000 (Schmitz). 


1. Leptocinclis fusiformis (Carter), x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

2. Leptocinclis acicularis France, x 1000 (France). 

3. Leptocinclis texta (Dujard.), x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

4. Lejitocinclis globosa France, x 1000 (France). 

5. Leptocinclis marssonli Lemmermann, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

6. Phacus anacoelus Stokes, x 500 (Stokes). 

7. Phacus alata Klebs, x 500 (Dangeard). 

8. Phacus orbicularis Hiibner, x 500 (Hiibner). 

9. Phacus pleuronectes (Mull.) x 500 (Lemmermann). 
10. Phacus triqueter (Ehrenb.), x 500 (Stein). 


1. Phacus suecica Lemmermann, x 500 (Lemmermann). 

2. Phacus longicauda (Ehrenb.), x 500 (Lemmermann). 

3. Phacus caudata Hiibner, x 500 (Hiibner). 

4. Phacus acuminata Stokes, x 500 (Stokes). 

5. Phacus brevicaudata (Klebs), x 500 (Lemmermann). 

6. Phacus stokesii Lemmermann, x 500 (Lemmermann). 

7. Phacus hisjndula (Eichw.), x 500 (Stein). 

8. Phacus monilata Stokes, x 500 (Stokes). 

9. Phacus pyrum (Ehrenb.), x 500 (Lemmermann). 

10. Phacus nordstedtii Lemmermann, x 500 (Lemmermann), 

11. Phacus setosa France, x 500 (France). 

12. Phacus striata France, x 500 (France). 

13. Phacus oscillans Klebs, x 500 (Klebs). 

14. Phacus par-vula Klebs, x 500 (Lemmermann). 

15. Phacus c/avafa Dangeard, X 500 (Lemmermann). 
J 6. Phacus pusilla Lemmermann, x 500 (Hiibner). 

17. Phacus dangeardii Lemmermann, x 500 (Dangeard). 



1. Cryptoglena pigra Ehrenb., x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

2. Trachelomonas volvocina Ehrenb., x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

3. Trachelomonas perforata Awerinz., x 1000 (Awerinzew). 

4. Trachelomonas intermedia Dangeard, x 1000 (Dangeard) . 

5. Trachelomonas verrucosa Stokes, x 1000 (Palmer). 

6. Trachelomonas rugulosa Stein, x 1000 (Stein). 

7. Trachelomonas vermiculosa Palmer x 1000 (Palmer). 

8. Trachelomonas stokesiaua Palmer, x 1000 (Palmer). 
P. Trachelomonas spiculifera Palmer, x 1000 (Palmer). 

10. Trachelomonas vestita Palmer, x 1000 (Palmer). 

11. Trachelornonas bernardi Wolos., x 1000 (Woloszynska). 

12. Trachelomonas teres Maskell, x 1000 (Maskell). 

13. Trachelomonas ohlonga Lemmermann, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 


1. Trachelomonas crebea Kellicott, x 1000 (Palmer). 

2. Trachelomonas lemmermanii Wolosz., x 1000 (Woloszynska). 

3. Trachelomonas oralis v. Daday, x 1000 (v. Daday). 

4. Trachelomonas similis Stokes, x 1000 (Stokes). 

5. Trachelomonas volzii Lemmermann, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

6. Trachelomonas e^iry stoma Stein, x 1000 (Stein). 

7. Trachelomonas incerta Lemmermann, x 1000 (Schulz). 

8. Trachelomonas africana Fritsch, x 1000 (Fritsch). 

9. Trachelomonas reticulata Klebs, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

10. Trachelomonas euchlora (Ehrenb.), x 1000 (Stein). 

11. Trachelomonas conspersa Pascher, x 1000 (Pascher). 

12. Trachelomonas annulata v. Daday, x 250 (v. Daday). 


1. Trachelomonas minor Palmer, x 1000 (Palmer). 

2. Trachelomonas affinis Lemmermann, x 500 (Lemmermann). 

3. Trachelomonas volgensis Lemmermann, x 1000 (Zykoff). 

4. Trachelomonas acuminata (Schmarda), x 500 (v. Daday). 

5. Trachelomonas urceolata Stokes, x 500 (Stokes). 

6. Trachelomonas fluviatilis Lemmermann, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

7. Trachelomonas schauinslandii Lemmermann, x 1000 (Lemmermann), 

8. Trachelomonas ensifera v. Daday, x 250 (v. Daday). 

9. Trachelomonas acanthostoma Stokes, x 500 (From description). 

10. Trachelomonas armata Ehrenberg, x 500 (Lemmermann). 

11. Trachelomonas raciborskH Wolosz., x 500 (Woloszynska). 

12. Trachelomonas globularis (Awerinz.), xlOOO (Awerinzew). 

13. Trachelomonas westii Wolosz., x 1000 (Woloszynska). 

14. Trachelornonas americana Lemmermann, x 1000 (Palmer). 

15. Trachelomonas aegyptiaca Lemmermann, x 500 (Schmarda). 

16. Trachelomonas piscatoris (Fisher), x 500 (Lemmermann). 



1. Tntchelomonas setosa Zyg-cff, x 500 (Zygoff). 

2. Trachelomonas spinosa Stokes, x 500 (Stokes). 

3. Trachelomonas hispida (Perty), x 500 (Dangeard). 

4. Trachelomonas obtusa Palmer, x 500 (Palmer). 
5 Trachelomonas horrida Palmer, x 500 (Palmer). 

6. Trachelomonas saccata Lemmermann, x ? (Lemmermann) . 

7. Trachelomonas bulla Stein, x 500 (Stein). 

8. Trachelomonas obovata Stokes, x 500 (Stokes). 

9. Trachelomonas helvetica Lemmermann, x ? (Lemmermann). 

10. Trachelomonas caudata (Ehrenb.), x 500 (Stein). 

11. Ascoglena vaginocola Stein, x 500 (Stein). 

12. Ascoglena amphoroides (France), x 500 (France). 

13. Colacium vesiculosum Ehrenb., x 500 (Walton). 

14. Colacium arbuscida Stein, x 500 (Stein). 

15. Colacium calvum Stein, x 500 (Stein). 

16. Eutreptia viridis Pei-ty, x 500 (Lemmermann). 


1. Eutreptia lanowii Steuer, x 500 (Steuer). 

2. Astasia lagenula (Schew.), x 1000 (Schewiakoff). 

3. Astasia inflata Dujard, x 1000 (Klebs). 

4. Astasia ocellata Khawk., x 1000 (Khawkine). 

5. Astasia Jclebsii Lemmermann, x 500 (Klebs). 

6. Astasia dangeardii Lemmermann, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

7. Astasia curvata Klebs, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

8. Astasia captiva Beauch., x 1000 (Beauchamp). 

9. Astasia mobilis (Rehberg), 1000 (Alexeieff). 

10. Menoidium falcatum Zach., x 250 (Zacharias). 

11. Menoidium tortuosum (Stokes), x 500 (Stokes). 

12. Menoidium pellucidum Perty, x 500 (Lemmermann). 

13. Menoidium incurviim (Fres.), x 250 (Stein). 

14. Distigma protens Ehrenb., x 500 (Lemmermann). 

15. Sphenomonas teres (Stein), x 500 (Lemmermann). 

16. Sphenomonas quadrangularis Stein, x 500 (Stein). 


1. Euglenopsis vorax Klebs, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

2. Petalomonas medio canellata Stein, x 1000 (Klebs). 

3. Petalomonas angusta (Klebs), x 1000 (Klebs). 

4. Petalomonas inflexa Klebs, x 1000 (Stein). 

5. Petalomonas sinuata (Stein), x 1000 (Stein). 

6. Petalomonas sexlobata Klebs, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

7. Petalomonas steinii Klebs, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

8. Petalomonas carinata (France), x 1000 (France). 

9. Petalomonas abscissa (Dujard), x 1000 (Lemmermann). 
10. Petalomonas mira Awerinz., x 1000 (Awerinzew). 


11. Petalotnonas qnadrilineata Penard, x 1000 (Penard). 

12. Petalomonas sulcata Stokes, x 1000 (From description). 

13. Petalomonas alata Stokes, x 1000 (From description). 

14. Scytomonas pusilla Stein, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

15. Scytomovas dobelli n. sp., x 1000 (Lemmermann). 


1. Scytomonas major (Berliner), x 1000 (Berliner). 

2. Peranema trichophorum (Ehrenb.), x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

3. Peranema gramdifera Penard, x 1000 (Penard). 

4. Urceolus cyclostomus (Stein), x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

5. Urceolus costatus Lemmermann, x 1000 (Stein). 

6. Urceolus alenizini Mereschk., x 1000 (Mereschkonsky). 

7. Urceolus sabulosus Stokes, x 1000 (Stokes). 

8. Heteronemu acus (Ehrenb.), x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

9. Heteronema acutissimum Lemmermann, x 1000 (Stokes). 
10. Heteronema tremuhim Zacharias, x 1000 (Zacharias). 

IL Heteronema spirale Klebs, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 


1. Heteronema mutahile (Stokes), x 250 (Stokes). 

2. Heteronema klebsii Senn, x 1000 (Senn). 

3. Heteronema nebulosum (Dujard.), x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

4. Heteronema globiferum (Stein), x 1000 (Klebs). 

5. Tropidoscyphus cyclostomus Senn, x 1000 (Senn). 

6. Tropidoscyphus octocostatus Stein, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

7. Notosolenus aposamptus Stokes, x 1000 (Stokes). 

8. Notosolenus orbicularis Stokes x 1000 (Stokes). 

9. Notosolenus sivuatus Stokes, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

10. Anisonema ovale Klebs, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

11. Anisonema emarginatum Stokes, x 1000 (Stokes). 

12. Anisonema acinus Dujard., x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

13. Anisonema truncatum Stein, x 1000 (Stein). 

14. Anisonema pusillum Stokes, x 1000 (Stokes). 


1. Ploeotia vitrea Dujard., x 1000 (Seligo). 

2. Ploeotia marina n. sp., x 1000 (Calkins). 

3. Metanema variabile Klebs, x 1000 (Klebs). 

4. Metanema striatum Klebs, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

5. Marsupioguster striata Schewiak, x 1000 (Schewiakoff). 

6. Entosiphon sulcatum (Dujard.), x 1000 (Lemmermann). 

7. Entosiphon ovatum Stokes, x 1000 (Stokes). 

8. Entosiphon obliqunm Klebs, x 1000 (Klebs). 

9. Clautriavia mobilis Mass, x 1000 (Schouteden). 

10. Clautriavia parva Schout, x 1000 (Schouteden). 

11. Dinema griseolum Perty, x 1000 (Lemmermann). 




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Blochmann, F., Die microskopische Tierwelt des Siisswassers. 

1. Ab. 2. Auf. Hamburg. 
Mastigophora. Bronn, Klass. u. Ordnung. d. 
Tierreichs. 2. Ab., Vol. 1. 

Marine Protozoa from Woods Hole. U. S. Fish 
Com. Bull. 1901, p. 413. 

The Protozoa of the Fresh Waters of Connecti- 
cut. State Geological and Natural History Sur- 
vey, Bull. 2. 

Dangeard, P. A., Recherches sur les Eugleniens. Botaniste, Ser. 8. 


Histoire naturelle des Zoophytes Infusoires. 

Einfachste Lebensformen des Tier und Pflanzen- 

reiches. 4. ed. Braunschweig. 


Biitschli, O., 


Calkins, G. N., 


Conn, H. W., 




Eyferth, B., 


Ehrenberg, C. G., Die Infusiontierchen als volkommene Organis- 

1838 men. Leipzig. 

Kent, W. S., Manual of the Infusoria. London. 

Klebs, G., 


Ueber die Organisation einiger Flagellaten eini- 
ger Flagellatengruppen u. der Beziehungen zu 
Algen u. Infusorien. Unters. bot. Inst. Tubin- 
gen, V. 1, p. 233. 
Klebs, G., Flagellatenstudien. Zeit. wiss. Zool. V. 55, p. 

1893 265. 

Landacre, F. L., The Protozoa of Sandusky Bay and Vicinity. 
1908 Proc. Ohio Acad. Science, V. 4, Pt. 10. 

Jennings, H. S., A Report on the Protozoa of Lake Erie. U. S. 

1900 Fish Com. Bull. 1899, p. 105. 

Lemmermann, E., Die Siisswasserflora Deutschlands, Osterreichs u. 

1914 der Schweiz. Heft. 2, Flagellatae 2. 1913-14. 

Palmer, T. C, Delaware Valley Forms of Trachelomonas. Proc. 

1905 Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 

Senn, G., Euglenineae. Engler-Prantl, Naturliche Pflan- 

1900 zenfamilien. Leipzig. 1, Teil. p. 173. 

Stein, F., Der Organismus der Infusiontiere. 3. Ab. 

1883 Leipzig, 1878-1883. 

Whipple, The Microscopy of Drinking Water, 3. ed. New 

1914 York. 

Index to Eimlenoidina 

abrupte-acuminata (Euglena spi- 

logyra var.) 372 

abscissa (Petalomonas) 409, 411 

acanthostoma (Trachelomonas) .... 

388, 395 

acicularis (Leptocinclis) 375, 377 

acinus (Anisonema) 420 

acuminata (Phacus) 378, 381 

acuminata (Trachelomonas) 378, 394 
acuminatum (Entosiphon sulca- 
tum var.) 424 

acus (Euglena) 361, 371 

acus (Heteronema) 416 

acuta (Trachelomonas eurysto- 

ma var.) 392 I 

acutissima (Euglena) 361, 372 

acutissima (Heteronema) 416 

aegyptiaca (Trachelomonas) 388, 396 

affinis (Trachelomonas) 387, 394 

africana (Trachelomonas).... 387, 393 

alata (Petalomonas) 409, 412 

alata (Phacus) 378, 379 

alenizini (Urceolus) 414, 415 

americana (Trachelomonas) 388, 396 

amphoroides (Ascoglena) 399 

anacoelus (Phacus) 378, 379 

angusta (Petalomonas) 409, 410 

Anisonema 408, 419 

annulata (Trachelomonas).... 387, 393 

apocamptus (Notosolenus) 419 

arbuscula (Colacium) 400, 401 

armata (Trachelomonas) 388, 395 

Ascoglena 357, 399 

Astasia 402 

Astasiidae 356, 402 : 

Atracto)ie)>ia 405 

bernardi (Trachelomonas).... 386, 391 i 

brevicaudata (Phacus) 378, 382 

buetschlii (Leptocinclis) 375, 376 

bulla (Trachelomonas) 389, 398 

calvum (Colacium) 400, 401 

captiva (Astasia) 403, 404 

carinata ( Petalomonas ) 409, 411 

caudata (Euglena) 359, 367 

caudata (Phacus) 378, 381 

caudata (Trachelomonas) 389, 399 

caudata (Trachelomonas hispida 

var.) 397 

cervicula (Trachelomonas volvo- 

cina var.) 389 

Chlorovionas j)igrn 385 

Clautriavia 408, 424 

clavata (Phacus) 379, 384 


Colacium 357, 400 

conspersa (Trachelomonas). ...387, 393 
convergens (Petalomonas abscissa 

var.) 411 

Copromonas 413 

coronata (Trachelomonas 

hispida var.) 397 

costatus (Urceolus) 414, 415 

crebea (Trachelomonas) 386, 391 

crenulatacollis (Trachelomonas 

hispida var.) 397 

Cryptoglena 357, 385 

curvata (Astasia) 403, 404 

curvata (Trachelomonas fluviatilis 

var.) 395 

cyclostomus (Tropidoscyphus) 418 

cyclostomus (Urceolus) 414, 415 

cylindrica (Leptocinclis globosa 

var.) 377 

cylindrica (Trachelomonas euchlora 

var.) 393 

cylindrica (Trachelomonas 

hispida var.) 397 

dangeardii (Astasia) ..403, 404 

dangeardii (Phacus) 379, 384 

deformis (Petalomonas abscissa 

var.) 411 

dentata (Trachelomonas crebea 

var.) 391 

deses (Euglena) 360, 369 

Dinema 408, 425 

Distigma 402, 406 

distomata (Petalomonas medioca- 

nellata var.) 410 

dobelli (Scytomonas) 412, 413 

ehrenbergii (Euglena) 361, 373 

elongata (Euglena) 358, 363 

emarginatum (Anisonema) 420 

ensifera (Trachelomonas) 388, 395 

Entosiphon ...408, 423 

euchlora (Trachelomonas) 387, 393 

Euglena 356, 357 

Euglcnida 355 

Euglenidae 355, 356 

Eugleninae _ 355 

Euglenoidina 355 

Euglenopsis 407, 408 

eurystoma (Trachelomonas) 387, 392 

Eutrcptia 357, 401 

falcatum (Menoidium) 405 

flava (Euglena) 359, 367 

fluviatilis (Trachelomonas) 387, 395 
furcata (Euglena sanguinae var.) 365 

fusca (Euglena) 361, 

fusiformis (Leptocinclis) 375, 

fusiformis (Leptocinclis globosa 


geniculata (Euglena) 358, 

globeriferum (Heteronema)..-416, 

globosa (Leptocinclis) 375, 

globula (Leptocinclis ovum 


globularis (Trachelomonas) 388, 

gracilis (Euglena) 359, 

granulata (Euglena) 359, 

granulifera (Peranema) ..- 413, 

griseolum (Dinema) 

haematodes (Euglena) 359, 

helvetica (Trachelomonas) 389, 

Heteronema 407, 

hispida (Trachelomonas) 388, 

hispidula (Phacus) 378, 

horrida (Trachelomonas) 389, 

hyalina (Euglena viridis var.) 

incurvum (Menoidium) 

incerta (Trachelomonas) ..387, 

inflata (Astasia) 402, 

inflexa (Petalomonas) 409, 

intermedia (Euglena) ....360, 

intermedia (Trachelomonas) 386, 
javanica (Trachelomonas volgensis 


klebsii (Astasia) 

klebsii (Euglena intermedia 


klebsii (Heteronema) 416, 

lagenula (Astasia) 402, 


lanowii (Eutreptia) 401, 

lata (Petalomonas angusta var.) 
laticlavus (Euglena spirogyra 


latum (Anisonema ovale var.).... 
lemmermanii (Trachelomonas) 


Leptocinclis 357, 

levis (Trachelomonas affinis 


limnophila (Euglena) 360, 361, 

longicauda (Phacus) 378, 

luteo (Euglena granulata var.).... 

major (Scytomonas) 412, 

marchia (Euglena spirogyra var.) 

marina (Ploeotia) 421, 

marssonii (Leptocinclis) 375, 

Marsupiogaster 408, 

mediocanellata (Petalomonas).... 

Menoidium 402, 

Metanema 408, 

minima (Euglena) 358, 

minor (Euglena acus var.) 

minor (Euglena pisciformis var.) 













minor (Trachelomonas) 387, 393 

mira (Petalomonas) 409, 411 

mobilis (Astasia) 403, 404 

mobilis (Clautriavia) 425 

inobUis (Lageuella) 404 

monilata (Phacus) 378, 382 

mucosa (Euglena viridis var.).... 362 

mutabile (Heteronema) 416, 417 

mutabilis (Euglena) 360, 369 

natans (Colacium vesiculosum 

var.) 400 

nebulosum (Heteronema). 416, 417 

nordstedtii (Phacus) 379, 383 

Notosolenus 407, 418 

obliqua (Petalomonas inflexa 

var.) 410 

obliquum (Entosiphon) 423, 424 

oblonga (Euglena) 358, 363 

oblonga (Trachelomonas) 386, 391 

obovata (Trachelomonas).... 389, 398 

obtusa (Trachelomonas) 389, 398 

ocellata (Astasia) 403 

octocostatus (Tropidoscyphus).... 418 

olivacea (Euglena) 358, 362 

orbicularis (Notosolenus) 419 

orbicularis (Phacus) 378, 380 

orientalis (Euglena) 358, 359, 367 

ornata (Trachelomonas ensifera 

var.) 395 

oscillans (Phacus) 379, 383 

ovale (Anisonema) 420 

ovalis (Trachelomonas) 387, 392 

ovatum (Entosiphon) 423, 424 

ovum (Leptocinclis) 375 

oxyuris (Euglena) 360, 369 

palatina (Leptocinclis ovum var.) 375 
papillata (Trachelomonas volvo- 

cina var.) 389 

parallela (Petalomonas abscissa 

var.) 411 

parvula (Phacus) 379, 384 

parva (Clautriavia) 425 

pellucida (Petalomonas inflexa 

var.) 410 

pellucidum (Menoidium) 405 

Peranema 407, 413 

Peranemidae 356, 406 

perforata (Trachelomonas).. 386, 389 

Petalomonas 407, 408 

Phacus 357, 377 

pigra (Cryptoglena) 385 

piscatoris (Trachelomonas) 388, 397 

piscifoiTnis (Euglena) 358, 363 

planctonica (Trachelomonas affinis 

var.) 394 

pleuronectes (Phacus) 378, 380 

pleurosigma (Petalomonas medio- 
canellata var.) 410 


Ploetia 408, 421 

polymorpha (Euglena) 359, 366 

proteus (Distigma) 406 

proxima (Euglena) 359, 366 

punctuata-striata (Leptocinclis 

ovum var.) 375 

punctuata (Trachelomonas hispida 

var.) 397 

punctuata (Trachelomonas incerta 

var.) 392 

punctuata (Trachelomonas oblonga 

var.) 391 

pusilla (Petalomonas angusta 

var.) 410 

pusilla (Phacus) 379, 384 

pusilla (Scytomonas) 412 

pusillum (Anisonema) 420, 421 

pyrum (Phacus) 378, 382 

quadrangularis (Sphenomonas) 406 
quadrilineata (Petalomonas) 409, 412 

quartana (Euglena) 361, 374 

raciborskii (Trachelomonas) 388, 396 
regularis (Trachelomonas bulla 

var.) 398 

reticulata (Trachelomonas) 387, 393 

rigida (Euglena acus var.) 371 

rubra (Euglena) 359, 365 

rugulosa (Trachelomonas) .. 386, 390 

sabulosus (Urceolus) 414, 415 

saccata (Trachelomonas) .... 389, 398 

sanguinae (Euglena) 358, 364 

schauinslandii (Trachelomonas) 

388, 395 

schizochlora (Eutreptia viridis 

var.) 401, 402 

Scytomonas 407, 412 

setosa (Phacus) 379, 383 

setosa (Trachelomonas) 388, 397 

sexlobata (Petalomonas) 409, 410 

similis (Trachelomonas) 387, 392 

simulacra (Euglena) 360, 370 

sinuata (Petalomonas) 409, 410 

sinuatus (Notosolenus) 419 

sociabilis (Euglena) 359, 366 

sphagnophila (Leptocinclis).. 375, 376 

Sphenomonas 402, 406 

spiculifera (Trachelomonas) 386, 390 
spinosa (Trachelomonas) .... 388, 397 

spirale (Heteronema) 416, 417 

spirogyra (Euglena) 361, 372 

spiroides (Euglena) 360, 369 

splendens (Euglena) 358, 364 

steinii (Leptocinclis) 375, 376 

steinii (Petalomonas) 409, 411 

steinii (Trachelomonas armata 

var.) 395 

stokesiana (Trachelomonas) 

386, 390 

stokesii (Phacus) 378, 382 

striata (Leptocinclis ovum var.) 375 

striata (Marsupiogaster) 423 

striata (Phacus) 379, 383 

striatum (Metanema) 422 

subarmata (Trachelomonas his- 
pida var.) 397 

subglobosa (Trachelomonas vol- 

vocina var.) 389 

subtiliis (Copromonas) 413 

suecica (Leptocinclis steinii var.) 376 

suecica (Phacus) 378, 381 

sulcata (Petalomonas) 409^ 412 

sulcatum (Entosiphon) 423 

teres (Leptocinclis) 275, 376 

teres (Sphenomonas) 406 

teres (Trachelomonas) 386, 391 

terricola (Euglena) 358, 364 

texta (Leptocinclis) 375, 377 

torta (Euglena) 359] 368 

torta (Phacus longicauda var.).... 381 

tortuosum (Menoidium) 405 

Trachelomonas 357, 335 

tremulum (Heteronema) [ 416 

treubii (Trachelomonas volgensis 

var.) 394 

tnchophora (Astasia) 414 

trichophorum (Peranema) 413 

tripteris (Euglena) 361, 371 

triqueter (Phacus) 378, 380 

Tropidoscyphus 407, 418 

truncata (Euglena) 361, 373 

truncata (Trachelomonas oblonga 

var.) 391 

truncatum (Anisonema) 420, 421 

vaginocola (Ascoglena) 399 

urceolata (Trachelomonas).. 387, 394 

Urceolopsis 415 

Urceolus 407, 414 

variabilis (Euglena) 359, 368 

variabile (Metanema) 422 

velata (Euglena) 359, 365 

vermiculosa (Trachelomonas) 386, 390 
verrucosa (Trachelomonas) 386, 390 
verrucosa Trachelomonas acum- 
inata var.) 394 

vesiculum (Colacium) 400 

vestita (Trachelomonas) 386, 390 

viridis (Euglena) 358, 361 

viridis (Eutreptia) 401 

vitrea {Anisonema) 422 

vitrea (Ploeotia) 421 

volgensis (Trachelomonas).... 387, 394 
volvocina (Trachelomonas).... 386, 389 

volzii (Trachelomonas) 387, 392 

vorax (Euglenopsis) 408 

virestii (Trachelomonas) 388, 396 

Zygoselmis 417 



P. 15, 1 
P. 30, 1 
P. 39, 1 
P. 43, 1 
P. 44, 1 
P. 55, 1 
P. 55, 1 
P. 62, 1 
P. 65, 1 
P. 66, 1 
P. 68, 1 
P. 87, 1 
P. 87, 1 

29, omit ; after Syritta. 

1, for pupa read pupae. 

24, for waternig read watering. 

2, for Sphaeropuaria read Sphaerophoria. 

2, for Reaumour read Reaumur. 

19, for rumieis read rumicis. 

20, for salicti read saliciti. 

3, for Molluses read Molluscs. 
41, for Musea read Musca. 

7, for Irva read larva. 

3, for Vloucella read Volucella. 
34, for vart read var. 
19, for distincly read distinctly. 


Page 185 — The first 1043. should be omitted altogether. 

Page 185 — The following was omitted: 

1045. Rosa setigera Mx. Prairie Rose. 

General, but no specimens from the Northeastern Counti3s. 

Page 211 — The following was omitted: 

1520. Scrophylaria marylandia L. Maryland Fig"wort. General. 

Page 235 — The following was omitted: 

2024. Cirsium odoratum (Muhl.) Britt. Fragrant Thistle. 
Ashtabula County. 


General Index Volume I 

Index to Vascular Plants 239 
Index to Euglenoidina 447 

Acanthaceae 332 

Acer 64 

rubrum 263, 266, 273, 279, 281 

saccharum 260 

Aceraceae 325 

Actea alba 269 

Adicea pumila 276 

Adlerz 40, 42 

adult, general characters 31 

relations of, to plants 48 

Aesculaceae 324 

Aix 15 

Aizoaceae 320 

Aldrich, J. M., cited 12, 40, 95 

Aleyrodidae 39, 42, 58 

algae 46 

Alisma subcordatum 264 

Alismaceae 308 

Allegheny, Flora 248 

Allium cepa 74 

Allograpta 39 


16, 26, 28, 43, 50, 58, 59, 66, 87 

Alnus rug'osa 263 

Amalancier canadensis 281, 283 

Amaranthaceae 320 

Amaryllidaceae 314 

Amaryllis 10, 39, 47 

Ambrosia elatior 278 

trifida 266 

Ambrosiaceae 336 

Amiaceae 334 

Anacardiaceae 325 

Anisonema 419 

Annonaceae 315 

Antennae of adults 33 

of larvae 19, 20, 22, 27 

Anthophyta 308 

ants 35, 27, 42, 45, 49, 62 

Aphid, European grain 55, 56 

Aphididae 25, 26, 39, 42, 45 

aphidophagous larvae 

14, 17, 24, 26, 27, 29, 44 

aphis, cabbage 43 

aphis. European grain 43, 44 

Aphis brassicae 43, 55, 56, 57, 58, 66 

pruni 66 

rumicis 54, 55, 56, 58 

Api.s mellifera 37 

Apocynaceae 330 




Aralia nudicaulis 



Arctium minus 54 

Arisaema triphyllum 269, 

Aristolochia serpentaria 


Asarum sp 




Ascyron hyperocoides 

Ash Cave 

Ashmead, cited 30, 48, 51 

aspara'>'us .^. 

Asplenium montanum ' 



Aster, divaricatus 


Azalea, lutea 


. 56 

, 67 


Baccha 14, 19 

babista 51, 64, 65 

clavata 64, 84 

cognata 65, 84 

costata 84 

fascipennis 84 

fuscipennis 48 

lugens 64, 65, 84 

tarchetius 84 

Baker, cited 70 

Banks, Nathan, cited 74 

Balsamiaceae 317 

Bassus laetatorius 50 

basswood 58 

Benzoin benzoin 263, 266 

Berberidaceae 316 

Betula lenta 

266, 269, 270, 273, 281, 283 

lutea 265, 266, 267, 271 

nigra 266 

Betulaceae 326 

Bibliography of Syrphidae 99 

Bidens aristata 264 

connata 264 

cernua 264 


Bicuculla canadensis 275 

cucculata 275 

Bigelow, John M., cited 304 

Bignoniaceae 331 

Bigot, cited - 12 

Bignell, G. C, cited - bb 

Biological and ecological relations 

of larvae 42 

birch '_^ 

Black Cohosh 276 

Black Hand formation 252 

Blephariglottis lacera 264 

paramoena 262 

Bloomfield, E. N., cited 40 

Boletus edulis 39 

Bombus lapidarius 68 

Boraginaceae 332 

Botanical Survey of Sugar Grove 

Region 248 

Botrychium obliquum 275 

virginianum 275 

Bottom Land Swamp, Sugar Grove 263 

Bottom Lands, Sugar Grove 259 

Brachyopa 39 

bicolor 67 

vacua 89 

Brachypalpus 39, 73, 95 

frontosus 96 

rileyi 96 

sorosis 95 

Brassicaceae 316 

British Flies 12 

Buckton, G. B., cited 

17, 21, 34, 47, 68, 69, 70 

Bugonia 47 

burdock 54, 56 

cabbage 27 

cacti : 25, 29, 47 

Calamophyta 307 

Callicera johnsoni 80 

Calliprobola 95 

Callitrichaceae 318 

Colopha 40, 43 

Campanula rotundifolia 287 

Camptosorus rhizophyllus 

286, 292, 293 

Cantwell Cliflfs 253 

Caprifoliaceae 335 

Cardamine rhomboidea 264 

Carduus sp 54, 59 

Carex plantaginea 269, 275, 292 

prasina 267 

triceps 277 

Carpinus caroliniana 263 

carrot 65 

Caryophyllaceae 319 

Castanea dentata 273, 279, 281 

Catabomba 39, 40 

Catalog of N. A. Diptera 12, 14 

Cathrinea sp 266 

Celastraceae 324 

Centaurea 63, 6b 

Cephalanthus occidentalis 263 

Ceratophyllaceae 316 

Cereus giganteus 68 

Ceria 12 

abbreviata 37, 99 

signifera 73, 74, 99 

willistonii 74, 99 

Cerinae 15 

Ceriodes 98 

Chalcididae 45, 46, 51 

Chalcomyia 14, 33, 63 

aerea 63 

Cheilanthes gracilis 286 

Chenopodiaceae 320 

Chilosia, Key to species 82 

Chilosia 14, 15, 39, 63 

capillata 83 

comosa 83 

cyanescens 82 

pallipes 83 

prima 82 

tristis 83 

Chilosini 35 

Chimaphila maculata 280, 295 

Chloealtus curtipennis 35 

Chortophila pusilla 39, 65 

chrysanthemums 48 

Chrysochlamys 39, 73 

buccata 95 

dives 95 

Chrysogaster 14, 15, 35, 39, 62 

apisaon 81 

nigripes 80 

nitida 81 

pictipennis 81 

pulchella 80 

Chrysosplenium americanum 264 

Chrysotoximae 15 

Chrysotoxum 39, 62 

laterale 80 

ventricosum 80 

Cicoriaceae 338 

Cimucifuga racemosa 276 

Circaea alpina 269 

Circaea lutetiana 266, 276 

circular plate 19 

Cistaceae 318 

Cladonia spp 277 

Clautriavia 424 

Clematis virginiana 275 

Climatology, Sugar Grove 255 

Coccidae 62-64 

Coccinellidae 46 

Cock's-comb-gall syrphus-fly 59 

Colacium 400 

Colopha 40, 43 


Colopha ulmicola 60 

color of adults 32, 33, 34 

color of larvae 19, 27 

Commelinaceae 313 

Conophyllis americana 276 

Conopidae 14 

Convolvulaceae 329 

Copestylum marginatum 67, 68 

Coquillett, cited 12 

Coralorhiza odontorrhiza 295 

Cornaceae 334 

Cornus alternifolia 269, 274 

Corrigiolaceae 320 

corn 25, 27, 30, 38 

Corylus americana 294 

cotton 48, 64 

cow-dung 67, 72 

Crassulaceae 323 

Criopi'ora 39 

cyanogaster 96 

Criorhina analis 96 

decora 97 

intersistens 97 

pictipes 97 

umbratilis 97 

Criorhina 16, 39 

oxyacanthae 73 

Cruciferae 55 

Cryptoglena 385 

Cucurbitaceae 327 

Cunilla originoides 280 

Cuscutaceae 329 

Cyclorrhapha 13 

Cynorhina 96 

Cynoxylon (Cornus) florida.. 274, 280 
Cyperaceae 309 

Daecke, cited 72 

Dasystoma laevigata 280 

Davis, G. C, cited 50 

DeGerts, cited 65 

Dentaria heterophylla 275 

laciniata 275 

Didea 39 

fasciata 22, 26, 27, 43, 45, 57, 58, 66 

fasciata fuscipes 85 

intermedia 66 

Dinema 425 

Dioscoreaceae 314 

Diospyros virginiana L 58, 294 

Dipsacaceae 335 

Distigma 406 

dock, broad loaf 54 

curled 56, 58 

dorsal spiracular spine 19 

Dryopteris margunale 

266, 269, 275, 290, 293 

spinulosum 266, 269, 275, 290, 293 

Dufour, Leon, cited 67 

duration in egg stage 16 

Dury, Charles, cited 13, 80, 89, 92 

Ebenaceae 329 

Ecological Relations of Adult 

Syrphidae 48 

Economic Aspects, Sugar Grove.. 296 
Economic Importance of Adult 

Syrphidae 48 

of Larvae of Syrphidae 42 

Egg of Syrphidae 16 

elm 60, 67 

emergence of adult 31 

Encyrtus mesograptae 51 

Enemies of Syrphidae 50 

Entosiphon 423 

Epigaea repens 278, 280, 292, 299 

Equisetaceae 307 

Equiseteae 307 

Ericaceae 328 

Eristalis 16, 17, 28, 30, 31, 39 

aeneus 15, 61, 63 

larvae of 24, 69, 91 

albifrons 91 

arbustorum 69 

bastardii 91 

dimidiatus 47, 91 

flavipes 35, 37, 91 

hirtus 70 

latifrons 91 

meigenii 91 

saxorum 91 

temporalis 70 

tenax 15, 17, 34, 36, 

47, 48, 49, 61, 68, 69, 70, 92 

transversus 92 

vinetorum 48, 91 

Eristalis, larvae of 27 

posterior respiratory appen- 
dage of 21 

Eristalinae 14, 35 

Eristhronium americanum 275 

Erne, cited 37 

Euglena 357 

Euglenoidina of Ohio 343 

Index 447 

Euglenopsis 408 

Eumerus 39, 40, 63 

strigatus 74 

Eupeodes volucris 65 

Euphorgiaceae 318 

Eurycles 72 

Eusporangiatae 306 

Eutreptia 401 

Evolutionary Table of Larval 

Habits of Syrphidae 38 

Fabaceae 322 

Fabricius 12 


face of Syrphidae 13 

Fagaceae 326 

Fagus .- j^l 

grandifoha ^'g 

Fairfield County 248 

Fallen, cited 1^ 

feeding habits of adults 49 

of larvae 26, 43 

Felices ^^^ 

flight of Syrphidae 36 

Ferdinandea A^ 

Flora, Sugar Grove 30d 

Folsoni, cited ■-■-- 37 

food of adults 32, 6b 

of larvae 26, 40 

Formica 25, 40 

diflicilis var. consocians 62 

rufa obscuripes 62 

sanguinea aserva 62 

schaufussi 62 

Fraxinus americana 263, 266 

pennsylvanica 263 

Frontal suture - 13 

Fulton, B. B., cited 84 

Fumariaceae 316 

fungi 25, 39, 63, 65 

Galeorchis spectabilis 275, 299 

galls 26, 40, 45 

Gaultheria procumbens. 

278, 281, 292, 293, 299 
Gaylosaccia baccata 278, 280, 283, 299 

Gentianaceae - 330 

Geofi'roy, cited 12 

Geographical Distribution of 

Syrphidae 15 

Geological Formations at 

Sugar Grove 252 

Geraniaceae 317 

Geranium maculatum 275 

Girschner, cited 13 

Glacial drift -- 251 

Gleditsia tricanthos — - 263 

Gnaphalium decurrens 294 

Graminaceae 310 

Griggs, R. F., article by 248 

Grossulariaceae .-- 327 

Gulf, The 283 

habits of Syrphidae, adults.... 34, 35 

of larvae 38, 42 

habitat of larvae 25 

Halicti 63 

Haloragidaceae 327 

Hamamelidaceae 325 

Hamamelis 266 

virginiana 269, 274 

Hedeoma pulegreoides 294 

Helianthaceae 336 

Helophilus 16, 28, 30, 33, 39 

bilinearis 93 

chrysostomus 93 

conostomus 93 

distinctus 92 

divisus 93 

flavifacies 93 

integer 92 

laetus - 93 

latifrons 46, 70, 93 

pendulus 70 

similis .-. 93 

Hemerobiidae 46 

Hepatica acuta 269 

acutiloba 275, 293 

hepatica 293 

Heteronema 415 

Hicoria ovata 273, 280 

Hieracium venosum 280, 299 

Hine, James S., cited 

11, 13, 63, 65, 88 
Historical Account of the Family 

Syrphidae 12 

Hocking County 248 

Hopkins, cited 72 

Houstonia longifolia 277, 280, 274 

Howard, cited 66, 72 

Hubbard, cited 51, 64, 68 

Hunter, W. D., cited 12, 35, 82 

Hyde, J. E., cited 251 

Hydrangea arborescens 274 

Hydrangeaceae 327 

Hydrophyllaceae 329 

Hymenoptera -. 10, 

26, 32, 35, 37, 40, 42, 47, 49, 68 

Hypericaceae 318 

Hypericum drummundii 278 

prolificum 294 

Hypnaceae sp 278 

Hypopytis americana 276, 280 

Ibidium gracilis 294 

Ichneumonidae 50 

Ilicaceae 324 

Index to Euglenoidina 447 

to Vascular Plants 239 

integumental bristles 18 

interspiracular hairs, etc., 19, 21, 23 

Introduction, Syrphidae 10 

Iridaceae 314 

Isnardia palustris 264 

Isotria verticillata 280 

Jassidae 39, 42 

Johnson, C. W., cited 12, 72, 73 

Juglandaceae 326 

Juglans cinerea 263, 266, 273 

nigra 263 

Juncaceae 313 

Juncoides carolinae 275 

Juniperaceae 308 


Kalmia 275 

latifolia 279, 280, 283, 299 

Keen, E. L., cited 73 

Kellerman, W. A., cited 303 

Key to Genera of Syrphidae 74 

to Pupae 52 

to Larvae 52 

King-bird 49 

lace-wing-ed flies ^ 46 

Lamiaceae 332 

Larvae of Syrphidae 17 

key to - 52 

Lasiophthicus pyrastri 40, 66 

Latreille 12 

Lauraceae 316 

^eaf-hoppers 64 

Lechea minor 277, 278 

Lemnaceae 309 

Lentribulaceae 332 

Lepidophyta 307 

Leptamium virginiana 276 

Leptocinclis 374 

Lespedeza hirta 280, 294 

procumbens 280 

repens 278, 280 

Liliaceae 312 

Lillium canadense 264 

Limnr.nthaceae 317 

Linaceae -- 317 

Lintner, cited 70, 71 

Linum virginianum 280 

Liriodendron tulipifera 273, 301 

Liriodendron Forest 272 

Lobelia cardinalis 264, 267 

syphilitica 264, 267 

Lobeliaceae 335 

Loew, cited 12 

LongistigTna caryae 26, 43, 45, 57, 58 

Lumbering, Sugar Grove 296 

Lycopodiaceae 307 

Lycopodieae 307 

Lycopodium complanatum var. 

flabelliforme 293 

lucidulum 2G6, 275, 293 

Lythraceae — 324 

Macquart, cited 12 

macrochaetae 34 

Magnoliaceae 315 

Mallota 25, 28, 33, 39 

cimbiciformis 93 

illinoisensis 93 

posticata - -■- 71, 93 

Malus glaucescens 263, 293, 294 

Malvaceae 318 

Manual of N. A. Diptera 12 

maple 64 

Marsupiogaster 423 

Martyniaceae 332 

Matricaria 39 

Meigen, cited 12, 70 

Medeola virginica 269, 276 

Meibomia canescens 293, 294 

nudifloi-a 280 

obtusa 294 

rotundifolia 280 

Melanostoma mellinum 15, 65, 85 

obscurum 85 

Melanoxanthus salicti 55 

Membracidae 39, 42 

Menispermaceae 316 

Menoidium 404 

Merapioidus villosus 96 

Merodon 16, 39 

equestris '71 

Meromacrus acutus 92 

Mesogramma boscii 87 

geminata 87 

marginata — 88 

polita....l6, 19, 24, 25, 35, 66, 67, 88 

Metanema 422 

Metcalf, C. L., article by 7 

Metcalf, Z. P., cited H 

Microdon 15, 17, 21, 24, 25, 

28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 37, 40, 42, 47, 49 

aurifex 80 

aurulentus - - 80 

fuscipennis 80 

globosus 62, 79 

larvae of 21, 23, 24 

megalogaster 80 

mutabilis 40 

rufipes 80 

tristis 21, 25, 28, 30, 62, 80 

Microdontinae 1^ 

Milesia 14, 16 





Milesinao 15, 

milkweed ^0 

Mimicry of Syrphidae 35, 36, 37 

agTCSsive 37 

protective 49 

Mitchella repens 

278, 281, 287, 292, 293 

Monotropaceae 328 

Monotropa uniflora 276, 281 

Moraceae 325 

Morse, W. C, cited 251 

Morus rubra ^'^3 

moulting of larvae 24 

mouth parts of adults 32 

of larvae 18, 20, 21, 27 

Muhlcnbei-gia diffusa 289 

Musca domc'stica 39, 65 

pyrastri 65 


myiasis of larvae 

Myiolepta 14, 39, 




Neoascia 35, 



Narcissus 10, 39, 



nymphal membrane 28, 

Nympheaceae - 

Nyssa sylvatica 

Oak .-' 

Ocyptamus fuscipennis 

Odynerus philadelphiae 

oesophageal framework.. 19, 20, 

Ohio Academy of Science 

Ohio Vascular Plants 



Old Man's Cave 253, 

olfactory pits 



onion 10, 39, 47, 



Opuntia missouriensis 






Osborn, Herbert, cited 

Osburn, R. C, cited 


Osten, Sacken, cited 

12, 39, 47, 64, 69 

oviposition 16, 44, 



Oxydendrum arboreum 

Panicum dichotomum 


sphaerocarpon 277, 


Paragus 14, 22, 39, 40 


bicolor 15, 27, 50, 53, 54, 63 

tibialis 15, 50, 54, 63 

Parmelia sp 



Parthenocissus quinquefolia..269, 






























, 72 

, 63 
, 82 
, 82 

Passiflora lutea 275 

Pelecocera pergandei 88 

Pellaea atropurpurea 286 

Pemphigus 40, 43, 45 

vagabundus 57 

Penthorum sedoides 264 

Peramium pubescens 269, 291 

Peranema 413 

Peridei-mium strobi 301 

Perkins, cited 64 

persimmon 58 

Petalomonas 408 

Phacus 377 

Philhelius 87 

Philippi, cited 12 

Phlox maculata -.... 264, 267 

phoebe 49 

Phoridae 13 

Phragmites 45, 55, 56 

Phrymaceae 333 

Phylloxera vastatrix 62 

Phylogeny of Syrphidae 14 

Phytolaccaceae 320 

Phyrma leptostachya 276 

phytophagous larvae 23, 25, 38 

Pinaceae 308 

pine 72 

Pinus virginiana 283 

Pipunculidae 13 

Pinus rigida 281 

strobus 301 

virginiana 281 

Pipiza 14, 15, 39 

Pipiza albipilosa 81 

calcarata 81 

femoralis 62, 81 

festiva 81 

frandiilenta 81 

modesta 81 

nigribarba 81 

nigripilosa 81 

pisticoides 81 

pulchella 81 

radicum 62, 82 

salax 81 

Plantaginaceae 333 

Plants. Ohio Vascular (Index).. 239 

Platanus 266 

Plates of Syrphidae 101-123 

Platychirus 33, 39 

hyperboreus 85 

peltatus 15, 85 

quadratus 65, 85 

scutatus - 65 

Platypezidae 13 

Fceotia 421 

Plusia gamma 40 

iota 40 


Pocota 39, 73 

Podophyllum peltatum 275 

Polemoniaceae 329 

Polycodium staminium 278 

Polycolium staminium 280 

Polygalaceae 317 

Polypodium vulgare 283 

Polystichum 292 

Populus tremuloides 57 

Polygonaceae 320 

Polypodiaceae 306 

Polypodium vulgare 286, 292 

Polysticum achrosticoides 275 

Polytricum sp — 

Pontederiaceae 313 

poplar 57, 64, 73 

Potentilla canadensis 293, 294 

Portulacaceae 320 

Potomogetonaceae 308 

practical measures 51 

predaceous larvae 39 

predatism of larvae 42 

Primulaceae 328 

prolegs - 20 

protective coloration 27, 30, 35 

protective structures and hab- 
its 27, 30 

Prunus serotina 89 

virginiana (serotina) 263 

Pseudomyrma 48 

Psilota flavipennis 81 

Ptenophyta 306 

Pterallastes thoracicus 94 

ptilinum 13 

Pupa of Syrphidae 28 

key to 52 

puparium 28, 29 

rat-tailed 29 

Pyrola elliptica 275, 292 

Pyrolaceae 328 

Queen of the Valley (Sugar 

Grove) 260 

Quercus alba 273 

bicolor 263 

imbricaria 263 

palustris 263 

prinus 275, 281 

velutina 273, 280, 281 

Rainfall, Sugar Grove 257 

Ranunculaceae 315 

Ranunculus recurvatus 269, 275 

sceleratus 264 

septentrionalis 264 

rat-tailed larvae..l4, 21, 23, 24, 25, 39 

Reaumur, cited 44 

relations of adults to other 

animals 48 

to other insects 48 

to plants 48 

respiratory cornua, 

larval 17, 22, 28 

pupal 24, 28, 29, 31 

respiratory structures, 

posterior 17, 19, 22, 23, 24, 28, 29 

Rhamnaceae 324 

Rhingia 12, 15, 39, 67 

nasica 89 

Rhododendron maximum 273 

Rhus toxicodendron 275 

Riley, cited 39, 47, 62, 66, 67 

Rock House 253 

Rosaceae 321 

Rosa 66 

virginiana 280 

Rondani, cited 12, 63 

Rubiaceae 334 

Rubus allegheniensis.... 289, 293, 294 

procumbens 293, 294 

Rudbeckia laciniata 267 

Rumex crispus 54, 56, 58, 59 

obtusifolius 54 

Rutaceae 317 

Salix nigra 263, 266 

sp 91, 96 

Salicaceae 326 

Sambucus racemosa 290 

Sanicula canadensis 276 

Santalaceae 328 

Sassafras 275 

Saururaceae 321 

Saxifragaceae 323 

Say, cited 12 

Schaffner, J. H., article by 131 

cited 303 

Scheucherizaceae 308 

Schiner, cited 12 

Schizoneura lanigera 62, 63 

Scholtz, cited 72 

Scopoli 12 

Scrophulariaceae 330 

Scrophularia 39 

Scudder, Dr. S. H., cited 15 

Sculpturing of egg shell 16 

Scytomonas 412 

seasonal occurrence 25, 30, 34 

segmental spines 18, 20 

segmentation of larvae.... 18, 20, 21 

Selaginelleae 307 

Selaginellaceae 307 

Senecio aureus 264, 267 

Senogaster comstocki 94 

Sericomyia 39 

bifasciata 90 

borealis 69 

chrysotoxoides 90 


militaris 90 

Serville, cited 12 

sewage - -■ 25 

Sexual characters, secondary.. 61, 66 

Sharp, cited 37, 62, 68 

Sim, W., cited 69 

Simarubaceae - ^■_- :,;. ii 

Siphonophora avenae 40, 43, 55, bb, b / 

Skinner, Henry, cited - 73 

Smilacaceae - ^^^ 


foLndifolia 275 278 280 

Smith, J. B., cited 18, 22, 48, 49, 57 68 

Smith, J. Warren, cited -^ /5b 

Snow, W. A., cited -- 12, 80 

Soil, Sugar Grove... ft^ 

Soil activity, Sugar Grove ^96 

Soil wash ^^i. 

Solanaceae '^^'j' 

Solenaspis hyalinus V- 

Solidago juncea - ^^J 

nemoralis -- ^ 

nemorosa - ^ 

patula ^^^ 

Somula -^^ 

Sonchus 39' ^^ 

Sparganiaceae J"° 

Specularia perfohata -»^ 


Sphaerophoria cylindrica ---^ 

28, 43, 50, 59, 67, 88 

flavicauda 67 

nigricauda °° 

Sphecomyia 1^ 

vittata - ll 

Sphegina 15, 67, 88 

campanulata °9 

keeniana ^9 

lobata °9 

rufiventris °" 

Sphenomonas ^"6 

spiders ^6 

Spilomyia 39 

fusca 37, 97 

hamifera 97 

longicornis 97 

quadrifasciata 97 

Spiracles of larvae 17, 19, 20, 22, 71 

spurious vein 31, 32 

Staphyleaceae 324 

St. Fargeau, cited 12 

Strobilophyta 308 

Sugar Grove Region, Botanical 

Survey of 248 

sycamore 45, 58, 66 

Syndesmon thalictroides 275 

Synopsis of N. A. Syrphidae 12 

Syritta pipiens 15, 72, 94 

Syrphidae of Ohio 1 

Syrphidae, Bibliography of 99 

Key to Genera of 74 

Plates 101-123 

Syrphinae 14, 15, 35 

Syrphini 14 

Syrphus 12, 15, 22, 28, 39, 55, 66 

americanus 16, 24, 26, 

30, 43, 44, 45, 50, 51, 55, 56, 86 

arcuatu^i 86 

diversipes 86 

grossulariae 15, 86 

perplexus 86 

protritus 86 

ribesii 15, 86 

torvus 15, 18, 50, 57, 86 

xanthostomus 40, 42, 57, 86 

swarming 35 

Systematic Position of Syrphidae 13 

Taxaceae 308 

Taxus - 266 

Temnostoma alternans 37, 98 

bombylans 98 

excentrica 98 

pictula 98 

trifasciata 98 

venusta 98 

Temperature, Sugar Grove 255 

termites 25, 40, 6;^ 

Tertiary beds, American 15 

Teuchccnemis lituratus 93 

Thalictrum dioicum 275 

The Euglenoidina of Ohio 343 

Index 447 

thistle 5-^ 

Thymelaceae 324 

Tiarella cordifolia 275, 293 

Tilia 266 

Tiliaceae 318 

Titythymalopsis coroUata 281, 294 

Townshend, C. H. T., cited 12, 64 

Toxomerus 87 

tracheae 17, 28 

Trachelomonas 385 

Trillium grandiflorum 275, 294 

Triodonta 33 

curvipes 93 

Tropidia 70 

calcarata 92 

mamillata 92 

quadrata 92 

Tropidoscyphus 418 

Tsuga 266 

canadensis 273, 283 

Typhaceae 308 


Ulex 66 

Ulmaceae 325 

Ulmus sp 60 

americana 263 

Unifolium canadense 269, 287, 297 

Urceolus 414 

Urticaceae 325 

Vacciniaceae 329 

Vaccinium vacillans 278, 280, 299 

Vagnera raecmosa 275 

Valerianaceae 335 

Vascular Plants, Ohio (Index). ... 239 

Verbascum thapsus 289 

Verbenaceae 332 

Verhoeff, cited -.. 17 

Verrall, cited 12, 

13, 15, 38, 62, 63, 64, 65, 
66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74 

Vespa 40, 48 

crabro 62, 68 

diabolica 37 

germanica 68 

maculata 37 

vestitm-e of adults 49 

of larvae 23 

Viburnum acerifolium.... 269, 274, 280 

Viola blanda 269, 275 

canadensis 275 

hirsutula 299 

palmata 275 

pubescens 275 

rostrata 275 

Violaceae 318 

Vitaceae 324 

Vitis bicolor 280 

Volucella 12, 

16, 28, 37, 38, 39, 40, 47, 49 

avida 68 

bombylans 68 

evecta 37, 89 

fasciata 68, 90 

pellucens 68 

vesiculosa 90 

Volucellinae 15 

Walker, cited 12 

Walton, L. B., article by 343 

wasps 25, 40 

Webster, F. M., cited 63 

Weidemann, cited 12 

Westwood, cited 72 

Wheeler, W. M., cited 11, 

17, 21, 27, 28, 40, 47, 49, 62 

Williston, S. W., cited 

12, 14, 15, 33, 34, 38 

willow 34 

black 55 

wing-pads 31 

Woodsia illevensis 286 

XanthogTamma 39 

aequalis 87 

emarginata 66, 87 

felix 87 

flavipes 87 

Xylota 28, 35, 39, 64 

bicolor 94 

curvipes 94 

elongata 95 

flavitibia 94 

fraudulosa 95 

marginalis 95 

pigra '72, 95 

Xyridaceae 313 

Yerbury, cited 66 


Bulletins Ohio Biological Survey 

I. Outline of Biological Survey Plan 

Syrphidae of Ohio by C. L. Metcalf - - - $ .50 

II. Catalog of Ohio Vascular Plants 

by John H. Schaffner .50 

III. Botanical Survey of the Sugar Grove Region 

by R. F. Griggs .50 

IV. The Euglenoidina of Ohio 

byL. B.Walton -----.-.-- .50 

',Yi' ft